The Mongols


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A brief history of the Mongol Empire for use in Global History and Geography 9R

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The Mongols

  1. 1. The Mongols Unit 3.2
  2. 2. Rise of the Mongols • Nomads from central Asia • United by Genghis Khan • Fierce warriors; used bow and arrow on horseback • Stirrups led to advanced horseback tactics! • Introduced cannons from China
  3. 3. Genghis Khan • Born as Temujin in 1100s • Warrior and leader • United Mongol tribes • Conquers land from Korea to Persia • Renamed “Genghis Khan” = World Emperor
  4. 4. Copy these questions: 1.Who joined the Mongols in their fight against China? 2.How did Genghis Khan cripple China’s capitol, Beijing? 3. How did silk play an important role in battle? 4.What did Genghis Khan do to Chinese prisoners of war?
  5. 5. Copy These Questions 1.What did Genghis Khan create for the first time in Mongol history, in contrast to a nomadic lifestyle? 2.What advancements did Genghis Khan take from other cultures? 3.What did the Persians send back to Genghis Khan which caused him to retaliate? 4.What did Genghis Khan believe was his destiny? 5.Did Genghis Khan achieve his destiny?
  6. 6. Mongol Goals • Create a big empire • Make as much money as possible off of conquests
  7. 7. Mongols in Europe • Attacked Russia, Hungary, and Poland • Batu controlled the Golden Horde in Russia from 1236 to 1241as a tolerant ruler • Mongols kept Russia isolated from Western Europe
  8. 8. Mongols in the Middle East • By the 1300s Tamerlane gained control of Russia, Persia, Mesopotamia, and India
  9. 9. Mongols in China • 1279, Kublai Khan dominates China, Korea, Tibet, and parts of Vietnam • Continues to rule those areas a tributary states • Established the Yuan Dynasty • Moved capital to Beijing • Gave top government and military jobs to Mongols
  10. 10. Mughal India • Founded by Babur (claimed descent from Tamerlane) in 1526 • Golden Age under Akbar the Great, an absolute ruler who preached religious tolerance. • Defeated by the British in 1857
  11. 11. Life under the Mongols • As they conquered the Mongols looted, pillaged, and terrorized • As leaders they practiced tolerance as long as the conquered people paid tribute • Mongols promoted peace and trade
  12. 12. Effects on Russia • Ruled for 250 years • Created a tradition of absolute rule • Isolated Russia from the West,  Russia being centuries behind Europe • Eventually overthrown by Ivan the Great • Ivan the Terrible rules as a tyrant
  13. 13. Pax Mongolia and Global Trade • Period of political stability resulting from Mongol rule • Silk Road gets a face lift – Mongols provide safe passage along the silk road – Gunpowder, porcelain, papermaking, and windmills all flow west • Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta – Safe travel  exploration
  14. 14. Effects on China • Yuan dynasty lasts 150 years • Established a new capital in Beijing • Created a period of stability known as the Pax Mongolia • Put Mongols in key positions in the government and military • Cleaned up the Silk Road making trade safe and prosperous • Welcomed visitors like Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta
  15. 15. Fall of the Mongols • Empire was too large and diverse to govern effectively • Often relied on conquered people to run things • Death of strong leaders like Genghis, Batu, and Kublai Khan left the empire weak • The Mongols were nomads, they didn’t have a civilization, this put their empire at a disadvantage from it’s start!
  16. 16. Take notes on the video below! Questions will follow!
  17. 17. 1. Where did the Mongols come from? 2. On which two continents did the Mongols conquer territory? 3. What technology helped the Mongols in their conquests? 4. Who united the Mongols? 5. Which Mongol conquered Russia? 6. Which Mongol conquered China? 7. Which Mongol created the Mughal Empire? 8. Which person ruled over the Mughal’s golden age? 9. The period of peace and stability within the Mongol empire is known as the… 10. Even though they had a giant empire, the Mongols never built a c…