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The	“Sharing”	Economy
																																											
Course	722G45		-		Service	Marketing	
Hugo	Guyader,	PhD	C...
Hugo	Guyader
Hugo	Guyader
• PhD student at LiU. 

OuiShare Sweden Connector.
• Multi-method approach to research:
experime...
Hugo	Guyader
Today
• the “Sharing” Economy
• collaborative…
consumption/production

/finance/learning/govenance
• did you ...
European	Commission	2015
Hugo	Guyader
Peer-to-Peer	/	Consumer-to-Consumer
• ICT enables people to get what they need from each other on-
demand, ra...
Lisa Gansky (2010). “The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing.” — Chelsea Rustrum, Gabriel Stempinski & Alexandra L...
Hugo	Guyader
People	would	share	everything	to	save/make	money
➡ 68%	of	30.000	US	consumers	are	willing	to	share	what	
they...
Hugo	Guyader
Social		
Drivers
• Population	Density		
• Mindset	of	Sustainability		
• Lifestyle	Trend	among	Youth		
• Altru...
Hugo	Guyader
Back	to	the	beginning…
Living space (58%), Work space (57%), Food preparation/meal-
sharing (57%), Household ...
Hugo	Guyader
…And	today
PWC	2015
Hugo	Guyader
Trust																							#1	barrier	to	sharing
67% express trust concerns as the primary barrier
to join a...
Collaborative
Economy
Honeycomb
A Day in the
Life of the
Collaborative
Economy
What	do	
you	think?
๏ Have	you	
participated	in	
collaborative	
consumption	
activities?	
๏ Why	so?
Hugo	Guyader
Why	we	share
Crowd	Companies	2014
Hugo	Guyader
People	switch	to	sharing	if	a	well-known	brand	saves	
them	25%	from	buying	costs	and	adds	convenience
• PRICE...
Hugo	Guyader
Motivations	and	Drivers	(an	overview)
Compare	&	Share	2015
Hugo	Guyader
Barriers	(an	overview)
Compare	&	Share	2015
Hugo	Guyader
To	sum	up:
• economic incentive
• an urge to reduce the socio-

environmental impact of consumption 

and a b...
Hugo	Guyader
The	“Neo-Sharer”	or	“NOwner”
‣ mobile and connected
(the “dot-com” 

generation)
‣ millennial
‣ mid-high inco...
What	do	
you	think?
๏ What	arguments	would	
you	use	to	promote	
collaborative	
consumption?	
๏ Do	platform	consumers	
and	...
• The more network users, 

the more valuable it becomes, 

the better services can be provided.
Service	Logic
• Service o...
Hugo	Guyader
What’s	Mine	is	Yours
TEDTalk 2010: The case
for Collaborative
Consumption.
Consumers co-create
value by shari...
Hugo	Guyader
✓ a critical mass of users
✓ idling or excess capacity of unused goods
✓ belief in the common good
✓ social t...
Hugo	Guyader
Collaborative	
Consumption	
Systems
Botsman	&	Rogers	2010
Hugo	Guyader
The	 	Economy
Hugo	Guyader
(Outdated)	Academic	Definition
• Acts of collaborative consumption can be defined as “events
in which one or ...
Hugo	Guyader
(Outdated)	Academic	Definition
• The term “The Share Economy” dates back to 1984
• In his book, economist Mar...
Hugo	Guyader
Some	clarification
Collaborative Economy: An economy built on decentralised networks
and marketplaces that un...
Hugo	Guyader
Think-tank and global community (10.000 members) since
2011, developing a framework that explains and brings
...
Hugo	Guyader
Jägerskog	2015
What	do	
you	think?
๏ Can	we	put	
everything	on	a	
marketplace?	
๏ What	goods	have	
the	most	sharing	
potential?
Hugo	Guyader
What	can	be	shared?
Hugo	Guyader
What	can	be	shared?
Hugo	Guyader
Heart	and	Wallet	paradox
‘Hybrid economy’ with ideological tensions:
1. a logic of economic market-mediated e...
Hugo	Guyader
Is	‘sharing’	just	a	fancy	word	for	‘rental’?
• While some of these organisations are public initiatives or
sm...
Hugo	Guyader
Collaborative	consumption	is	nothing	new
recirculation of goods

- eBay
increased utilisation of durable asse...
Hugo	Guyader
What’s	Yours	is	Mine
✦ Unfulfilled promises of the Sharing Economy

openness, democratisation, equality, comm...
Hugo	Guyader
We-Washing,	Share-Washing,	

Collaborative	Washing
➡ Online businesses claim to foster
community sharing, whe...
Hugo	Guyader
William Alden
Hugo	Guyader
Authenticity	of	a	sharing	platform
BlaBlaCar (FR) has been criticised of killing the original ridesharing
ide...
Hugo	Guyader
Sharing
Belk (2007) definition of sharing:
“voluntary	lending,	pooling	and	allocation	of	resources,	and	
auth...
Hugo	Guyader
Sharing
✓ True sharing involve caring and love, it is inalienable, interpersonal
and dependent, as well as co...
Hugo	Guyader
Disruption?
‣ The most common model is to take a
commission on each transaction facilitated;
something busine...
Hugo	Guyader
Smarter	regulation	for	the	Sharing	Economy
Sharing Economy = consumers granting each other temporary
access t...
http://magazine.ouishare.net/2016/12/sweden-takes-progressive-steps-towards-on-demand-taxi-services/
What	do	
you	think?
๏ Is	the	sharing	
economy	
disruptive?	
๏ “Uberization”?
Hugo	Guyader
Collaborative	Economy	Evolution
• Collaborative Economy 1.0 | Collaborative Consumption “What’s Mine is Yours...
Hugo	Guyader
False	Promises?
(1) Sharing economy sites are generally lower in cost than
market alternatives.
(2) Green? Pr...
Hugo	Guyader
Platform	Cooperativism
• Sharing platforms that facilitate P2P service exchange
should adopt a cooperative bu...
(Scholz	2017)
Hugo	Guyader
• Fairmondo	(DE,	UK)	
Cooperative	online	marketplace	for	ethical	goods	and	services.	Owned	and	run	by	its	use...
Heimans	&	Timms	HBR	2014
The	Participation	Scale
Heimans	&	Timms	HBR	2014
Hugo	Guyader
The	European	collaborative	economy
1) High adoption level (Europe leads the Fab Lab scene)
2) Community-drive...
Hugo	Guyader
In	Sweden
• Public actors more involved, encouraging use of sharing ideas for public
spaces; while local acto...
Hugo	Guyader
Bike	Sharing Bitcoin Car	Sharing CoWorking Clothing Delivery
Donkey	Republic Bitcoin	Dojo	(Göteborg) AudiUnit...
What	do	
you	think?
๏ What	are	the	
particularities	of	
the	Swedish	
market?
Hugo	Guyader
My	research:	organized	ridesharing
Liftsharing (UK) or Carpooling (US)
two-sided platforms
e.g. Blablacar
hit...
Hugo	Guyader
Organized	ridesharing
Two-sided matching platforms facilitating ridesharing services by
matching individual c...
Hugo	Guyader
Organized	ridesharing
✴ Main motivations and drivers for the sharing economy: 

more convenience and efficienc...
Hugo	Guyader
BlaBlaCar
‣ 

covoiturage.fr (“carpooling” in French)
‣ 

new “transactional booking model”
based on an onlin...
Hugo	Guyader
Skjutsgruppen
• civil society movement
participatory culture
• no commission
• no peer-reviews
Hugo	Guyader	—	723G45	Lecture	5
ridesharing
·P2P car rentals
·leasing
“Revolutionalizing the way people travel, and the overall infrastructure”
Hugo	Guyader
Imported ridesharing from Germany to Denmark, seeing an opportunity in the
Danes’ concern for the environment...
Hugo	Guyader	—	723G45	Lecture	5
Thanks	for	listening!	
Any	questions?	remarks?
hugo.guyader@liu.se
Credit	images:	

The	Noun	Project
you	can	cite	these	sl...
The "Sharing" Economy v.2017
The "Sharing" Economy v.2017
The "Sharing" Economy v.2017
The "Sharing" Economy v.2017
The "Sharing" Economy v.2017
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The "Sharing" Economy v.2017

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Is it really "sharing"?
Presentation of the so-called "Sharing" Economy, for a lecture about service innovation at Linköping University (LiU), during a course in Service Management and Marketing.
I talk about Unicorns; collaborative... consumption-production-finance-learning-governance; “platform cooperativism” and my research focus on shared mobility.

- First upload: 11 March 2016 (v.2016)
- Update: 20 March 2017 (v.2017)
- Update: 14 March 2018 (v.2018 ~ http://bit.ly/2GtkxIk)

Published in: Marketing
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The "Sharing" Economy v.2017

  1. 1. The “Sharing” Economy Course 722G45 - Service Marketing Hugo Guyader, PhD Candidate in Marketing Department of Management & Engineering (IEI) Division of Business Administration (FEK) 2017-03-15
  2. 2. Hugo Guyader Hugo Guyader • PhD student at LiU. 
 OuiShare Sweden Connector. • Multi-method approach to research: experiments, surveys, interviews, (n)etnography.. • Research focus on collaborative consumption and P2P exchange through online platforms. The recent growth of shared mobility services (ie. ridesharing and private car rentals) is a fascinating phenomenon to investigate. • Teaching in Fundamental Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Service Marketing, Advanced Marketing, Leadership & Strategy … @experienceetchugo.guyader@liu.se
  3. 3. Hugo Guyader Today • the “Sharing” Economy • collaborative… consumption/production
 /finance/learning/govenance • did you say Unicorns?? • platform cooperativism
  4. 4. European Commission 2015
  5. 5. Hugo Guyader Peer-to-Peer / Consumer-to-Consumer • ICT enables people to get what they need from each other on- demand, rather than from centralized institutions traditionally selling goods and services. 
 The economy evolved from traditional market exchange between sellers and buyers, to network relationships of suppliers and users. (Rifkin 2000) • Private individuals can connect to online platforms and share their slack resources (e.g. time, skills, space, goods) through P2P services, allowing them to unlock value from their underutilized possessions and enabling other platform users to access goods only when needed.
  6. 6. Lisa Gansky (2010). “The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing.” — Chelsea Rustrum, Gabriel Stempinski & Alexandra Liss (2014). “It's a shareable life: A Practical Guide to Sharing.”  — Jasper Ribbers & Huzefa Kapadia (2014). “Get Paid For Your Pad: How to Maximize Profit From Your Airbnb Listing.”  — Warren Bell (2014). “The Airbnb Entrepreneur: How To Earn Big Profits, Even If You Don't Own a Property.”  — Christopher M. Jennings (2014). “Darebnb: The truth about turning your unused space into real income on Airbnb.”   — John Dale (2015). “Learn how to make an extra income renting your short-term rental or spare room all over the world!”  — Alex Stephany (2015). “The Business of Sharing: Making it in the New Sharing Economy.”  — Claire Marshall (2015). “How to make money (and a whole lot more) by Sharing. A quick start guide to the sharing economy.”  — Glenn Carter (2015). “Secrets of the Sharing Economy: Unofficial Guide to Using Airbnb, Uber, & More to Earn $1000’s.”  — Michael James (2015). “Airbnb Super-Host: The Ultimate Guide to Hosting Success: Unlock Your Home's Earning Potential The Right Way To Make More Money with Airbnb.”  — Michael Fertik & David C. Thompson (2015). “The Reputation Economy: How to Optimize Your Digital Footprint in a World Where Your Reputation Is Your Most Valuable Asset.”   — Sally Miller (2015). “Make Money On Airbnb: How To Quickly And Easily Earn $2,500 A Month From Your Home.”  — Billee Howard (2015). “We-Commerce: How to Create, Collaborate, and Succeed in the Sharing Economy.”  — Bryan Kramer (2015). “Shareology: How Sharing is Powering the Human Economy.”  — Diane Mulcahy (2016). “The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the Life You Want.”  — Nick Loper (2016). “Buy Buttons: The Fast-Track Strategy to Make Extra Money and Start a Business in Your Spare Time. [Featuring 300+ Apps and Peer-to-Peer Marketplaces]” — Jared Meyer (2016). “Uber-Positive: Why Americans Love the Sharing Economy.”  — Beandrea July (2016). “Airbnb Your Life: The Host Edition:”  — Vince Hinojosa (2016) “Confessions of an AirBNB Host: How I made $17,623 on AirBNB and So Can You!.”
  7. 7. Hugo Guyader People would share everything to save/make money ➡ 68% of 30.000 US consumers are willing to share what they own in exchange of a fee Nielsen 2014 ‣ potential value of the sharing economy sector
 $335 billion by 2025 (+25% each year) PWC 2014
  8. 8. Hugo Guyader Social Drivers • Population Density • Mindset of Sustainability • Lifestyle Trend among Youth • Altruistic Mindset • Independent Lifestyle Economic Drivers • Increase in World Population • Strained Resources • Economic Disparities • Excess or Idle Inventory • Inaccessible Luxury • Influx of VC Funding Technology Drivers • Social Networking Technologies • Mobile Technologies • Payment Systems Why it’s Happening Now Owyang 2014
  9. 9. Hugo Guyader Back to the beginning… Living space (58%), Work space (57%), Food preparation/meal- sharing (57%), Household items (53%), Apparel (50%) Gorenflo 2010 Drivers of sharing: Technology (85%)
 Community (78%)
 Environment (60%)
 Cost Saving (67%)
  10. 10. Hugo Guyader …And today PWC 2015
  11. 11. Hugo Guyader Trust #1 barrier to sharing 67% express trust concerns as the primary barrier to join a collaborative consumption service 30% fear that their goods will be stolen or broken 23% express a basic mistrust of strangers 14% express “privacy concerns” Campbell Mithun 2012 Sharing platforms use peer-review and reputation-based systems to create trust and alleviate the problem of “free- riders” who do not contribute.
  12. 12. Collaborative Economy Honeycomb
  13. 13. A Day in the Life of the Collaborative Economy
  14. 14. What do you think? ๏ Have you participated in collaborative consumption activities? ๏ Why so?
  15. 15. Hugo Guyader Why we share Crowd Companies 2014
  16. 16. Hugo Guyader People switch to sharing if a well-known brand saves them 25% from buying costs and adds convenience • PRICE: More than half of North Americans will consider switching from buying to sharing if it lets them save 25 percent. Established brands often compete with sharing startups on price when they launch a marketplace of used goods or enable a marketplace of lower cost service workers. • CONVENIENCE: the top driver of sharing transactions. A third of conventional purchasers will consider sharing if it offers a more convenient option. Companies can rent out durable goods, offer convenience-based services, or offering subscription models that deliver goods on a regular basis. • BRAND: Sharers gravitate to well-known brands, whether those are traditional companies or trend-setting startups. The best way for companies to build their brand in their collaborative economy is to enable a platform that brings customers closer to the innovation process, and enable makers, crowdfunders, and others to co-innovate with your brand. Owyang & Samuel 2015
  17. 17. Hugo Guyader Motivations and Drivers (an overview) Compare & Share 2015
  18. 18. Hugo Guyader Barriers (an overview) Compare & Share 2015
  19. 19. Hugo Guyader To sum up: • economic incentive • an urge to reduce the socio-
 environmental impact of consumption 
 and a belief in “the commons” • normative desires to satisfy altruistic needs and of community- belonging • shift from ownership to access • ICT developments = convenience
  20. 20. Hugo Guyader The “Neo-Sharer” or “NOwner” ‣ mobile and connected (the “dot-com” 
 generation) ‣ millennial ‣ mid-high income ‣ high level of education ‣ living in urban areas ‣ unique personality ‣ like to experiment new things ‣ innovative, playful and creative Sharing is more a choice than a necessity. “homo cooperans” not “homo economicus”
 they cooperate for their emancipation, autonomy, social justice, knowledge sharing and open production.
  21. 21. What do you think? ๏ What arguments would you use to promote collaborative consumption? ๏ Do platform consumers and producers have the same motivations?
  22. 22. • The more network users, 
 the more valuable it becomes, 
 the better services can be provided. Service Logic • Service organizations develop online platforms that enable their users to exchange P2P services.
  23. 23. Hugo Guyader What’s Mine is Yours TEDTalk 2010: The case for Collaborative Consumption. Consumers co-create value by sharing existing products that are only temporarily needed, rather than owning them. Consumers access to 
 more resources, 
 more convenience,
 and at lower costs. Rachel Botsman & Roo Rogers (2010)
  24. 24. Hugo Guyader ✓ a critical mass of users ✓ idling or excess capacity of unused goods ✓ belief in the common good ✓ social trust The P2P Foundation also identifies 2 main societal drivers: • community dynamics in conducting business and the combined effect of digital reproduction • the increasingly 'socialized' production of value. 4 principles of collaborative consumption
  25. 25. Hugo Guyader Collaborative Consumption Systems Botsman & Rogers 2010
  26. 26. Hugo Guyader The Economy
  27. 27. Hugo Guyader (Outdated) Academic Definition • Acts of collaborative consumption can be defined as “events in which one or more persons consume economic goods or services in the process of engaging in joint activities with one or more others”. • Collaborative consumption may or may not involve direct physical contact between collaborators: – ‘direct-contact collaboration’ = same place at the same time – ‘system-hookup collaboration’ = different places but at the same time – ‘segregated collaboration’ = different times and places Felson & Spaeth 1978
  28. 28. Hugo Guyader (Outdated) Academic Definition • The term “The Share Economy” dates back to 1984 • In his book, economist Martin Weitzman argues that full employment and social welfare could be achieved if workers were paid a ‘share’ of the firm revenues. • Companies would have an incentive to create jobs because more workers would be paid only in proportion to what they have brought in.
  29. 29. Hugo Guyader Some clarification Collaborative Economy: An economy built on decentralised networks and marketplaces that unlocks the value of underused assets by matching needs and haves, in ways that bypass traditional middlemen and disrupt centralised institutions. - collaborative consumption (Maximum assets utilisation through models of redistribution and shared access) = “Sharing Economy” - collaborative production (Design, production, and distribution of goods through collaborative networks) - collaborative finance (P2P banking and crowd-driven investment models that decentralise finance) - collaborative education (Open education and person-to-person learning models that democratise education)
  30. 30. Hugo Guyader Think-tank and global community (10.000 members) since 2011, developing a framework that explains and brings together different phenomena into one coherent vision: « build a society based on openness, 
 collaboration and sharing » Projects and activities include community building, producing knowledge and incubating projects, offering support to individuals, public institutions, and companies through professional services and education. OuiShare
  31. 31. Hugo Guyader Jägerskog 2015
  32. 32. What do you think? ๏ Can we put everything on a marketplace? ๏ What goods have the most sharing potential?
  33. 33. Hugo Guyader What can be shared?
  34. 34. Hugo Guyader What can be shared?
  35. 35. Hugo Guyader Heart and Wallet paradox ‘Hybrid economy’ with ideological tensions: 1. a logic of economic market-mediated exchange with aspects of profit-maximization, negative reciprocity, independence between parties who have self-interested motivations 2. a logic of non-market exchange with elements of solidarity, mutuality, generalized reciprocity, and communal norms establishing interdependence between participants
  36. 36. Hugo Guyader Is ‘sharing’ just a fancy word for ‘rental’? • While some of these organisations are public initiatives or small cooperatives, others develop platform business models capitalising on existing communities and enhancing their P2P matchmaking services in exchange of a transaction fixed fee or a commission. • VCs and business angels have invested about $30 billion in tech-startups with sharing schemes. Sharing Economy “unicorns”: ‣ Uber = $60+ billion ‣ Airbnb = $30+ billion • Rentals representing the greatest share of business models
  37. 37. Hugo Guyader Collaborative consumption is nothing new recirculation of goods
 - eBay increased utilisation of durable assets 
 - CouchSurfing exchange of services 
 - time banks sharing of productive assets 
 - farmers’ cooperatives
  38. 38. Hugo Guyader What’s Yours is Mine ✦ Unfulfilled promises of the Sharing Economy
 openness, democratisation, equality, communitarian values, personal exchanges/interactions, trust between strangers, micro-entrepreneurship, less materialism with access over ownership, sustainability, etc. ✦ In reality: - creates new forms of commerce and new marketplaces, - not 100% safe and trustworthy - centralised control or mutual surveillance system, - money for investors but not the workers - deregulated free-market in private lives, etc. ✦ Conflicting languages: Slee 2016 community, collective action, libertarian/progressive politics, grassroots activism, social change private/corporate financial/commercial gains VS
  39. 39. Hugo Guyader We-Washing, Share-Washing, 
 Collaborative Washing ➡ Online businesses claim to foster community sharing, whereas they are mostly benefiting from enabling rental services rather than social exchange. ➡ The “true sharing” movement raises awareness of this loss of communities and criticises the profits of Big Sharing unicorns.
  40. 40. Hugo Guyader William Alden
  41. 41. Hugo Guyader Authenticity of a sharing platform BlaBlaCar (FR) has been criticised of killing the original ridesharing ideology for changing its business model (2012: from free to fees) and “forcing” an online registration system. Direct contact between users (exchange of emails, phone numbers) became impossible and forbidden, and the price rose to take into consideration the driver’s car depreciation and the platform’s commission. The social aspect diminished (i.e. riders listen to music, sleep, claim reserved seats; direct communication is impossible before a reservation) and the economic aspect reversed (i.e. 12% commission, less flexibility with booking and pricing). Users perceive that digital security became a hassle, trust between members faded, the original communal spirit vanished and monetary benefits became the norm.
  42. 42. Hugo Guyader Sharing Belk (2007) definition of sharing: “voluntary lending, pooling and allocation of resources, and authorized use of public property, but not contractual renting, leasing, or unauthorized use of property by theft or trespass” => the Sharing Economy is not true sharing (Belk 2014): - presence of profit motives
 - absence of feelings of community
 - expectations of reciprocity True sharing is driven by altruistic motives, a sense of commonality, in-direct economic benefits, fame or reputation, utilitarianism, feeling of belonging to a community.
  43. 43. Hugo Guyader Sharing ✓ True sharing involve caring and love, it is inalienable, interpersonal and dependent, as well as communal as it creates trust and social bonds without contracts or legal requirements (Belk, 2010). ✓ Sharing out (vs. Sharing in) “involves giving to others outside the boundaries separating self and other, and is closer to gift giving and commodity exchange” (Belk 2010 p.725). ✓ “If we conceive of a continuum commodity exchange lies at one end and sharing at the other, with gift giving somewhere in the middle” (Belk, 2007, p.127). commodity exchange gift giving sharing Other relevant concepts: mutuality, generalized reciprocity, access-based consumption, commercial sharing systems, product-sharing service systems, non ownership services…
  44. 44. Hugo Guyader Disruption? ‣ The most common model is to take a commission on each transaction facilitated; something businesses have been doing for centuries. ‣ Technology has done many things, but to date it hasn't been able to completely do away with the middleman. ‣ Despite their power to disrupt incumbents, sharing economy businesses make use of the same traditional business models.
  45. 45. Hugo Guyader Smarter regulation for the Sharing Economy Sharing Economy = consumers granting each other temporary access to under-utilised physical assets (“idle capacity”), possibly for money. Franken et al. The Guardian 2015 1. more efficient use of physical assets 
 — not private individuals delivering each other a service (on-demand economy) 2. providing each other temporary access
 — no transfer of ownership 
 (2nd-hand economy) 3. consumer-to-consumer (C2C) platforms 
 — not renting or leasing a good from a B2C company (product-service economy)
  46. 46. http://magazine.ouishare.net/2016/12/sweden-takes-progressive-steps-towards-on-demand-taxi-services/
  47. 47. What do you think? ๏ Is the sharing economy disruptive? ๏ “Uberization”?
  48. 48. Hugo Guyader Collaborative Economy Evolution • Collaborative Economy 1.0 | Collaborative Consumption “What’s Mine is Yours” Wikipedia (2001), The Pirate Bay (2003), CouchSurfing (2004), Linux (1991), carsharing communal motives, moral/environmental concerns, mostly institution-based work creation/ occupation (employees), civil society initiatives  • Collaborative Economy 2.0 | Gig Economy, Crowd-based Capitalism, “What’s Yours is Mine” Uber (2008), Airbnb (2009), La Ruche Qui Dit Oui (2010), VC funding, extractive business models, profit-maximizing, end of employment (micro- entrepreneurs), value cocreation facilitated by platform • Collaborative Economy 3.0 | platform cooperativism Fairmondo (2012), BackFeed (2015), Juno (2016) stakeholders shareholders, open source, decentralization  - direct people-based (peer-to-peer) credit relationships between individuals, 
 - direct asset-based (peer-to-asset) credit relationships between individuals and productive assets
  49. 49. Hugo Guyader False Promises? (1) Sharing economy sites are generally lower in cost than market alternatives. (2) Green? Presented as a way to reduce carbon footprints, less resource-intensive and reducing demand for new goods/ facilities. (3) The desire to increase social connections. (4) Commitment to social transformation: emphasis on the ideological values of sharing and collaboration. While the for-profit companies may be “acting badly,” these new technologies of peer-to-peer economic activity are potentially powerful tools for building a social movement centred on genuine practices of sharing and cooperation in the production and consumption of goods and services. But achieving that potential will require democratising the ownership and governance of the platforms. Schor 2014
  50. 50. Hugo Guyader Platform Cooperativism • Sharing platforms that facilitate P2P service exchange should adopt a cooperative business structure with a “multi-stakeholder model that could include providers, customers, founders, investors, geographic communities, and nature” Gorenflo 2015 • “produser-owned platforms = users are producers” Scholz 2016 • The rationale is that most P2P platforms rely on the supply side of the network for their revenue stream, so these users/providers should own and control the platforms.  Scholz (2014), Gansky (2014), Schneider (2014)
  51. 51. (Scholz 2017)
  52. 52. Hugo Guyader • Fairmondo (DE, UK) Cooperative online marketplace for ethical goods and services. Owned and run by its users: buyers, sellers, workers, investors. Anybody can join as a stakeholder. • Stocksy United (Canada) Co-operative owned by the photographers themselves, that is accepting and providing royalty-free stock photos. • Loconomics (USA) Worker-owned online marketplace that allow people to freelance. Instead of charging a commission (cf. Etsy), joining as an owner is open for all for a monthly ownership fee, which also allows the members to vote. • VTC Cab (France) Taxi drivers created their own platform to regain control over their business. It is owned and operated by an NGO, so it does not collect commissions but a membership fee. Platform Cooperativism
  53. 53. Heimans & Timms HBR 2014 The Participation Scale
  54. 54. Heimans & Timms HBR 2014
  55. 55. Hugo Guyader The European collaborative economy 1) High adoption level (Europe leads the Fab Lab scene) 2) Community-driven mindset (the commons) 3) Local governmental support 4) European Union support 5) Highly diverse (culture) 6) Less venture capital (more loan entrepreneurs) 7) Non-profit works (Skjutsgruppen) 8) Big brands are adapting (BMW DriveNow, DHL MyWays) Wichmann 2015
  56. 56. Hugo Guyader In Sweden • Public actors more involved, encouraging use of sharing ideas for public spaces; while local actors reacted to global players (Airbnb) by developing digital platforms of their own. • Challenges: specialised industries employing a large number of people are likely to be hit hard by increases in digitalisation and automation as well as by the Sharing Economy cutting out traditional middlemen. “one area of concern is the degree to which Sharing Economy firms avoid transaction costs and risks by pushing such costs and risks onto providers and consumers” Drivers: (1) Increasing penetration of the Internet and smartphones, 
 (2) Technological advancements (IT platforms and big data analytics), (3) Falling entry barriers, (4) Increased ease of financial transactions, (5) Increased transparency, (6) The financial crisis, (7) Declining consumption patterns. Entreprenörskapsforum 2015
  57. 57. Hugo Guyader Bike Sharing Bitcoin Car Sharing CoWorking Clothing Delivery Donkey Republic Bitcoin Dojo (Göteborg) AudiUnite Café & Co (Stockholm) Klädbytardag BagHitch Lånelastcyklar (Umeå) Bitcoin Stockholm Autoresurs Bilpool (Malmö) Coffice Coop (Stockholm) Klädbytardagar Freelway Lundahoj (Lund) Bitcoin Hackers (Stockholm) Car2Go D82 (Stockholm) Klädbyte MyWays Cykelköket (Gothenburg) Linköping Bitcoin Meetup Delebilen (Denmark) EntreprenörKyrkan (Stockholm) Klädbibliotek (Uppsala) Urbit Stockhom City Bikes Malmö Bitcoin Users Driveback Epicenter (Stockholm) Klädoteket Styr & Ställ (Gothenburg) Swedizen (Stockholm) Göteborgs Bilkoop (Majornas BillkooperaSv) Hus24 (Stockholm) Lånegarderoben Hertz Freerider Hoffice Sabina and friends (Stockholm) Hertz BilPool (Norway) Impact Hub (Stockholm) Second Lounge Move About Knäckeriet (Stockholm) SwopShop SamBil (cooperaSve 1980 - inacSve) Kolonien (Stockholm) The Wardrobe Stockholm BilPool Start-Up People of Sweden (SUP46) StudentBilen (Nissan) StudioVerket SunFleet (Hertz) The Castle (Stockholm) UbiGo The Park (Stockholm) Vivallabil (cooperaSve 1983Orebro - inacSve) THINGS (Stockholm) United Space We Have Co (Stockholm) Work Around FabLab/MakerSpace Food Sharing Knowledge sharing On-Demand Services RedistribuDng/Selling Ridesharing FabLab@School.dk AirDine beady.se Butlr Bjussa.se (rensavinden.nu) Ants (Norway) Gothenburg Hackerspace AllWin Digiref.se DoMyTask Blocket.se Bilplats.se IX Sthlm EatnJoy Directory of Open Access Journals Grannar.se Bortskänkes/mobages/ges/doneras/301 GoMore MarkersLink (Linköping) Solikyl (Gothenburg) Fruktkartan: map free fruits Haxi (Norway) Bortskänkes.se Mobil Samåkning Mikrofabriken (Gothenburg) FriSdsbanken Helping Bort.nu Roadmate (Hertz First Rent A Car - inacSve) Open Lab (Stockholm) Gapminder Hinner Inte Hinner Du Endast BORTSKÄNKES i Majorna! Samåkning.se Recompile (Malmö) MabeHjälpen (Linköping) TaskRunner Freeshop.se Samlats.se (inacSve) SIS AFK (Blekinge) MinFarm Uber PoP [stopped May 2016] Freecycle GBG (Gothenburg) Skjutsgruppen ("Ridesharing Movement") Sparvnästet (Stockholm) Time Village Vint: P2P workout Garaget (Malmö) We Are Together Stockholm Makerspace Tutopia (Linköping) WayWay Il Recycling THINGS (Stockholm) Tuva: Internet sharing Jumblets ToolPool (Malmö) Köpes/Säljes/Bortskänkes , Göteborg Umeå Hackerspace Möbler säljes/köpes/bortskänkes Myrorna off2off Schpock SyndAbKasta Tiptapp P2P Car Rentals P2P Home Rentals P2P Lending/Funding P2P parking space P2P RenDng Professional Services Flexidrive (SnappCar) Airbnb CrowdCube ApParkingSpot Delbar Coompanion GoMore FriTiden.se CrowdCulture GrannSaker eWork ridebite.com HemByte.nu (HomeExchange) FundedByMe Hygglo Kompanjoner HomeLink.org (bostadsbyte.com) Lendify Rentl PopUpMore Meet The Swedes ToBorrow Swinga Bazaar Re:TexSle Semesterbyte.com (inacSve) Trustbuddy Tjikko SpaceTime ToBorrow
  58. 58. What do you think? ๏ What are the particularities of the Swedish market?
  59. 59. Hugo Guyader My research: organized ridesharing Liftsharing (UK) or Carpooling (US) two-sided platforms e.g. Blablacar hitchhiking, slugging TNCs: Uber, Lyft, Sidecar ✦ Individual travellers share a vehicle for a trip and split travel costs with others that have similar itineraries and time schedules. (Furuhata et al. 2013)
  60. 60. Hugo Guyader Organized ridesharing Two-sided matching platforms facilitating ridesharing services by matching individual car drivers and passengers. Ridesharing can include small detours, but it does not concern for- profit taxis and chauffeured vehicles in which drivers make a special trip to carry a passenger and enable them to make profits (e.g. the passenger pays more than the trip gas costs). 
 - Transportation Network Companies provide such “ridesourcing service”. Blablacar: largest platform in Europe with 20 million members in 18 markets, arranging 2 million rides per month and estimates to enable drivers yearly total savings of $320 million.
 The average shared ride distance in Europe is 342 km.
 Blablacar claims to raise car occupancy from 1.7 to 2.8 passengers.
  61. 61. Hugo Guyader Organized ridesharing ✴ Main motivations and drivers for the sharing economy: 
 more convenience and efficiency (technology), economic benefits (affordability, cost-savings, monetisation of under-utilised assets; better value/quality), environmentally friendliness, strong community, access lifestyle, curiosity and fun. In Denmark, a recent ridesharing study reports the user perceptions of the service as positive thanks to cost savings, greater comfort, flexibility and speed, and socialization with vehicle occupants; 
 …but also negative because of a lack of ride availability and inconvenience in finding them, viewing ridesharing as unsafe or unsecure, and expectations of social awkwardness and exclusion (Nielsen et al., 2015). ➡ Economic and social attributes seem to be the strongest choice determinants for adopting a ridesharing service.
  62. 62. Hugo Guyader BlaBlaCar ‣ 
 covoiturage.fr (“carpooling” in French) ‣ 
 new “transactional booking model” based on an online registration system replacing the exchange of cash and reducing no-shows and cancellations business model: 
 passengers pay a 11.88% commission and a 0,89€ fixed-fee per reservation ‣ 
 22 countries
 40 million members
 Average shared distance: 350km
 Average car occupancy: 3 persons
  63. 63. Hugo Guyader Skjutsgruppen • civil society movement participatory culture • no commission • no peer-reviews
  64. 64. Hugo Guyader — 723G45 Lecture 5
  65. 65. ridesharing ·P2P car rentals ·leasing “Revolutionalizing the way people travel, and the overall infrastructure”
  66. 66. Hugo Guyader Imported ridesharing from Germany to Denmark, seeing an opportunity in the Danes’ concern for the environment and their discontent with public transportation (prices, delays, cancellations). Organic growth as a non-profit platform for 6 years. Enhanced the ridesharing platform with a new technology enabling online payment. Begun to charge the drivers a 9% commission on their ride. – launch of P2P car rentals: Users could now borrow privately owned vehicles from other users, or rent out their own car. An insurance-deal covers the rental period. 
 
 – launch of leasing: when the car idles, it can be rented out to GoMore members. By renting out their leased car 8 days/month, the Leasers can make up the leasing cost, so the car can be used for free the rest of the month. More than 300.000 users in Scandinavia (50.000 in Sweden). GoMore
  67. 67. Hugo Guyader — 723G45 Lecture 5
  68. 68. Thanks for listening! Any questions? remarks? hugo.guyader@liu.se Credit images: 
 The Noun Project you can cite these slides as:
 Guyader, H. The "Sharing" Economy. Available at:
 https://www.slideshare.net/guyaderhugo/the-sharing-economy-59418368

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