Alexander the Great An excellent military leader who, with his armies, conquered vast new territories.
PolytheismBelief in andworship ofmore thanone God
PhilosopherA person who studies andthinks about why the world is the way it is
ConstantineEmperor of Rome who claimed tohave had a vision of a cross in thesky and promised that if he won thebattle he would become aChristian. When he wonChristianity became the official religionof the Roman empire
RepublicA form of Government in which people rule through elected representatives
City-StateA central city and its surrounding villages,which together follow the same law, haveone form of government, and sharelanguage, religious beliefs, and ways of life.
OligarchyA government in which a fewpowerful individuals rule
AristotleA Greek philosopher who taughtAlexander the Great!
AthensThe capital of Greece and onceone of the most importantancient Greek city-states
Aegean SeaA branch of the Mediterranean Sea that is located between Greece and Turkey
SenateThe assembly of electedrepresentatives that was themost powerful ruling body of theRoman Republic
Julius CaesarA successful Roman general and famousspeaker who was the governor of theTerritory called Gaul. He conquerednearby territories to increase hispower and his reputation. Fought along battle for control of the Roman Republic andeventually became dictator (person who holds totalcontrol over a government). He was stabbed todeath by a group of angry senators.
PatricianIn ancient Rome, a member of awealthy, landowning family thatclaimed to be able to trace itsroots back to the founding ofRome
EmpireA nation or group of territoriesruled by an emperor
AugustusJulius Ceasar’s adopted son whosereal name was Octavian. Namedthe first emperor of Rome whichmarked the beginning of theRoman Empire. Ruled forMore than 40 years duringa time called theAugustan age
Government Literature ArchitectureFormation of city- Tragedies (Aeschylus, Templesstates each with its Sophocles, Euripidesown laws and form of (AcropolisgovernmentCreatiton of Comediesdemocracy in Athensat the end of the sixth (Aristophanes)century B.C. Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus)
Achievement EffectLiterature Virgils AeneidGrowth of Empire Peace, cultural growth Olive oil, wine, pottery, grainTrade shipped across MediterraneanEngineering Lighthouses, aqueducts
Greece (Pgs. 278 – 282)• How did geography influence the development of ancient Greece? Mountains separated city-states; people became skilled sailors and established colonies overseas• How were city states alike and different (Venn Diagram) Alike: Common language, religious beliefs, way of life Different: Lawas, forms of government• What kind of government did Athens have by the end of the sixth century? A democracy• In what cultural fields did the ancient Greeks excel? Literature, philosophy, architecture• Who were usually the major characters in Greek poetry and tragic plays? Gods and goddesses
• What were some of the topics that interested Socrates and other philosophers? Friendship, knowledge, justice, government, Human behavior• How did Greek culture spread beyond Greece? Through the expansion of the Greek empire under Alexander the Great, a military leader who conquered the Mediterranean and lands as far east as India during the fourth century BC• Why were the surrounding areas of water an important natural resource of the Greek peninsula? The oceans provided fish and facilitated trade• Which People were allowed to participate in the government of ancient Athens? Free, adult males whose fathers had been citizens could participate• How did Alexander the Great help to spread Greek Culture? Alexander conquered vast territories, spreading Greek language and ideas
• In what way did the government of Rome change in 509 B.C.? – It became a republic• What were the two groups of Roman citizens? – Wealthy patricians, workers called plebeians• How did Rome win control of the western Mediterranean? – By defeating Carthage• In what way did Augustus carry on the work of his great uncle Julius Caesar? – By continuing to expand the Roman Empire• What were some of the activities that took place during the Augustan Age? – The empire grew, public buildings and lighthouses were built, trade increased, and famous works of literature were written.
• How did Roman attitudes toward Christians change over time? – Romans at first were tolerant, then became suspicious of and persecuted Christians• How did Christianity come to be the official religion of the Roman Empire? – Constantine, the Roman emperor, converted to Christianity• On what waterway is the city of Rome located? – The Tiber River• What helped to unite the many different citizens of the Roman republic? – A common law system of government and law• How did Christianity spread throughout the Roman empire? – At first, Christianity spread by mans of the Roman transportation network; it spread more rapidly after Constantine converted and made it the official religion of Rome
TOGA PartyWear a toga and receive extra credit Thursday November 15 (B) and Friday November 16 (A)
The toga, which seems to have been Etruscan in origin, was the only garmentworn by the ancient Romans and was a mark of citizenship. Those worn bymagistrates and boys had a purple band round the edge. This garment, called thetoga praetexta, was worn by boys up to the age of sixteen, when they took on theplain white toga of manhood. During the Empire people began to find the togainconvenient, and gave it up except for special ceremonial occasions, or at theSenate. In its place they wore the pallium, a light-weight cloak draped over thetunic. The tunic itself became the outer garment, and was put on over anundertunic, often called a camisia (from which the words "chemise" and"camisole" come). The tunic might have sewn sleeves attached to it. As a result offoreign influences, particularly from Gaul, some people began to adopt narrowbreeches, a heavy cloak called a paenula, made of thick natural wool or leather,and the caracalla, a cloak with a hood attached.Women also wore a long tunic, the stola, over an under-tunic tied in at the waist.When they went out they also put on a draped mantle, like a shawl, the palla.Unlike men, women could wear clothes dyed in bright colors.The Romans did not have the kind of underclothes we are familiar with - pants,vests and socks. The only undergarment worn by both sexes was a tunic, knee-length for men, ankle-length for girls and women. In the early days of the Republicmen just wore a loin-cloth under their toga.