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The Hub's Metropolis

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Building on 200 Years of Metropolitan …

Building on 200 Years of Metropolitan
Boston's Planning and Development
Jame's O'Connell

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
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  • 1. Building on 200 Years of Metropolitan Boston’s Planning & Development Congress for New Urbanism – New England Summit, 2014 James C. O’Connell
  • 2. Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC) – 101 Cities & Towns
  • 3. Metropolitan Boston Development Layers 1. Town Centers & Proto-Suburbs (1800-1860) 2. Country Estates (1820-1920) 3. Railroad Suburbs (1840-1920) 4. Streetcar Suburbs (1870-1930) 5. Metropolitan Parkway Suburbs (1895-1945) 6. Suburban Mill Towns (1820-Present) 7. Postwar Automobile Suburbs (1945-1970) 8. Interstates, Exurbs, & Sprawl (1970-Present) 9. Urban Redevelopment (1945-Present) 10. Smart Growth Development (1990-Present)
  • 4. Each Era’s Development Patterns Each suburban era has produced a distinctive land use development pattern:  Built landscape  Real estate development patterns  Transportation  Housing  Commercial  Open and public space Two Types of Planning:  Coordinated Infrastructure Planning  Vernacular Development Patterns
  • 5. Traditional Town Centers 1800-1860 Lexington Green
  • 6. Proto-Suburbs 1800 - 1860 John Warner Barber, Brighton Cattle Market, 1839
  • 7. Country Retreats 1820 - 1920 Gardner House, Green Hill, Brookline, 1806
  • 8. Lyman Estate, Waltham, 1793
  • 9. Bellmont, originally in Watertown Built 1840; “Belmont” established 1859
  • 10. Railroad Suburbs 1840 - 1920 Early Boston & Worcester Railroad Seth Davis’s Hotel, West Newton – First Suburban Railroad Station
  • 11. Brigg’s Place/Walnut Park, Newton Corner
  • 12. Newton, as a Railroad Suburb
  • 13. Frederick Law Olmsted, Fisher Hill Subdivision, Brookline,1884
  • 14. Wollaston Park, Quincy, 1890
  • 15. Brookline Annexation Veto, 1874-1880
  • 16. Streetcar Suburbs Horsecar Electric 1856 – 1889 1889-1930 Beacon Street, Brookline, 1915
  • 17. Boston’s Commuting Radius
  • 18. Horsecars, 1856
  • 19. Frederick Law Olmsted, Beacon Street Design, Brookline, 1886
  • 20. Streetcar Suburb Development Three-Deckers, Dorchester Photo: Alex MacLean Apartments, Beacon Street, Brookline
  • 21. Mill Towns 1820 - Present Boarding House, Lowell, ca. 1870
  • 22. Planned Industrial Community - Lowell, 1876 Boarding House, Lowell, ca. 1870
  • 23. Unplanned Industrial Community - Cambridge Ford Model T Plant New England Candy Co.
  • 24. East Cambridge Housing
  • 25. Parkway Suburbs 1893 - 1945 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, ca. 1930
  • 26. Two Influential Planners Frederick Law Olmsted (1822- 1903) Charles Eliot (1859-1897)
  • 27. Emerald Necklace Parks, 1875
  • 28. Metropolitan Park System In 7 years (1893-1900), Metropolitan Park System conserved 91,000 acres of open space, 13 miles of oceanfront, 56 miles of riverbank and built 7 parkways.
  • 29. MDC Parkways Mystic River Parkway, 1897 Fellsway, ca. 1955
  • 30. Typical Dutch Colonial House Arlington, 1920s
  • 31. Zoning Zoning introduced 28 metropolitan Boston communities have zoning 1928
  • 32. Postwar Automobile Suburbs 1945 - 1970 Route 128, New England Industrial Park, Needham, 1952; photo 1959
  • 33. Route 128, “America’s Technology Highway” Hobbs Brook Office Park, Waltham, 1955 Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, 1951
  • 34. Shoppers’ World, 1951
  • 35. Route 1 Highway Strip, Saugus Hilltop Steak House
  • 36. Suburban-Style Houses VFW Parkway, 1951-1953
  • 37. Interstates, Exurbs, & Sprawl 1970 - Present I-495 and Interstate Highway System Development, Westborough, Intersection of I-495 & Mass. Pike
  • 38. I-495 Development Walmart, Central Mass.Housing Subdivision, I-495, 2000s
  • 39. Big Box Stores IKEA, Avon
  • 40. McMansions Walpole, 2000s
  • 41. Boston Redefines the Center City/Invents the Post-Modern City, 1945 - Present
  • 42. Mayor Kevin White & Quincy Market, 1976
  • 43. Seaport/Innovation District
  • 44. Smart Growth/New Urbanism/Transit- Oriented Development 1990 - Present Cronin’s Landing, Moody Street, Waltham
  • 45. Issues of New Urbanism Era Respond to: • Low-Density Sprawl • Need for Suburban Town Center Revitalization • Need for Growth Opportunities in Buildout Communities Infill, Amesbury, MA, ca. 2000
  • 46. Canton – Zoning Reform, 2000 Canton allows residential above retail - mixed-use zoning
  • 47. Station Landing, Medford, 2006
  • 48. MBTA Commuter Railroad System TOD Opportunities
  • 49. Woodland Station, Newton Arborpoint Apartments
  • 50. Lifestyle Center “The Street,” Chestnut Hill
  • 51. Wayland Town Center, 2013
  • 52. Northpoint, Cambridge Started 10 years ago and will take another 10 years; 2,900 units; 200,000 sf retail; 2 million sf lab & office; $2 b.; remake Lechmere Station by 2017
  • 53. Assembly Square, Somerville $1.3 billion; 2,100 units (450 units 2014), 500,000 sf retail (330,000 sf 2014); hotel; cinema; 1.75 million sf office & retail; Cavalia under tall tent; Legoland Discovery Center; Orange Line Station 2014; 6-acre park on Mystic River & bike paths
  • 54. Key Questions for Future Regional Development • MAPC projects Greater Boston needs 305,00 new housing units by 2040 to serve 6% pop. growth & 435,000 units for 13% growth - where will they be located? • Will incrementalism & NIMBYism be obstacles? Metropolitan Area Planning Council, MetroFuture Regional Plan (2008)
  • 55. Austin Street Parking Lot, Newtonville Newtonville Square Development Partners 74,000 sf; RFP for housing (25% affordable), retail, 5 % open space, & replacement & resident parking
  • 56. Austin Street, Newtonville Austin Street PartnersNew Atlantic Development
  • 57. Newton Tab Cartoon, February 3, 2014
  • 58. Creating 21st-Century Communities & Regions Jim O’Connell’s Website www.thehubsmetropolis.com
  • 59. Olympics as Urban Regeneration
  • 60. International Building Exhibition (IBA) Repurposing the Industrial Ruhr, 1999 Emscher Park, RuhrThe Ruhr
  • 61. International Building Exhibition (IBA) Coping with Climate Change in Hamburg, 2013 Goal to create car-free city in 15-20 years & cope with rising sea & river levels.
  • 62. How to Promote New Urbanism • Virtual IBA - Highlight existing model projects • Campaign to reconceptualize suburban town centers • Redevelop highway strips TOD, Abington

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