Islam notes


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Islam notes

  1. 1. Islam and the Muslim World 600-1600
  2. 2. The Arab World in the 7th Century • Most of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by desert • Home of the Bedouins – Nomadic Pastoralists:involved in trade caravans • Trading towns on the Red Sea led to cultural diffusion • The cities of Mecca and Medina were greatly influenced by Bedouin traders.
  3. 3. • Mecca was a city that conducted trade between the Mediterranean and Asia • Mecca’s status was elevated because it was the site of the Kaaba, a pre-Islamic religious shrine – This shrine was used as a source of peace during interclan feuds allowing merchants to go to Mecca and trade without fear
  4. 4. • The City of Yathrib, later known as Medina was northeast of Mecca • Built in an oasis • Medina was also an important trade city • Medina’s control was split between two Bedouin and three Jewish clans.
  5. 5. Women in the Arab World • Pre-Islamic Arabian women enjoyed a higher status than neighboring civilizations like the Byzantines • Many tribes traced descent through the mother (matrilineal) so women were important to clans • In cities and towns, women enjoyed less status – Cities followed patrilineal lines – Male polygamy/female monogamy was common
  6. 6. Muhammad • Born around 570 CE into a prominent clan in the Quraysh tribe, (founders of Mecca) • By 20, Muhammad was an orphan living in Mecca and working as a trader for the widow Khadijah (his first wife) • Caravan trade exposed him to the wider world – Interclan tension – Economic inequality
  7. 7. Muhammad • Muhammad saw the economic, clan- based, and religious tension throughout the Arabian peninsula • He tried to find a solution
  8. 8. Muhammad • 610 had his first vision. Followers believe visions came from Allah to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. – They were later written in Arabic and collected in the Quran • Muhammad slowly began to gain followers as he taught Islam
  9. 9. Muhammad •Muhammad preached monotheism, which threatened the worship of the gods at the Kaaba •Without the Kaaba, Mecca’s leaders worried they wouldn’t be able to keep peace •Even though his ideas caused problems, Muhammad developed a reputation for being a skillful and fair negotiator, which helped him when he needed protection because his own family tried to kill him •He escaped to Medina where he was asked to help mediate a conflict in 622 (Hijra). •This represents year ONE on the Muslim Calendar.
  10. 10. In Medina… • By 623, Muhammad had over 10,000 followers • Wars between Mecca and Medina were common • Muhammad set out to conquer Mecca
  11. 11. Back to Mecca… • In 629, Muhammad and his followers returned • They smashed the idols of the “false gods” in the Kaaba • The conversion of the Umayyads to Islam began!
  12. 12. Islam • Monotheistic religion created by Muhammad • Has some roots in Judaism and Christianity • Shares important people like Abraham and Moses • Islam = Submission to the will of God • Muslim = One who
  13. 13. Why did Arabs Covert to Islam? • Religion was not clan based, so it did not promote rivalries • All worshippers are equals • Offered an end to the vendettas and feuds
  14. 14. • Provided an ethical system – Dignity of all before Allah – Responsibility of the well-off to provide for the poor and weak. The ZAKAT was a tax for charity.
  15. 15. Beliefs of Islam • Islam shares many beliefs with Judaism and Christianity – Monotheistic – Abraham, Moses, and Jesus seen as prophets of the faith • All Muslims must carry out the Five Pillars (duties) of Islam
  16. 16. Five Pillars of Islam • Confession of faith: There is one God, Allah • Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca • Fast during the month of Ramadan • The Zakat (charity) • The Hajj, or pilgrimage to the Holy City of Mecca and to the Kaaba (if you can)
  17. 17. The Hajj
  18. 18. After Muhammad • Muhammad dies in 632 CE (suddenly) • Religion loses some followers • Division arises over who should succeed Muhammad as religious and political leader (Caliph)
  19. 19. Divisions persist… Today the Muslim world is still divided: Sunni Muslims • Back the Umayyads claim to the caliphate. • Believe influential leaders in the Muslim community should become Caliph • Wanted religious leaders to choose the next Caliph Shi’a Muslims • Believed only a descendant of Muhammad was capable of ruling as Caliph War broke out over who the next ruler should be
  20. 20. The Umayyad Caliphate • Practiced Shi’a Islam • Mecca remains the holiest city in Islam • Damascus, Syria becomes the new political capital • Umayyads ruled a vast territory under the banner of Islam. – On Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens – Taxed only for charity
  21. 21. • Intermarriage between conquered peoples and the Muslim warrior elite was widespread • Conversion did little to advance non- believers – Muslim converts, mawali, still had to pay property taxes – Sometimes still had to pay the jizya, or head tax levied on non-believers
  22. 22. The Umayyad Caliphate • Mawali received no share of the booty from conquests. • They were not considered full members of the umma • During the Umayyad era, the amount of conversions was low • The Dhimmi, were “People of the Book” (Christians and Jews) – They had to pay the Jizya…but their legal systems were left intact. – Additionally, they were given the freedom to worship as they pleased.
  23. 23. The Umayyad Caliphate • The Dhimmi accepted Muslim rule often because it was better than their previous rulers. • Family and Gender Roles – Muhammad encouraged marriage – Denounced adultery – Forbade female infanticide – Men could marry up to four wives – Enhanced rights of inheritance and divorce for women
  24. 24. The Umayyad Fall… • Warriors who traced their ancestry from Muhammad attacked from Persia in 747 under the banner of the Abbasid party… • The Abbasid’s won the support of the Shia and the Mawali, defeated the Ummayad and created the Abbasid Empire
  25. 25. The Abbasid Era • Carried out large scale conversions to Islam – All Mawali were granted full rights • Transformation of Islam to a genuinely universal faith. • Practiced Sunni Islam • Abbasid’s built their new capital in the city of Baghdad.
  26. 26. Revived Commercialism • Trade resumed • Abbasid expanded through trade more than through war. • Expanded across northern Africa and even into Spain and Sicily!
  27. 27. Abbasid Golden Age • Built many mosques • Early Abbasid learning focused on science and math
  28. 28. Abbasid Golden Age • Muslim and Jewish scholars revive the writings of the Greeks on subjects such as – Medicine – Algebra – Geometry – Astronomy – Anatomy – Ethics • Through Spain, Greek writings found their way into Christendom.
  29. 29. The Late Abbasid Era • Begins to decline around 770 • Corrupt government • Caliphs isolated inside their palaces • Problems with succession
  30. 30. Abbasid Decline • Caliphs struggle to control the Slave Regiments • Poor leadership • Spiraling taxation/pillaging, etc… • Abandonment of some of the earlier parts of the empire.
  31. 31. Late Abbasid Decline…women • The Harem and the Veil are the twin emblems of women’s increasing subjugation to men and confinement. • The Abbasid court created the concept of the Harem for the Caliphate.
  32. 32. The End of the Caliphate • By the 10th and 11th Abbasid gov’t was weak • The Mongols, united under Genghis Khan gained control of Baghdad by 1220 CE. • Caliphates become Mongol puppets
  33. 33. The Spread of Islam
  34. 34. Indian/Muslim cultural diffusion • Muslims gain access to India through trade • Inherit Indian scientific learning, which rivaled the Greeks as the most advanced in the world. • Arabic numerals originated in India! • Indian learning was transferred to Baghdad in the age of the Abbasids. – Indian doctors, scientists, etc. • Muslims adopt Indian styles of
  35. 35. The Delhi Sultanate • A new Muslim empire in India was proclaimed with the capital at Delhi, in the Gangetic Plain. • Ruled northern India for 300 years
  36. 36. Conversion • The Delhi succeeded in spreading Islam into India • Most conversions came from untouchables, low-caste or Buddhist groups who were attracted to the ideas of equality.
  37. 37. Accommodation • Hindus were convinced that Muslims would just be absorbed into Indian society – Many things pointed that way! • Muslim princes adopted Hindu regal styles • Muslim rulers claim divine descent • Muslim rulers minted coins with Hindu images • Muslim communities also became socially divided along Caste lines – Violation of the original tenets of Islam!
  38. 38. Conversion • Trading was the key to conversion. • Muslim laws (Sharia) which governed all interactions including trade helped spread ideas • Conversion linked centers culturally, and economically to ports in India, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean
  39. 39. Ottoman Empire: Beginning • Turks who came to power following the Mongol defeat of the Seljuks • 1453- Defeat Constantinople • Eventually spread throughout Anatolia, Balkans, Eastern Europe (up to Vienna), Arabia, and Northern Africa
  40. 40. Ottoman Military Might • Society was heavily geared for warfare • Warrior aristocracy controlled land and peasants they conquered • Janissaries- elite gunpowder troops made up of boys conscripted from conquered Christian peoples come to dominate the military by the mid 16th century
  41. 41. Ottoman Government • Absolute monarchy, loses touch with people over time • Lacked clear rules for succession  political turmoil • Sultans advised by viziers, rule huge bureaucracy • Kept factions fighting against each other
  42. 42. Ottoman Culture • Religiously tolerant • Merchants had great power • Istanbul continued as an important center of trade • Sultans beginning with Suleiman the Magnificent, build mosques and other public works to beautify city and leave their mark
  43. 43. Ottoman Problems  Decline • Empire grows too big • Problems with succession weaken government • Siege of Vienna weakens military and drains treasury (1688) • Peasants begin to revolt or flee empire • Janissaries block attempts at reform
  44. 44. Safavid Empire Formed • 1501- Isma’il a Sufi mystic names himself Shah • Begins expanding • 1514- Battle of Chaldiran- defeated by Ottoman, stops westward expansion of shi’ism
  45. 45. Safavid Politics and War • Absolute monarchy, • Abbas the Great- –rules during golden Age (1589-1627) –recruited Persians into bureaucracy –created elite gunpowder troops made up of conquered Russian peoples (similar to Janissaries)
  46. 46. Safavid Culture • Originally wrote in Turkish, changed to Persian following the Battle of Chaldiran • Created elaborate court based on Persian traditions • Religious leaders and teachers grow in power with spread of Shi’ism • Produced beautiful silk textiles • New capital built in Isfahan
  47. 47. Decline of the Safavid • Abbas I kills his successors  series of weak leaders • Internal power struggles  more weakness • 1722- Isfahan falls to Afghan raiders
  48. 48. Mughals Establish an Empire in India • Babur descendant of Tamerlain invades India in 1526 seeking wealth, get stuck and decide to stay • by 1528 control most of the Indus and Ganges region
  49. 49. • Worked to solve problems between Muslims and the Hindu majority, religious toleration – Encouraged intermarriage – Ended special tax on Hindus – Respected most Hindu traditions – Granted land to Hindu and Muslim warriors in return for loyalty • Din-i-ilahi- Universal faith, encourages respect of all peoples’ beliefs Akbar the Great
  50. 50. • Encourages social reforms like: – limiting alcohol – Encourages widow remarriage – while discouraging child marriage – tries to ban Sati – creates special market day for women • Most reforms have little impact
  51. 51. Mughal Achievements • Many rulers were patrons of the arts –Painting workshops for miniatures –Textile and rug production –Great architectural works (Taj Mahal)
  52. 52. Mughal Decline • 1707- Aurangzeb reverses religious toleration, drains treasury and weakens military and government bureaucracy • Regional lords gain power as central government declines • Foreign powers step in to gain land as Mughal empire declines
  53. 53. Gunpowder Empires • All three empires gain power with help of nomadic warriors • Firearms became decisive in battle, ie) Chaldiran • Governments used military technology to change the organization of their empires, warrior aristocracy lose power as governments build professional armies
  54. 54. Review