The history of the world: 9th Grade Edition

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Review slide show for Global History and Geography 9R.

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The history of the world: 9th Grade Edition

  1. 1. The History of the World 9th Grade Edition!
  2. 2. 3 Million BC
  3. 3. Early Humans • First humans appear in Africa around 3,000,000 BC • They cross the Bering Strait to enter the Americas • No written language • Nomads: Migrate to find food • Paleolithic- Old stone age • Find shelter in caves
  4. 4. 8000 BC: Neolithic Revolution
  5. 5. The Neolithic Revolution • Beginning of civilization • People learned to plant food and domesticate animals • Build permanent homes • Communities established Reconstruction of a Neolithic House in Horton, England.
  6. 6. Neolithic Advancements • CIVILIZATION!!! • Agriculture • Division of labor • Written Language • Money • Religion
  7. 7. 4000 BC: River Valley Civilizations
  8. 8. Nile River: Egypt • Government: Pharaoh • Writing: Hieroglyphics • Architecture: Pyramids • Religion: Polytheistic
  9. 9. Tigris and Euphrates River: Mesopotamia • Government: City State • Writing: Cuneiform • Architecture: Ziggurats (temples) • Religion: Polytheism • Law: Code of Hammurabi
  10. 10. Indus River: India • Writing: Not yet translated • Cities: Show evidence of central planning
  11. 11. Yellow River: (Huang Ho) China • Government: – Shang Dynasty = monarchy – Zhou = decentralized and feudal  3 philosophies written • Religion: Ancestor Worship and animism
  12. 12. Ancient Hebrews: 1400 BC First Monotheistic culture. (Judaism) Began in Babylon (Mesopotamia, not the town)
  13. 13. 750 BC: Ancient Greece
  14. 14. Government: City States • Athens: Democracy – Art literature, philosophy, trade • Sparta: Oligarchy – a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society
  15. 15. Religion: • Polytheism
  16. 16. Art and Architecture: The Parthenon Greek Statues
  17. 17. Intellectual Acheivements: • Literature: Greek Tragedies • Philosophy: Humanism – Socrates – Plato – Aristotle • Math • Science • Medicine
  18. 18. 700 BC: The Roman Empire
  19. 19. Government: Republic • Senate • Citizens allowed to vote
  20. 20. The Roman Military controlled large areas.
  21. 21. Engineering • Built roads and Aqueducts
  22. 22. Earliest System of Justice 12 Tables of Roman Law
  23. 23. Fall Of Rome • Civil wars weakened country • Attacks form other nations
  24. 24. 600 AD: Islam • The Prophet Muhammad starts Islam after having a vision of the Archangel Gabriel. • Islam spreads, becoming a major world religion. • Monotheistic
  25. 25. Classical China • Qin Dynasty: Legalism, great wall, unified writing system • Han Dynasty: Adoption of Confucianism, civil service exams, largest Chinese Dynasty, falls just like Rome
  26. 26. Classical India • Emergence of Hinduism • Maurya Empire: conquers most of India, but the caste system really provides order • Gupta Empire: Golden Age, Asoka, Buddhism spreads
  27. 27. 1000 AD: Middle Ages, Europe
  28. 28. Feudalism
  29. 29. Religion: Christianity • Church becomes more powerful • Only the religious leaders can read and write.
  30. 30. The Crusades • War of the Cross • Trying to reclaim the Holy Land • Cultural diffusion and trade
  31. 31. 1500 AD: The Rise of Europe Europe: A strong desire for knowledge
  32. 32. A Time of Learning • Modern languages develop: VERNACULAR • Printing press spreads knowledge – More books printed – Books more affordable.
  33. 33. The Renaissance Leonardo DaVinci Michelangelo William Shakespear Niccolo Machiavelli HUMANISM
  34. 34. Religion • Protestant Reformation King Henry VIII starts the Church of England when the Pope refuses to grant him an annulment. Martin Luther: 95 Theses
  35. 35. Science • Copernicus: Heliocentric view of solar system • Galileo: Telescope • Scientific method
  36. 36. Exploration • Quest to find trade routes, spices! • Vasco da Gama: Sailed to India • Christopher Columbus sailed to the Americas
  37. 37. People of Central and South America • Aztec – Controlled Mexico – Tribute empire: Conquered people must pay – Polytheistic – Human sacrifice – Capital city, Tenochtitlan, built on a lake, protective causeways • Inca – Controlled most of the Andes mountains – Assimilated conquered people – Extensive system of roads and bridges – Polytheistic – Quipu, but no writing – Some human sacrifice
  38. 38. The Encounter • Spanish Conquistadors conquer Aztecs in Mexico and Inca in Andes Mountains – Superior technology (Guns, Germs, and Steel)

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