Rome republic to empire


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Rome republic to empire

  1. 1. Rome:Rome: RepublicRepublic toto EmpireEmpire
  2. 2. Etruscans • Etruscan civilization dominated central Italy between Arno & Tiber Rivers from 8th – 3rd C. BCE (height – 6th c. BCE) • Busy seaports – trading with Phoenicians & Greeks • Etruscan League – 12 cities • Non-Indo European language – developed writing from Greek alphabet • Like Egyptians – strong focus on the afterlife -- the soul continued to live on– elaborate sarcophagi and tombs • Master metal smiths & potters • Religion & art – influenced Romans
  3. 3. Founding of Rome • Indo-European migrations c. 1500 BCE – brought the Italics – Latin-speaking tribe into region • Legend – founded by twins Romulus and Remus in 753 BCE on site where a she- wolf had suckled them as abandoned infants saving their lives (father was the god Mars) • Small, poor city-state in early 8th C. BCE – in the shadow of the growing Etruscan power (Etruria) • Slowly Rome began to expand • 509 BCE—threw off the monarchy (last of the Etruscan kings)—Republic established by the aristocracy
  4. 4. Roman Republic • Wealthy patricians controlled the Senate while the plebeians (poor) had limited voice in the Plebeian Council • 2 Consuls (top magistrates)—1 year terms, checked each other power, advised by the Senate, 1 consul had dictatorial powers in times of crisis, ex-consuls -> senate • Senate had the real power (controlled money & directed government policies) • Structure evolved over 3 centuries due to constant power struggles between the plebeians and patricians • By the late 3rd C. BCE – the plebeians had gained more rights and had their own representative body called the tribunes who looked after their interests (had veto power) • Periods of strife – some tribunes became too popular with the people – assassinations
  5. 5. The Roman Forum Today • Forum was the political, judicial, economic, and religious center of the Republic—emerged in the 7th c. BCE and abandoned by the 4th c. CE
  6. 6. Foundations -Foundations - Roman LawRoman Law• Roman law code is the most important political contribution that Rome left the Western world • First written laws —The Laws of the Twelve Tables (c. 450 BCE) – Civil law code to protect individual rights – victory for plebeians – Concept of “innocent until proven guilty” originated here • Law code evolved over a period of 1,000 years – Republic: Roman law was enlarged by the Senate and interpreted by the judiciary to meet changing times – Empire: Emperor became solely responsible for the law – Empire – became an international law code applied to the conquered territories – 6th c. CE: laws became further codified and preserved—passed down to antiquity—medieval church based many of its laws on the Roman canon
  7. 7. Foundations -Foundations - Latin LanguageLatin Language • Latin would quickly spread over a larger part of Italy, in direct correlation to Roman conquests. • With the foundation of the Roman Empire, a large portion of the Western world would come to speak various forms of Latin or have it intermingled with their own tongues. • The Romance Languages of Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, and Romania developed from a hybrid version of spoken Latin and native tongues • Latin became the official language of the medieval Christian Church – also influenced scholarship
  8. 8. Foundations -Foundations - Family in AncientFamily in Ancient Rome –Rome – Pater FamiliasPater Familias• Basic unit of Roman society was the family • The family often included extended kin living together • Patriarchal authority – eldest male controlled family and property • Women had considerable power behind the scenes in their own families and many ran businesses and managed estates • Freeborn women were citizens but couldn’t vote • Ancestor worship was extremely important to the family (similar to ancient China)
  9. 9. Foundations -Foundations - Roman SlaveryRoman Slavery • Slavery—defining element of Roman society • By the 1st C. CE—slaves made up over 30% of the empire’s population • Most slaves were prisoners of war (not race based or defined by an ethnic group ) while others were bought by merchants through the vast trade networks of the time • Status passed down to children • Poor orphaned children often enslaved • Slaves worked in all aspects of the Roman economy • Rural areas—slaves farmed the latifundia—huge plantations • City—some slaves who had skills were employed in various occupations, others worked under brutal conditions on public works projects •Slaves lacked all rights • Quality of life depended on their masters • Manumission (setting free) was pretty common
  10. 10. Foundations - Roman Military • In addition to government, the Romans invested a lot of authority in the military • Citizen-soldier ideal – all male citizens required to serve in army – Officer positions – required 10 years of duty • Divided into large military units called legions (5,000 armed foot soldiers) –had a cavalry that supported each legion • Legions divided into centuries (80 men) • Highly organized military, highly trained – key to Rome’s expansion and greatness • Influential on the government
  11. 11. Roman Republican Values • Values of Republic: rule of law, rights of citizens, discipline, moral behavior, honesty, ancestor worship, citizen-soldier • Values formed basis of Rome’s expansion—by 270 BCE mighty Roman army controlled entire Italian peninsula
  12. 12. Rome’s EarlyRome’s Early Road SystemRoad System
  13. 13. Roman Roads:Roman Roads: TheThe Appian WayAppian Way *Oldest and most important of the Roman roads *”queen road” *321 BCE completed *Connected Rome to Brandisi—part of the route to Greece *”All roads lead to Rome”
  14. 14. ImperialImperial Roman RoadRoman Road SystemSystem **Much like Darius I’s Royal Road, the Romans’ masterful engineers created a highway system that connected the entire empire **Fast, efficient transportation— helped bring Rome into its golden age of peace and prosperity (Pax Romana)
  15. 15. Hannibal vs. Scipio Second Punic War 264-201 BCE • Rome and the powerful city-state of Carthage fought a series of 3 wars over control of the Mediterranean trade routes – Legendary general Hannibal attempted a surprise attack on Rome in the Second Punic War by crossing the Alps with a herd of war elephants • Rome defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama but Carthage remained a regional competitor until the Romans completely destroyed the city in the 3rd war (149-146 BCE) – sold off its inhabitants as slaves
  16. 16. **Punic Wars gave Rome control over the western Mediterranean **Made Rome a naval power
  17. 17. Roman RepublicanRoman Republican ConquestsConquests • After Rome defeated Carthage in 146 BCE, it seemed no Mediterranean force could stop the Romans • Victory over Carthage gave Rome a taste of imperialism—wealth from plunder, slaves for cheap labor, new farm lands, control of trade routes, provinces for taxation, glory for generals (who could resist all of this?) • Rome then launched a series of wars on the Eastern Mediterranean • One by one, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor (Turkey) surrendered and became Roman provinces • Other regions, like Egypt, allied with Rome • After brutality of conquest, usually generous treatment of the conquered 23
  18. 18. 24 By 133 BCE , Romans called the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum, or “Our Sea”
  19. 19. The Decline ofThe Decline of the Republicthe Republic • Roman imperialism brought with it a set of growing problems that weakened the Republic: 1. Growing gap between rich and poor 2. Rise of slave agriculture and the decline of free peasant farmers (became landless urban poor) 3. Breakdown in military order 4. Greed and self-interest replaced virtues such as simplicity, hard work, and devotion to Rome 5. Corruption
  20. 20. Slave RevoltsSlave Revolts • Rome faced a series of slave revolts between 135-71 BCE • Slaves--1/3 of the population • Rebellion led by the gladiator Spartacus was the most serious one • General Crassus put down revolt in 71 BCE —lined the Appian Way with 6,000 crucified slaves
  21. 21. 27 Gladiator GamesGladiator Games
  22. 22. Military Upheaval –Military Upheaval – Expansion ImpactsExpansion Impacts MilitaryMilitary • Old system: citizen-soldiers showed allegiance to the Republic—loyal and patriotic • New order: victorious generals promised soldiers land and other rewards for good service---allegiance given to powerful commanders who used the army as they saw fit—dangerous situation for the Republic
  23. 23. General Marius:General Marius: Professional ArmyProfessional Army • General in the Roman army. • Marius transformed Rome’s army into a professional military with the best training and equipment • Civil war breaks out in Rome and Marius seizes Rome in 87 BCE as a dictator. • He recruited a private army from landless residents to support him.
  24. 24. The Dictatorship ofThe Dictatorship of the Firstthe First TriumvirateTriumvirate  Julius Caesar (Marius’ nephew— elected consul in 60 BCE)  Crassus (wealthy citizen—made governor of Syria where he was killed)  Pompey—(popular general—waged a civil war against Caesar—lost & was assassinated in 47 BCE)
  25. 25. Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul *58-50 B.C.E. *Caesar’s military genius is displayed *Wrote the book The Gallic Wars— propaganda—presents himself as the greatest living Roman *“Veni, vidi, vici” – “I came, I saw, I conquered”
  26. 26. **Caesar represents the rise of military power seen during the political crisis of the 1st C. BCE
  27. 27. Julius CaesarJulius Caesar • In 47 BCE he seized power in Rome and was made dictator. A short time later, in 44 BCE he was given the title dictator for life. • His soldiers were loyal to him, not to Rome • Gave public land to the poor, started a job program, granted citizenship to more people in the provinces • He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it with supporters of his reforms. • Caesar’s most lasting reform was the introduction of the Julian Calendar based on Egyptian knowledge – 365 day/year calendar—July named after him • Popularity breeds contempt
  28. 28. Beware theBeware the Ides of March!Ides of March!Caesar is assassinated on March 15 44 BCE by members of the Senate led by Cassius and his friend Brutus—”Et tu Brute?”— stabbed over 20 times
  29. 29. The SecondThe Second TriumvirateTriumvirate 43-31 B.C.E.43-31 B.C.E.  Octavian Augustus (age 18— grandnephew of Caesar)  Marc Antony (experienced general—Caesar’s favorite)  Marcus Lepidus (powerful politician)
  30. 30. The Second Triumvirate:The Second Triumvirate: Octavian, Mark Antony,Octavian, Mark Antony, Marcus LepidusMarcus Lepidus
  31. 31. Antony & Cleopatra • While in Egypt, Mark Antony married Cleopatra (the mother of Caesar’s child Caesarian) • Antony wanted Cleopatra for Egypt’s wealth, and Cleopatra wanted Antony for his Roman armies • This marriage outraged Octavian---Antony was already married to his sister Octavia • Rumors spread that Antony & Cleopatra planned to form an empire • Antony & Cleopatra  defeated by Octavian Augustus in 31 BCE at the naval battle of Actium • Victory helped secure Octavian’s power
  32. 32. 38
  33. 33. Defeat at Actium— Doomed Lovers Commit Suicide Deadly asp used by Cleopatra to commit suicide Antony falls on his sword
  34. 34. 41 Emperor AugustusEmperor Augustus 27 BCE – 14 CE27 BCE – 14 CE
  35. 35. Octavian becameOctavian became AugustusAugustus • The senate gave the triumphant Octavian the title of Augustus, or Exalted One • Augustus exercised absolute power but didn’t take title “king” (“first man” instead) • Under Augustus, who ruled from 27 BCE to 14 CE, the 500-year-old Roman Republic came to an end—but Augustus was careful to still keep some of the old trappings of the Republic in tact, esp. the Senate • Reality – Augustus had sole authority • New age had dawned--Augustus' reign laid foundations of a regime that lasted until the Empire’s decline 42
  36. 36. Octavian Augustus:Octavian Augustus: Rome’s First EmperorRome’s First EmperorAugustus was a master at using art for propaganda purposes—this statue represents Augustus in the process of giving a formal speech--- Bacchus is at his feet —he is no longer a general who needs to win victories through battle—he convinces people through speeches— peace in exchange for absolute power
  37. 37. Pax RomanaPax Romana Ara Pacis — ALTAR OF PEACE--monument commissioned by Augustus to glorify his reign of peace and prosperity—symbolic relief sculptures represent the benefits of the Pax Romana Pax Romana, Age of Peace, lasted 207 years! Rome is at its height of power.
  38. 38. The GreatestThe Greatest Extent of theExtent of the Roman Empire –Roman Empire – 14 CE14 CE
  39. 39. Augustus:Augustus: Provides Basis forProvides Basis for StabilityStability • Stabilized the frontier regions • Laws were passed giving citizens more rights • Romans were the first people to take a census • Civil service founded—paid employees to manage the affairs of the government • A professional army of 150,000 formed
  40. 40. Augustus:Augustus: Provides Basis forProvides Basis for Stable EmpireStable Empire• Roads were built connecting ever corner of the empire • New government buildings— glorify Rome—public baths, libraries, temples, basilicas • Agriculture became most important industry—90% --basis for supporting the huge empire (latifundia = plantations) • Aqueducts---example of Roman engineering and building skills • 14 aqueducts stretching over 250 miles--brought 50 gallons of water daily into Rome for each inhabitant
  41. 41. The Five GoodThe Five Good Emperors 96-180Emperors 96-180 CECE • Five Good Emperors—kept the empire stable, followed Augustus’ model and reforms, promoted Pax Romana • Emperors like Trajan and Hadrian continued to expand the empire and keep it prosperous (despite increasing revolts in the far provinces—Germany, Austria, Great Britain) • Flourishing in literature, arts, philosophy, science, architecture • Marcus Aurelius (last Good Emperor)—philosopher emperor— a Stoic--wrote the Meditations  discusses good gov’t , service, duty
  42. 42. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius ca. 180 CE
  43. 43. The Long Decline:The Long Decline: Instability at BordersInstability at Borders • Diocletian (284-305 CE) divided the Empire into Eastern and Western halves and shared power with a co-Augustus in an attempt at stabilization.
  44. 44. Constantine theConstantine the GreatGreat• Constantine the Great (306-337 CE) brought the Empire back under a single imperial rule and tried to further unite it through his legalization of Christianity in 313 CE – made it Rome’s official religion – Converted Rome into a Christian city by building large churches near the borders • Growing popularity of Christianity did not support the workings of the empire – it often had the opposite effect • Created a Christian capital in the East in 324 CE by founding Constantinople and calling it the 'new Rome’ • Rome continued its decline even as Christianity flourished –offering hope • Vandals (“vandalism”) successfully sacked Rome in 455 CE
  45. 45. Triumphal Arch of Constantine 315 CE • Triumph arch—another unique form of Roman propaganda celebrating a ruler’s victory over an enemy of Rome • Placed at one of the main gates into the city • Comparing the arch’s recycled 2nd c. CE sculptural reliefs with the 4th c. reliefs offers a telling example of Rome’s declining culture
  46. 46. Decline of Roman Empire • Internal opposition – series of weak, corrupt emperors • Elites in the government plotted to gain power further weakening the government • Difficulties in administering vast empire creates rivalries and divisions of authority • Eastern and Western Empire split under Constantine- capital moved to Constantinople
  47. 47. Decline of Roman Empire • Germanic invasions by Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Visigoths – blend their cultures with remnants of the Greco-Roman past • 476 CE--- final Western Roman Emperor deposed • Trade disrupted, population fell • Eastern Roman Empire becomes Byzantine Empire - lasts another 1000 years (Orthodox Christian Church) • No re-unification of the empire – Western Europe declined into a series of feudal kingdoms • Italian ports, such as Naples and Venice, remained the most connected to the East • Christian Church in the West remained the last vestige of learning, culture, wealth, and power for the next three centuries (until Charlemagne ruled the Franks)