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Notes on Rome for Global History and Geography

Notes on Rome for Global History and Geography

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  • 1. Rome
  • 2. Geography of Rome • Located on the center of the Italian peninsula – Location by the water will help eventually help Rome control the Mediterranean • If Italy looks like a leg, Rome is on the kneecap • Protected from invasions in the north by the Alps
  • 3. From Kingdom to Republic – The Etruscans and Rome • Romulus and Remus: legendary twins rescued by a shewolf; founded Rome in 753 B.C.E. • The Etruscans dominated Italy between the eighth and fifth centuries B.C.E. • The Romans overthrew the Etruscans in the 5th century B.C.E.
  • 4. – The Roman republic and its constitution • Establishment of the republic – Rome conquered the Etruscans in 509 B.C.E. – Created a republic with a Senate dominated by the Patricians – Consuls were elected by the Senate – Senate advised the consuls and ratified major decisions • Conflicts between patricians and plebeians – Patricians granted plebeians tribunes – Tribunes' power to intervene and veto decisions – Patricians also agreed to codify laws into the Laws of the Twelve Tables
  • 5. Excerpt from Table IX Law I. • No privileges, or statutes, shall be enacted in favor of private persons, to the injury of others contrary to the law common to all citizens, and which individuals, no matter of what rank, have a right to make use of. Law II. • The same rights shall be conferred upon, and the same laws shall be considered to have been enacted for all the people residing in and beyond Latium, that have been enacted for good and steadfast Roman citizens. • How are the laws of the twelve tables similar to modern laws?
  • 6. – The expansion of the republic • Rome consolidated its position in Italy, fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. • Conflict with Carthage (Punic Wars) and Hellenistic realms • Rome became a major power in the Mediterranean Sea
  • 7. From republic to empire – The foundation of empire • Julius Caesar: very popular social reformer and conqueror (Gaul) – – – – Seized Rome in 49 B.C.E. (start around 5:30) Claimed the title "dictator for life," 46 B.C.E. Social reforms and centralized control Assassinated in 44 B.C.E. • Octavian brought civil conflict to an end – Senate bestowed title "Augustus", 27 B.C.E. – Monarchy disguised as a republic – Created an army under his control – Rome becomes more of an empire
  • 8. – Continuing expansion and integration of the empire • Roman expansion into Mediterranean basin, western Europe, down Nile to Kush • Pax romana, 250 years of relative peace and prosperity • Well-engineered Roman roads; postal system
  • 9. Economy and society in the Roman Mediterranean – Trade and urbanization • Owners of latifundia [large estates]focused on specialized crops for export • Mediterranean trade – Many ports in Italy, Greece, and northern Africa – Roman navy kept the seas largely free of pirates – The Mediterranean became a Roman lake • The city of Rome – – – – – Wealth fueled urban development Statues, pools, fountains, arches, temples, stadiums First use of concrete as construction material Attracted numerous immigrants Attractions: baths, pools, gymnasia, circuses, stadiums, amphitheaters
  • 10. – Family and society in Roman times • The pater familias--eldest male of the family ruled – Women wielded considerable influence within their families – Many women supervised family business and wealthy estates • Wealth and social change – Newly rich classes built palatial houses and threw lavish banquets – Cultivators and urban masses lived at subsistence level – Poor classes became a serious problem in Rome and other cities – No urban policy developed, only "bread and circuses" • Slavery--one-third of the population – Spartacus's uprising in 73 B.C.E. – Urban slaves eventually saw better conditions and possibility of gaining freedom
  • 11. The cosmopolitan Mediterranean – Greek philosophy and religions of salvation • Roman deities: gods, goddesses, and household gods • Greek influence--Stoicism – Appealed to Roman intellectuals – Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.) persuasive orator and writer on Stoicism • Religions of salvation gave sense of purpose and promised afterlife – Roman roads served as highways for religious spread
  • 12. – Conquered people were allowed to keep their own religions but were expected to treat the emperor like a god – Monotheistic Jews considered state cults to be blasphemy, Rome let this slide for a while – Jesus of Nazareth • Charismatic Jewish teacher, taught devotion to God and love for human beings • Attracted large crowds through his wisdom and miraculous powers • The teaching "the kingdom of God is at hand" alarmed the Romans • Crucifixion in early 30s C.E. • Apostles claimed he was the messiah
  • 13. Judaism • • • • • Major belief: monotheism Rules: Ten Commandments and Hebrew Law Holy Book: Torah Important People: Moses and Abraham History: – Hebrews emerged near ancient Babylon in Mesopotamia – Enslaved by Babylonians then Egyptians – Forced out of Rome 70 AD- Jewish Diaspora – Remained landless until 1948
  • 14. Christianity • Major beliefs: monotheism and Golden Rule • Rules: Ten Commandments • Holy Book: Bible (Broken into 2 parts) – Old Testament- based on the Torah – New Testament- based on the life of Jesus • Important People: Moses, Abraham, Jesus, the apostles • History in Rome: – Grew out of Judaism, Jesus was Jewish – Refused to worship emperor as a god  persecution – Promise of salvation and willingness of worshippers to become martyrs  conversions – Constantine makes Rome Christian around 300 C.E. – When Rome fell, the Church became a source of order and strength for the people of Europe
  • 15. Roman Achievements • The concept of a republican form of government governed by a constitution and a fixed body of law that guaranteed the rights of citizens. • Elaborate transportation and communications networks with sophisticated roads, sea lanes linking port cities, and an imperial postal system. • Economically specialized regions, either in the development of cash crops for export or in localized industries. • New cities built throughout the empire with unprecedented levels of sanitation, comfort, and entertainment opportunities. • Widespread dissemination of philosophical beliefs and values, like Stoicism, and religions of salvation, like Christianity.
  • 16. Review • • • • • • Rome: Crash Course World History How did Rome begin? What was the early government of Rome like? How did the plebeians finally get more rights? Why were the Punic wars important? How did Julius Caesar change Rome?
  • 17. The Fall of Rome 476 C.E. • • • • • • • • Very similar to the fall of Han China Too big to defend Reliance on barbarian mercenaries Outside invasions (The Huns strike again!) Economic problems Government corruption and poor leadership Loss of pride Diocletian tried to save Rome by dividing it into two halves: West = Rome, East = Byzantium
  • 18. Too little too late • Western Rome falls in 476 when the city of Rome is sacked by Barbarians – Government collapses – Wars and chaos lead to feudalism and the Middle Ages • Byzantium, which is much wealthier continues until 1453 C.E. We’ll talk about that later!
  • 19. Review • Fall of Rome: Crash Course World History • List at least 10 factors that led to the fall of Rome!