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Roman civilization


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Roman civilization

  1. 1. Early Roman Civilization • Three historical periods: • The Roman Monarchy (753 BCE to 509 BCE) • The Roman Republic (509 BCE to 31 BCE) • The Roman Empire (31 BCE to 248 AD)
  3. 3. • In the 8th century B.C., the inhabitants of some small Latin settlements on hills in the TIBER VALLEY united and established a common meeting place, the FORUM, around which the city of Rome grew. FORUM
  4. 4. THE ROMAN MONARCHY to 509 B.C. According to tradition, early Rome was ruled by KINGS elected by the people. • The king's executive power was conferred by a POPULAR ASSEMBLY made up of all arms-bearing citizens. • The king turned for advice to a council of nobles, called the SENATE. • Each senator had lifelong tenure and the members of this group and their families constituted the PATRICIAN class. • The other class of Romans, the PLEBEIANS (commoners) included small farmers, artisans, and many clients (dependents of patrician landowners). In return for a livelihood, the clients gave their patrician patrons political support in the ASSEMBLY
  5. 5. Three Social Classes • During Roman Republic and Empire, there were three distinct social classes: • The patrician (aristocracy) • The equestrian (army) • The plebian (common people)
  8. 8. Roman Empire
  9. 9. The Roman Republic • The Early Republic (509-264 BCE): division of society into two classes, the aristocratic patricians and the plebeians • The Middle Republic (264-133 BCE): the challenge of Carthage; the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE). • The Late Republic (133-31 BCE): the rise of the equestrian order, a social class who gained wealth during the Punic Wars.
  10. 10. EARLY REPUBLIC 509-133 B.C. • In 509 B.C., according to tradition, the PATRICIANS expelled the last Etruscan king and established a REPUBLIC. • The power to rule was transferred to two new officials called CONSULS. • Elected annually from the patrician class, the consul exercised their power in the interests of that class.
  11. 11. The Late Republic: Julius Caesar, I • Julius Caesar, an equestrian, was a major political figure from 60 to 44 BCE. • He took his authority from the many titles and powers he held: dictator for life, consul, and head of the armies. • Future Roman emperors recognized him as their predecessor by calling themselves Caesar, or ruler.
  12. 12. Assassination of Julius Caesar
  13. 13. The Late Republic: Julius Caesar, II • On march 15, 44 BCE, a band of senatorial assassins murdered Caesar and Rome plunged into chaos. • Caesar’s nephew and adopted son, Octavian, emerged as a new leader in 31 BCE. He was later called Augustus Caesar. • With Octavian, we have the beginning of Pax Romana (Roman Peace) and the Roman Empire. • During Octavian’s rule, patrician’s power decreased and equestrian power increased.
  14. 14. STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL • Alexander died in 323 B.C. • Rome dominated most of the Italian peninsula • Expansion southward brought Rome into collision with Carthage, the greatest power in the western Mediterranean • Second Carthaginian war (218-201 B.C.): Rome’s southern Italian allies defected to Hannibal • Third war with Carthage in 201 B.C.: Rome emerged not merely victorious but a world power
  15. 15. PLEBEIAN STRUGGLE FOR EQUAL RIGHTS • For more than two centuries following the establishment of the Republic, the plebeians struggled for political and social equality. • Outright civil war was averted by the willingness of the patricians to compromise. • Much of the plebeians’ success in this struggle was also due to their tactics of collective action and to their having organized a corporate group within the state.  The unofficial body was known as the PLEBEIAN COUNCIL.  It was presided over by plebeian officials called TRIBUNES, whose job was to safeguard the interests of the plebeians and to negotiate with the consuls and the Senate.
  16. 16. • The advancement of the PLEBEIANS during the early Republic took two main lines: the safeguarding of their FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS and the progressive enlargement of their share of POLITICAL POWER.
  18. 18. • The Romans were attracted to two Hellenistic ethical philosophies: • EPICURIANSIM taught that the wise man could achieve happiness simply by freeing his body from pain and his mind from fear -- particularly the fear of death. To reach this goal, men must AVOID BODILY EXCESSES, including those of pleasure, and accept the scientific teaching of Democritus that both body and soul are composed of atoms which fall apart at death. Thus, BEYOND DEATH THERE IS NO EXISTENCE and nothing to fear.  STOICISM argued that THE UNIVERSE IS CONTROLLED by some power -- variously called Reason, World Soul, Fortune, and God -- which determines everything that happens. The wise man conforms his will to the World Will and “STOICALLY" ACCEPTS whatever part fortune allots him in the drama of life.  Stoicism had a humanizing effect on Roman law by introducing such concepts as the LAW OF NATURE, the LAW OF BROTHERHOOD OF MEN (including slaves), and the view that a man is INNOCENT UNTIL PROVED GUILTY.
  19. 19. ROMAN EMPIRE
  20. 20. • Weakened by civil war, the Roman Republic gave way to the ROMAN EMPIRE, with its AUTOCRATIC form of government and LARGE TERRITORIAL HOLDINGS in Europe and around the Mediterranean. • Several events marked the transition from Republic to Empire, including JULIUS CAESAR’s appointment as perpetual DICTATOR (44 BC), the victory of OCTAVIAN at the Battle of Actium (31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian of the title AUGUSTUS. (27 BC).
  21. 21. Roman culture • Hellenistic culture became the foundation of Roman civilization. • The Roman blend the utilitarian with the aesthetic. • Fascination with the spectacle • Architecture and sculpture are increasingly monumental and theatrical.
  22. 22. Circus Maximus Above: A reconstruction of the huge Circus Maximus in Rome. This was the greatest Roman entertainment complex of all time, being able to seat 300,000 spectators. The first parts of the Circus Maximus were built around 600 BC, being substantially enlarged by Julius Caesar, who also added canals which could flood the theater floor upon which ships could be sailed to re-enact sea battles. The Roman general Pompey the Great is said on one occasion (55 BC) to have sponsored five days of circus games during which 500 lions and 20 elephants were killed. The Circus Maximus, which was far larger than the famous Colosseum, did not survive. It was broken up and its stone was used to build Christian churches after that religion came to dominate Europe
  23. 23. • In designing their bridges and aqueducts, the Romans placed a series of STONE ARCHES next to one another to provide mutual support. • Fourteen AQUEDUCTS, stretching a total of 265 miles, supplied some 50 gallons of water daily for each inhabitant of Rome. • The practical nature of the Romans and their skill and initiative in engineering were demonstrated in the many DAMS, RESERVOIRS, and HARBORS they built. ENGINEERING PRACTICES
  24. 24. • The BARREL VAULT, basically a series of adjoining arches forming a structure resembling a tunnel, was a new method of enclosing space. In the barrel vault the supports of the arches became heavy masonry walls to bear the weight of the vaulted roof. • The Romans next developed the CROSS VAULT by intersection two barrel vaults at right angles.
  25. 25. • Another important advance in architecture was the Roman's success in constructing CONCRETE DOMES on a large scale. The weight of the dome was transferred directly to the walls and no other support was necessary. The largest of the dome structures was the PANTHEON (temple of all the gods).
  26. 26. • The standard type of Roman public building was the BASCILICA, a colonnaded structure that became a model for early Christian churches. Rows of columns divided the interior into a central nave and side aisles, with the roof over the nave raised to admit light, creating a CLERESTORY (an upper portion of a wall containing windows for supplying natural light to a building.
  27. 27. • The Romans developed a distinctive SCULPTURE which was realistic, secular, and individualistic. EQUESTRIAN STATUES sculpted coffins (SARCOPHAGI), and the RELIEFS found on imperial monuments were exceptionally fine works of art. The Romans were particularly skilled in producing floor MOSAICS and in painting FRESCOES. Roman epic, dramatic, and lyric POETRY forms were usually written in conscious imitation of Greek masterpieces.
  28. 28. Roman Innovation Road Building • The need to move legions and trade goods in all weather led to the development of the best roads in the world (to the 19th century).
  29. 29. Roman Innovation Road Building
  30. 30. Roman Roads Spanned the Empire
  31. 31. Public baths, Pompeii Romans took public bathing to an extreme: hot, cold, and lukewarm pools, places to get a massage or work out, even reading rooms
  32. 32. Roman Innovation – Massive Building – Baths of Caracalla • Roman baths were the recreation centers of Roman cities, incorporating pools, exercise facilities and even libraries. • They could serve hundreds or thousands at a time.
  33. 33. Roman Innovation • Tuscan Order: • Like the Doric, except this one has a base.
  34. 34. Roman Innovation • The Composite order combined elements of both the Ionic and Corinthian. • It appears to be Corinthian acanthus leaves, supplemented with volutes.
  35. 35. Forum--Pompei
  36. 36. A Roman “castra” or military camp and a typical Roman town
  37. 37. Grid (or gridiron) plan served practical purposes, as well • Easy to lay out • Easy to administer • Breezes could flow through for natural ventilation • Easy to defend if walled
  38. 38. Pompeii shows that this was an ideal, not a rule Source:
  39. 39. The Forum was their version of the agora (this one is in Pompeii, a city preserved in volcanic ash of Mt. Vesuvius from the 1st century BC)
  40. 40. The Forum • Bordered by everything important: temples, offices, jails, butcher shops • Public processions and ceremonies took place there • For a mainly pedestrian population, the surrounding colonnade was a very important urban design feature
  41. 41. temples law courts senate chamberspublic records Main forum in Rome
  42. 42. Roman Forum (artist’s conception) Source: A.E.J. Morris, History of Urban Form
  43. 43. • Amphitheater • Theater • Baths Important “furnishings” for a Roman city Amphitheater, Pompeii
  44. 44. Large Theater, Pompeii
  45. 45. Small theater, Pompeii
  46. 46. Cities thrive as part of an urban system
  47. 47. Typical Roman street, Pompeii
  48. 48. Pont du Gard, France (brought water to city of Nimes)
  49. 49. Odd (but familiar) mix of practicality and impracticality • Their passion for size and excess pushed them to unsustainable levels of consumption and territorial expansion • They aqueducts were not strictly needed; they were as much about demonstrating imperial power as about gaining access to water • City of Rome had 1352 fountains and 967 free baths
  50. 50. A courtyard surrounded by a colonnade or portico (peristyle)
  51. 51. Residential frescoes in Pompeii
  52. 52. Residential fountain in Pompeii
  53. 53. Roman monarchy •1000 BC - Latins begin to settle in Italy. •753 BC - The city is allegedly founded in this year by Romulus and Remus. •750 BC - Tarpeia betrays Rome because of greed and attempts to hand it over to the invading Sabines •700 BC - Near Rome, the Etruscan civilization more or less begins. •659 BC - The enemy city of Alba Longa is destroyed by the Romans. •616 BC - The first Etruscan king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus establishes a Forum and a Circus Maximus. •c.600 BC - Cloaca Maxima is probably first built around this year. •578 BC - Servius Tullius becomes the next Etruscan king of Rome •565 BC - Servian Walls are built. •534 BC - King Servius is assassinated. •510 BC - Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol is completed and consecrated. •509 BC - Lucius Brutus founds the republic and expels the Etruscans and Tarquin the Proud from Rome. •508 BC - A Treaty is made between Rome and Carthage. •507 BC - The famous war against the Etruscans begins, featuring hero Horatio.
  54. 54. Roman republic •499 BC - A battle against foreign tribes commences, including the construction of the Temple of Castor and Pollux. •396 BC - The Etruscan city of Veio is defeated by the Romans •390 BC - Rome is sacked by the Gauls after the Battle of the Allia •380 BC - The once destroyed Servian Wall is reconstructed. •312 BC - The Via Appia and Aqua Appia are constructed. •264 - 241 BC - First Punic War •220 BC - Via Flamina is constructed. •218 - 202 BC - Second Punic War •168 BC - The Romans have a great victory in the Macedonian War, conquering Greece. •149 - 146 BC - The Third Punic War •133 BC - 120 BC - The Gracchi brothers are controversially killed. •71 BC - Spartacus is killed and his rebel army destroyed. •60 BC - Pompey, Crassus and Caesar form the first triumvirate. •58-50 BC - Caesar conquers Gaul.
  55. 55. Imperial rome 49 BC - Caesar crosses the Rubicon in order to take Rome. •44 BC - Caesar elects himself dictator, and in March is killed by Brutus and Cassius •27 BC - Augustus is made Rome's first emperor. •13 BC - The Ara Pacis is constituted since Augustus secured his empire. •42 AD - The apostle St Peter arrives in Rome. •64 AD - The Great Fire of Rome, rumored to be blamed by Nero on the Christians. •c. 65 AD - The Romans begins to massacre Christians . •67 AD - St Peter is crucified in Rome, and similarly St Paul is executed. •72 AD - Work on the Flavian Amphitheatre (Colosseum) begins. •March, 80 AD - The inauguration of the Colosseum begins. •121 AD - Hadrian's Wall is completed. •125 AD - Emperor Hadrian has the Pantheon reconstructed to more or less how it is today. •212 AD - All the inhabitants of the empire are granted citizenship. •216 AD - Work on the Baths of Caracalla is finally over, as the building gets completed. •247 AD - The first millennium of Rome is celebrated. •270 AD - Construction of the Aurelian Wall begins. •284 AD - Diocletian partitions administration of the Roman Empire in half, thereby establishing the Eastern Roman Empire inByzantium.
  56. 56. Early medieval period •312 - Constantine the Great defeats Maxentius at Battle of the Milvian Bridge to become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire •c.320 - Old St. Peter's Basilica is constructed. •325- Constantine convenes the First Council of Nicaea. •380 - The Christian emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of Rome, persecuting pagans and destroying temples. •395 - Ravenna becomes the capital of the Western Roman Empire, whilst Constantinople that of the east. •410 - Rome is sacked by Alaric, King of the Visigoths •422 - The Church of Santa Sabina is founded. •455 - Rome is sacked by Genseric, King of the Vandals •476 - Romulus Augustulus is deposed, traditionally considered the end of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe. Byzantium continues to be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. •496 - The first pope to achieve the Pontifex Maximus is Anastasius II. •546 - Rome is sacked by Totila, King of the Ostrogoths •c. 590 - 604 - Pope Gregory the Great makes the Christian church exceedingly strong. •609 - The Pantheon becomes a Christian church. •630 - The Church of Sant' Agnese is the first Roman church to be constructed in Byzantine style. •725 - The King Ine of Wessex is the first man to create a hostel for pilgrims to Rome. •778 - Charlemagne conquers Italy and Rome. •800 - Charlemagne is crowned the emperor in St. Peter's Basilica. •846 - The Arab sack of Rome plundered the environs of Rome, including Old St. Peter's Basilica, but were prevented from entering the city itself by the Aurelian Wall •880 - 932 - A rare occasion, the city is governed by women, Theodora and later her daughter Marozia. •961 - King Otto the Great of Germany becomes in Rome the first Holy Roman Emperor.
  57. 57. 1. Pantheon 2. Roman bath 3. Circus Maximus 4. Aqueducts 5. Coliseum 6. Roman villa 7. Forum 8. Basilica 9. roman roads 10.Roman bath 11.Roman orders 12.Roman sculptures 13.St peters basilica 14.Compare roman and Greek civilization 15.Roman monarchy 16.Roman republic 17.Roman empire(Imperial Rome) 18.Early medieval period 19.High middle ages 20. byzantine period 21.Spread of Christianity 1. Constantine & Post Constantine age 2. Compare Parthenon and pantheon 3. Roman military city 4. Medieval city of Rome 5. Michelangelo 6. Roman city planning 7. Roman religion-stoicsm 8. Roman social classes 9. Punic wars 10.Carthaginian wars 11.Julius Caesar 12.Ottoman empire 13.Birth of roman civilization 14.Roman inventions 15.Eastern roman empire & western empire 16.Roman theatre 17.Barrel vault & cross vault 18.Roman senate 19.Roman consule 20.Roman fresco 21.Roman territory in timeline Assignment