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The Age of Exploration


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The Age of Exploration

  1. 1. The Age of Exploration On the Brink of a New World
  2. 2. The Motives  Economic Motives – Desire to find new areas for trade – Break existing monopolies
  3. 3. The Motives  Religious Zeal – Spain and Portugal heavily defined by religion, want to spread Christianity – “With the divine power of the true God, they would work miracles”
  4. 4. The Motives  Fantastic Lands – The Travels of John Mandeville – Marco Polo’s Travels – The search for Prester John
  5. 5. The Means  Maps – Portolani = more useful than T in O Map, fairly accurate – The further from the known world, the more fantastic maps got – Ptolemy grossly underestimated the size of the Earth
  6. 6. The Means  Ships and Sailing – Importation of technology from China like the axial rudder – Lateen Sail – Astrolabe and Sextant
  7. 7. Prince Henry the Navigator  1419 founds school for Navigators in Portugal  Funds Portuguese expeditions down the African Coast
  8. 8. Portuguese Maritime Empire  1419: Prince Henry founds school of navigation  1441: reach thee Senegal River just north of Cape Verde  1471: discover gold in western Africa (Gold Coast)  1488: Bartholomew Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope
  9. 9. Portuguese Maritime Empire  1498: Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut and announces that he has come to find Christians and spices  1509: Portuguese armada defeats joint Turkish and Indian fleet  1510: establish land base in Bombay
  10. 10. The Search for Spice  1511: Albuquerque gains control of Malacca, ending Arab dominance of spice trade and creating a good launching point for expeditions to China and Japan  The battle was short and bloody.
  11. 11. “To enhance the terror of his name he always separated Arabs from the other inhabitants of the city, and cut off the right hand of every man, and the noses and ears of every woman.”
  12. 12. Voyages to the New World  Columbus
  13. 13. Voyages of the New World  New Voyages – John Cabot explores the coast of New England for Henry VII of England – South America accidentally discovered by Pedro Cabral of Portugal in 1500 – Amerigo Vespucci wrote a series of letters on the geography of the new world  Americas
  14. 14. Food for Thought…  What makes the New World a new world?  How does that show the bias of European explorers?
  15. 15. Spain builds an Empire  Cortez’s conquest of the Aztec and Pizarro’s conquest of the Inca lead to a large land based empire in central and south America  By the late 1600s, only 5% of Latin America’s native population was still alive
  16. 16. Administering the Spanish Empire  Queen Isabella declared natives to be subjects of Spain  Established encomienda system: Conquering Spaniards gain the right to collect tribute and use natives as slave laborers
  17. 17. Administering the Spanish Empire  Bartolome de Las Casa champions the rights of natives  Spanish gov’t abolishes encomienda system
  18. 18. Yet into this sheepfold, into this land of meek outcasts there came some Spaniards who immediately behaved like ravening wild beasts, wolves, tigers, or lions that had been starved for many days. And Spaniards have behaved in no other way during the past forty years, down to the present time, for they are still acting like ravening beasts, killing, terrorizing, afflicting, torturing, and destroying the native peoples, doing all this with the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty, never seen or heard of before, and to such a degree that this Island of Hispaniola once so populous (having a population that I estimated to be more than three million), has now a population of barely two hundred persons. ~Bartolomeo de Las Casas
  19. 19. Administering the Spanish Empire  Spain developed the Viceroy system to oversee the large empire  Viceroy’s were the king’s representatives in the new world  Audiencias were advisory groups that often acted as judicial bodies
  20. 20. The Pope and the New World  Papal Bull: Inter Caetera divides the world in half  Treaty of Tordesillas moves line of demarcation to give Portugal access to Brazil  Spain exercised extensive control over the new world
  21. 21. The Pope and the New World  Missionaries like the Dominicans and Jesuits worked to Christianize the native populations  Conquistadors were often under strict orders to try to convert before fighting  Mass conversion of Indians led to strong establishment of Catholicism in the New World
  22. 22. New Rivals in the World Arena  By the 1600s, northern European nations like Britain, France, and the Netherlands were engaged in overseas exploration  Hope to remove Portuguese and Spanish naval and trade dominance  Hope to wind north east and north west passages to the Indies
  23. 23. New Rivals in the World Arena  Britain establishes colonies along eastern seaboard of North America  French establish trading posts along the Mississippi and Great Lakes  Dutch focus most colonial efforts on Asia  None of these countries is focused on creating a large land empire… yet.
  24. 24. Britain and the Netherlands  Trade and Exploration controlled by privately operated joint-stock companies  How does the contract signed by Henry Hudson differ from earlier contracts?
  25. 25. Effects of Exploration and Colonization  The Atlantic Slave Trade  European dominance over Indian Ocean trade  British and French inroads into India
  26. 26. The West in Southeast Asia  Portugal establishes a large empire, but is to small to maintain it  Combined Christian forces defeat Ottoman Empire in Battle of Lepanto, win dominance over Indian Ocean trade
  27. 27.  “My country, oh my country. Too heavy is the task that has been laid on you shoulders. Day after day I watch ships leaving your shores filled always with the bravest men. And too many do not return… Who then is left to till the fields, to harvest the grapes, to keep the enemy on our frontier at bay?”
  28. 28. The West in Southeast Asia  Spain enters the region when Magellan lands in the Philippines  Becomes a major base for Spanish trade in the region
  29. 29. The West in Southeast Asia  The Dutch establish a fort in Java in 1619  Dutch East India Co. begins building pepper plantations  By the late 1700s, the Dutch controlled most of Indonesia
  30. 30. The West in India  Mughal empire in a state of decline  1601 Queen Elizabeth charters the British East India Co.  By 1650 British control major port in Calcutta
  31. 31. The West in India  Dutch and French also try to establish ports  Sir Robert Clive wins victories making Britain dominant power in India
  32. 32. China  In 1433, The Ming Dynasty recalls the Treasure Fleet of Zheng He and turns inward  1514 Portuguese land on Chinese coast, begin trading  China controls favorable balance of trade exporting far more than they import
  33. 33. China  China’s unwillingness to deal with western “barbarians” ultimately winds up hurting them. By the 19th century, China will be unable to compete militarily with the west.
  34. 34. Japan  Tokogawa Shogunate at first is willing to trade with westerners  After a while they fear damage to their culture and isolate  After isolation, trade is limited to Hirado and Nagasaki with the Dutch
  35. 35. Japan
  36. 36. The West Indies  Britain holds Barbados, Jamaica, and Bermuda  France controls St. Dominique, Martinique, and Guadolupe  Establish plantations similar to Portugal’s in Brazil focusing on tobacco, cotton, coffee and sugar (all in very high demand in Europe)
  37. 37. What have you learned?  How did the motives differ between the Iberian kingdoms and the nation states of Northern Europe?  What areas were explored by each nation state?  How did the Age of Discovery relate to the questioning spirit of the Renaissance?  What were the long term effects of Discovery?