WHAT IS EMOTIONALINTELLIGENCE? Unresolved Argument: Ability (a skill) vs traits (such as happiness, self- esteem, optimism, and self-management, rather than as ability based) Higher levels of emotional intelligence, both measured as a trait and as an ability, have been found to be associated with various positive outcomes, and especially with indices of subjective well-being such as positive affect and life satisfaction
Benefits Research on EI indicates that people with high EI tend to be more socially competent, to have better quality relationships, and to be viewed as more interpersonally sensitive than those lower in EI Teenagers < EI were rated as > aggressive than others and tended to engage in >conflictual behavior than their higher EI peers in two small-sample studies (Mayer, Perkins, Caruso, &Salovey, 2001; Rubin, 1999). < EI also predicted > drug and alcohol abuse. For example, levels of drug and alcohol use are related to < EI among males (Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004). Inner-city adolescents smoking is also related to their EI (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002).
Mayer and Saloveys (1997) Model ofEmotional Intelligence Proposed that: EI was a cognitive ability which is separate but also associated to, general intelligence. EI can be broken down into four subdimensions: emotion perception, emotion understanding, emotion facilitation, and emotion regulation (Mayer &Salovey, 1997). These branches are ordered from basic to higher- order abilities which develop as an individual matures
Perception of emotion Emotion perception is the ability to perceive emotions in yourself and others. It also includes perceiving non - verbal signals, and emotion in stimuli such as landscapes and art (Mayer &Salovey, 2003).
Emotional Facilitation Emotional facilitation isthe ability to generate emotion, and then reason with this emotion in three ways; 1) by signaling important environmental changes, 2) changing mood helping individuals to see a situation in several different ways, 3) facilitation assists different types of reasoning
Understanding emotions Understanding emotions involves knowledge of emotions; emotional vocabulary; and how they blend to create other emotions which change overtime
Managing Emotions the ability which allows the management and regulation of emotion in oneself and others, such as knowing how to calm down after feeling angry or being able to empathise with and alleviate the anxiety of another person.
Mayer-Salovey- Caruso EmotionalIntelligence Test (MSCEIT) The MSCEIT is an ability measure of EI based on Mayer and Saloveys (1997) model consisting of 141 items. It measures the four branches. Emotion perception is measured with the use of a faces and a picture task. Whereas using emotions is measured through a sensations task and facilitation task. Understanding emotions is measured through an emotion changes task and a blend task. Managing emotions is measured through emotional management tasks for individuals and others; (Linely& Joseph, 2004).
Stereotypes… or are they? Consistent with gender stereotypes, empirical studies that measure emotional behaviour find that women show more emotional behaviour than men (Becht&Vingerhoets, 2002; Bradley,Codispoti, Sabatinelli, & Lang, 2001; Buck et al., 1974; Dimberg& Lundquist, 1990; Halberstadt, Hayes, & Pike, 1988; Hall et al., 2000; LaFrance & Hecht, 2000; Vingerhoets&Scheiers, 2000).
Studies.. For example, one study found that during conversations about their emotional experiences, women smiled more than men (Halberstadt et al., 1988) Studies that ask participants to describe their own facial behaviours(Becht&Vingerhoets, 2002; Vingerhoets&Scheiers, 2000) find that women report expressing their emotions more than men do (Fischer &Manstead, 2000; Grossman and Wood, 1993), suggesting that they are somewhat aware of these differences During a variety of emotion-eliciting tasks, women report experiencing emotions more frequently and more intensely than do men (Bradley et al., 2001; Brody, 1997; Grossman & Wood, 1993; Schimmack, Oishi, &Diener, 2002). Women also report experiencing emotions more frequently and more intensely in retrospect than do men (Fischer &Manstead, 2000; Grossman & Wood, 1993; Hess et al., 2000). The one exception to this pattern of findings is a study in which participants viewed film clips that elicited sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and happiness and in which no gender differences in self- reports of emotion were observed (Kring& Gordon, 1998). Interestingly, this study did observe gender differences in emotional behaviour across all films, suggesting that even when men and