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MARSEILLE AN ARCHIPELAGO
STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING
RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES:
REVITALIZATION OF A HOUSING GROUP
IN MARSEILLE
Kateryna Ivanenko
École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Marseille/
Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture
Department of Architecture & Civil Engineering
Supervisor: Nadiia Yeksarova, Rémi Marciano
ÉCOLE NATIONALE SUPÉRIEURE
D’ARCHITECTURE DE MARSEILLE
ODESSA STATE ACADEMY OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE & CIVIL
ENGINEERING
KATERYNA IVANENKO
GRADUATION YEAR 2013
SUPERVISOR: NADIIA YEKSAROVA, RÉMI MARCIANO
* This document represents a translation and compilation of
two master thesis documents originally published in Russian
and French.
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS
HOUSING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATION
IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
CASE STUDY: MARSEILLE, FR
LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPELAGO
01
02
03
04
05
4-5
6-13
14-27
28-47
48-59
60--77
78-103
04
ABSTRACT
MASS HOUSING, a hallmark of 50s/60s urbanism, has become a global
phenomenon. Initially intended as a temporary solution, it has permanently
reshaped our perception of collective living. Despite its global prevalence,
its anonymity and disconnection from historical and urban contexts remain
problematic. Consequently, research into the factors, patterns, and drivers of
communal living has become a central thesis topic.
The significance of this research lies in the imperative to preserve, reconstruct,
and modernize residential complexes within established urban districts. These
districts, once dominated by mass housing, play a critical role in shaping our
urban residential environment.
Sustainable urban development faces the challenge of rejuvenating residential
structures from the past century. Over time, these buildings have not only
developed structural defects but also become morally outdated, failing to meet
contemporary housing quality standards.
Given that a significant portion of residential space is concentrated in the multy-
story prefabricated buildings of the first mass housing series, the issue of housing
provision remains pressing. Therefore, finding methods to reconstruct the aging
housing stock to extend its lifespan and align it with current requirements is
particularly relevant.
The rapid construction of these buildings in the 1950s and 1960s aimed to provide
post-war housing swiftly. Residential complexes, complete with comprehensive
social and domestic services, sprouted in every city and district. However, the
urgency to meet housing needs and industrial imperfections led to incomplete
structures. From a holistic perspective, the architecture of early mass housing
lacked expressiveness. Valuable research and theoretical work from that period
often remained unrealized in practice.
05
Fig 2: Stéphane COUTURIER, Paris – La Défense – 2000.
Ilfochrome – 173 x 126 cm – Ed. of 5.
Fig 1: Comparing Greater London to the Banlieue Parisienne
Fig 3: Stéphane COUTURIER, Séoul - triptyque n°2 - 1999-2000.
Ilfochrome 200 x 125 cm (x2) + 200 x 110 cm – Ed. of 5.
Fig 4: The Disappearing Mass Housing of the Soviet Union, AP
Photo/Novosti
06
INTRODUCTION
RENOVATION OF EXISTING RESIDENTIAL STOCK:
A COMPARATIVE EXPLORATION
Marseille, as a historic city, experienced significant growth during the period
of intensified panel construction. Free areas were rapidly developed into mass
housing districts using panel buildings.
The historical context for the emergence of such districts in Marseille was driven
by the urgent need to resettle immigrants arriving since the early 20th century. By
the 1950s and 1960s, these inflows primarily consisted of workers who required
housing.
In Ukraine during the Soviet era, constructing “sleeping districts” near workplaces
(large enterprises, factories, plants) was paramount. However, times have
changed. Communication advancements and labor reorganization have shifted
the purpose of residential districts. Modern society now craves multifunctional
spaces that cater to diverse human needs. Thus, creating housing complexes
aligned with contemporary requirements becomes crucial.
07
Fig 6: Odesa_Grandes Ensembles_Kotovskogo
Fig 5: Quartiers nord, une banlieue dans la ville. cite-campagne-leveque-l-immeuble-central
08
INTRODUCTION
The solution to challenges posed by mass housing lies in increasing housing
density. This approach addresses shortages, attracts private investments, and
optimizes municipal resources. Intensive territorial and spatial development
achieves several objectives:
• Holistic Living Environment: Forming complete systems for residents’
daily life within established territories.
• Socially Favorable and Efficient Residential Spaces: Enhancing overall
living quality.
Contextualenvironmentsmatter.Underestimatingspecificcontextsrisksmonotony
and undermines vibrant, expressive architectural and spatial compositions.
BALANCING URBAN, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC
CONSIDERATIONS
From an economic and sustainability standpoint, renovating existing residential
buildings offers several advantages over demolition and new construction:
1. Infrastructure Constraints: Developing new building sites requires extensive
infrastructure construction (engineering networks, transportation arteries),
often exceeding available budgets.
2. High Load-Bearing Capacity: Older buildings often possess significant load-
bearing capacity reserves. Renovation optimizes limited financial and material
resources.
3. Territorial-Construction Resources:
• Above-Ground Areas: Utilizing rooftops for superstructures and mansard
extensions.
• Potential Territorial Resources: Leveraging open spaces between
residential buildings for inserts and extensions.
4. Improved Living Conditions: Renovation enhances living conditions while
potentially reducing utility costs.
5. Optimized Urban Space: Creating mansard floors within existing social,
transportation, and engineering infrastructure efficiently utilizes urban areas.
6. Enhanced Architectural and Urban Planning Quality: Thoughtful reconstruction
elevates overall urban development.
ADVANTAGES OF RENOVATION AND REVITALIZATION
09
OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE
In the context of Marseille—a strategically positioned coastal city with significant
tourist appeal—preserving its overall character becomes paramount. However,
Marseille faces a pressing challenge: the strain on central districts due to the
homogeneity of residential environments in outlying neighborhoods and the lack
of developed infrastructure. This situation leads to chaotic densification and urban
sprawl, ultimately steering the city in an incorrect development direction.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify structural, planning, and
architectural features, along with applicable renovation techniques for residential
buildings. Our goal is to apply these insights in an experimental design proposal
for the comprehensive reconstruction of a residential group.
The research tasks include:
• Analyze and Investigate Key Factors: Understand the preconditions
influencing the renovation of early mass-series residential groups.
• Study Domestic and International Experience: Explore successful
approaches to renovating and modernizing early mass-series residential
buildings.
• Identify Structural, Planning, and Architectural Characteristics: Uncover
essential elements for renovating early mass-series residential buildings.
• Synthesize Data: Determine optimal renovation approaches for residential
buildings in Marseille based on research findings.
• Develop Practical Proposals: Create a Case Study proposal for social housing
within the context of holistic residential group reconstruction in Marseille.
010
INTRODUCTION
Given the complexity of residential group reconstruction, we must highlight
several areas related to open spaces. These areas encompass architectural,
urban planning, and environmental design principles.
1. Historical Context: Scholars like N.I. Baranovskaya, A.P. Borisov, and
I.I. Borovkov have evaluated the effectiveness of residential building
reconstruction. Their focus lies in developing theoretical foundations for
revamping historical residential areas in large, highly urbanized cities, often
involving phased removal of outdated mass housing.
2. Spatial Organization: While structural and spatial organization within
residential districts and micro-districts has received less attention, studies by
V.A. Manukyan and V.I. Ivanov analyze planning changes using examples
from new cities. However, understanding architectural development in new
settlements—where timeframes are tight—remains insufficiently explored.
Further scientific research in this area is essential.
3. Urban Development Challenges: Reshaping residential neighborhoods
involves various aspects. Researchers have explored historical contexts,
open spaces, and contemporary challenges related to service organization,
land markets, and spatial transformation.
The importance of visual perception in urban design and architecture gained
prominence in the 1980s. Earlier scholars like Ladovsky, Ginzburg, and Krinsky
had already analyzed fundamental volumetric-spatial compositions. As industrial
construction expanded in the 1950s, questions arose about aligning the perceived
architectural environment with human qualities.
1. The Human Factor: Researchers like Simonides, Lynch, and Belyaeva
investigated psychophysiological aspects of perceiving architectural
environments in motion. Shimko explored aesthetic and artistic perceptions
of open urban spaces, while Minervin, Branca, and Nefyodova scrutinized
architectural and environmental qualities.
2. Comprehensive Environmental Approach: Belyaeva’s work examines
aesthetically perceived qualities across various development contexts,
focusing on visual perception. Researchers raise questions about monotony
in perceived architectural spatial environments within residential areas,
considering factors like sparsity, uniformity, and exaggerated spaces.
3. Interdisciplinary Exploration: Perception of our surroundings now spans
multiple disciplines, including philosophy, sociology, psychology, cultural
studies, and biology. Continued research in this field is crucial for sustainable
urban growth and development.
BACKGROUND
VISUAL PERCEPTION AND ARCHITECTURAL
ENVIRONMENTS
Fig 7: L’avenir des villes, Raymond Lopez, 1964
Fig 8: L’avenir des villes, Raymond Lopez, 1964
011
012
INTRODUCTION
OBJECT:
This thesis centers on a residential block in Marseille, comprising Housing group
from the First Mass-production Series.
SUBJECT:
The research investigates the techniques and features associated with the
reconstruction and revitalization of this residential group.
METHODOLOGY:
The study employs a comprehensive examination of structural-planning and
architectural-environmental principles for shaping residential clusters within their
architectural context.
GUIDED BY THE FOLLOWING TASKS:
• Review and analysis of literature sources, scientific studies, and design
developments related to the topic.
• Analysis of project materials and examples of realized reconstructions
in residential buildings from the first mass series to identify reconstruction
methods and approaches.
• On-site inspections of typical residential buildings to assess their current
condition.
• Synthesis of research findings to determine optimal reconstruction methods
for residential buildings from the first mass series in Odessa.
• Proposal of a conceptual design for the comprehensive revitalization of the La
Savine Housing Group in Marseille.
013
DELIMITATIONS:
The study concentrates on residential blocks formed within mass housing
neighborhoods in historically significant cities of Southern Ukraine and Southern
France during the 1950s and 1960s. A case study is conducted in Marseille,
focusing on La Savine housing group.
Holistic Microdistrict Revitalization: The approach involves the comprehensive
reconstruction of microdistricts, addressing both individual dwelling units and the
surrounding territory.
Architectural Transformation: A broad spectrum of architectural modifications,
ranging from interior spaces within apartments to the surrounding residential
zones.
Evidence Based Practices: Leveraging international and domestic experiences,
particularly from the standardized housing series in Odessa and Marseille,
incorporating novel construction techniques and materials.
Increased Residential Building Area: Achieved through strategic reconstruction
measures.
Consideration of Open Spaces: Deliberating existing open spaces within
established residential neighborhoods as pivotal factors shaping the direction of
residential environment reconstruction. These spaces form an integral part of the
architectural and planning framework.
PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
This study contributes to sustainable urban development by addressing
architectural, social, economic and environmental challenges in residential
clusters.
This research sheds light on the complexities of urban spaces and their impact on
our daily lives. It underscores the need for holistic approaches that consider both
practical functionality and aesthetic appeal. By studying visual perception and
architectural environments, we can create more harmonious and livable cities for
everyone.
01
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL
GROUPS IN EARLY
MASS HOUSING SERIES:
PRECONDITIONS
01
016
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI
SOCIO-ECONOMIC PRECONDITIONS FOR
REVITALIZATION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
1. Aging Housing Stock and Wear and Tear
Annually, the aging and deteriorating housing stock, with wear and tear exceeding
50%, continues to expand. In 1995, it amounted to over 37 million square meters,
while by 2001, it reached approximately 50 million square meters, and by 2007, it
exceeded 80 million square meters.
The residential stock of early mass housing series encompasses 71.4 million square
meters, constituting 22.46% of Ukraine’s urban multi-story residential housing.
Given this context, addressing the condition of early mass housing series becomes
imperative.
2. International Experience and Building Reconstruction
Drawing from international experience, systematic reconstruction plays a pivotal role.
Approximately 20-30% of funding is allocated to new construction, while the remaining
portion focuses on reconstruction. This approach not only enhances structural integrity
and reliability but also addresses moral wear and tear.
UNESCO highlights that residential buildings experience moral obsolescence
approximately every 8 years. Thus, reconstruction should prioritize both structural
improvements and comfort levels.
Scandinavian countries (Sweden - 40%, Finland - 51%) and Central Europe (France
- up to 60%, Germany - 30-40%, United Kingdom - up to 60%) allocate significant
resources to reconstruction. Notably, the cost burden often shifts toward residential
properties.
Chronic underfunding for major repairs and reconstruction may render a significant
portion of housing unsuitable for habitation within the next 10-15 years. Urgent
comprehensive reconstruction of early mass production houses is essential.
3. Challenges and Opportunities in Residential Development
The challenge of mass housing extends to the moral and physical wear and tear
of 4- to 5-story residential buildings from the early mass production series. These
structures, constructed during the mid-20th century, demand urgent attention.
017
ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
In constructing microdistricts during the 1950s and 1960s, there were instances of
unsuccessful decisions:
Underestimation of Social and Urban Significance: Microdistricts often lacked creative
spatial compositions, resulting in mechanical and monotonous building placements.
• Limited Experimentation: Small-scale experimental construction hindered testing
novel urban planning approaches.
• Rigid Product Catalogs: Standardized, characterless architectural solutions
prevailed due to limitations in building components.
• However, the physical wear and tear, not exceeding 20%, indicate substantial
structural strength reserves. This allows for adding one or two floors to typical
“five-story” buildings without reinforcing foundations and walls.
4. Enhancing Residential Environments: A Holistic Approach
To address these challenges, comprehensive strategies are essential. Territorial
resources responsible for spatial development must complement other resources to:
• Compensate for territorial deficits arising from intensive development.
• Enhance territorial potential without physical expansion.
• Foster addressable, adaptive, and multifunctional spaces.
• Lay the groundwork for future residential quality.
• Marseille faces similar challenges, necessitating comprehensive programs based
on global reconstruction practices. By studying experiences worldwide, effective
strategies can be developed to revitalize housing stock.
RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF RESIDENTIAL GROUP
HOUSING RECONSTRUCTION
The emergence of new residential structural units, known as residential groups, was
driven by several factors. In the 1920s, a shift away from income-generating houses
and worker barracks led to the construction of residential quarters. Simultaneously,
efforts were made to explore novel elements of social-cultural services and their
integration with housing. These residential complexes and settlements were
meticulously designed to include schools, preschool institutions, shops, and cultural
centers in close proximity to residential areas. Spacious green inner courtyards were
thoughtfully planned, ensuring proper ventilation and exposure to sunlight.
01
018
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI
• Territorial Constraints: In smaller quarters (5-6 hectares) with relatively low
population density (predominantly 4-5-story buildings, housing no more than
3,500-4,000 people), accommodating the full spectrum of cultural and domestic
service facilities (sports, shops, schools, etc.) necessary for residents’ convenience
was unfeasible. Consequently, such facilities were scattered without a coherent
system, serving mixed neighborhoods often separated by major streets.
• Frequent Street Networks: The extensive street network occupied up to 20-25% of
the residential area, which was economically inefficient. Additionally, considering
the complex traffic organization and numerous intersections, this approach posed
challenges.
In the 1940s and early 1950s, further investigations did not lead to significant changes
in the organization of urban development. Instead, they followed a path of even greater
aggregation of city blocks and groups of blocks (ranging from 7-8 to 12-16 hectares),
with differentiation of their territories based on functional purpose. The functional
zoning of these enlarged city blocks involved designating areas for service buildings,
while residential construction continued to be situated along the perimeter. However,
housing construction methods remained traditional, which failed to address the acute
housing problem due to insufficient building volumes.
As the country’s economy and culture evolved, and with advancements in scientific and
technical foundations, the urban planning structure underwent transformation. Starting
from the mid-1930s, residential clusters gradually expanded, covering territories of 5-6
hectares. Within these large quarters, provisions were made for preschool institutions,
shops, and, in some cases, schools. This transformation was driven by a new form
of organizing social-cultural services and improvements in the system of main streets
and traffic flow.
However, during the operation of these quarters, certain drawbacks were identified:
• School Placement: Schools were situated within individual quarters and designed
to serve populations from adjacent neighborhoods. Consequently, children had to
cross streets with heavy urban traffic on their way to school.
• Spatial Constraints: Preschool and school buildings, located within courtyards,
sometimes occupied the entire courtyard area. This hindered compliance with
insulation requirements and simultaneously deprived residents of adjacent houses
of courtyard space.
ANALYSIS OF THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL
GROUP MODERNIZATION
PRE-WAR
TIME
POST-WAR
TIME
INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT
PERIOD
INDUSTRIAL
AND FINANCIAL
STAGNATION
PERIOD
CONTEMPORARY
STAGE
Modernization of
low-rise residential
buildings (1-2
floors), built before
1917
Period Economic-Political
Factor
Type of
Modernization
Restoration of
urban economy
and improvement of
population service
conditions
Development of mass
housing construction
based on industrial
methods of erecting
buildings and
structures
Predominance
of communal
construction
Predominance
of new
construction over
modernization
Lack of funding,
economic stability
against the backdrop
of the collapse of the
USSR
Widespread
modernization and
rehabilitation of the
housing stock of
the 1920s-30s
Fragmentation, locality
of reconstruction.
Absence of
comprehensive
programs
Reconstruction of
the first mass series
houses
Rare cases of
modernization,
solving the housing
problem
019
ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
01
020
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI
MODERNIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: A COMPARATIVE
PERSPECTIVE
By the early 1980s, a sense of moral aging permeated the large-panel residential
housing stock built after World War II in cities across Western Europe. These buildings,
lacking elevators, featuring small apartments, devoid of garages and land plots, and
uniform in appearance, began to lose their social appeal.
To enhance the prestige of this housing stock, various countries initiated projects for its
revitalization. Municipalities, construction firms, and real estate companies collaborated
to develop renewal plans, taking into account the opinions of residents from micro-
districts, residential groups, and individual households.
In the mid-1990s, Western European countries largely completed the rehabilitation
process for four- to five-story large-panel and other residential buildings constructed
from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements. Key municipal departments played a
pivotal role by engaging with the population. Their efforts included:
Surveying the Housing Stock: Analyzing the composition of the housing stock.
Capturing Residents’ Preferences: Identifying residents’ desires regarding the nature
of building upgrades.
Architectural Involvement: Collaborating with architects to design projects and
discussing them with families to finalize options.
Cost Estimation: Calculating the cost of design, major repairs, and funding contributions.
Coordinated Reconstruction: Developing schedules for reconstruction in consultation
with families.
The practice in many countries underscores the wisdom of continuous interaction
with residents during the decision-making process for housing modernization and
reconstruction. Notable examples include:
• United Kingdom (1974): A specialized housing law was enacted, mandating public
participation in the development of reconstruction programs.
• Denmark: A similar law emphasizes residents’ involvement in modernizing their
own apartments.
• France: Reconstruction occurred without displacement, with both residents (50%)
and municipalities (50%) contributing to financing.
• Germany: The reconstruction and modernization of 5-story large-panel residential
buildings in Germany are fully funded by federal budget resources.
• **Scandinavian countries
REVITALISATION OF HOUSING CLUSTERS
CONTRIBUTES TO:
THE DEGREE OF SATISFACTION OF THE NEED
FOR COMFORTABLE HOUSING INFLUENCES
THE FORMATION OF PEOPLE’S LIFESTYLE
ENHANCING THE ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETICS
OF THE CITY THROUGH REDUCTION OF OLD
HOUSING VOLUMES
FORMING A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM OF
LIFE ACTIVITY IN ESTABLISHED TERRITORIES
IN ACCORDANCE WITH MODERN HOUSING
REQUIREMENTS
PROMOTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A
SOCIALLY FAVORABLE AND EFFICIENT
RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT
problematics
INADEQUACY
OF HOUSING TO
MODERN CONSUMER
STANDARDS
PHYSICAL
AND MORAL
DEPRECIATION
PROBLEM OF
PROVIDING
AFFORDABLE
HOUSING TO THE
POPULATION
INCREASING
BUILDING DENSITY
2.5-3 TIMES
COMPARED TO THE
1960S-70S
REDUCED INVESTMENT
ATTRACTIVENESS
OF CITIES DUE TO A
HIGH PERCENTAGE
OF DILAPIDATED AND
EMERGENCY HOUSING
FRAGMENTATION,
LOCALISM OF
MODERNIZATION,
AND LACK OF
COMPREHENSIVE
PROGRAMS
potential
ADVANTAGEOUS URBAN
PLANNING LOCATION
WITHIN THE CITY’S
STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
PRESENCE OF
DEVELOPED ENGINEERING
AND TRANSPORT
INFRASTRUCTURE
EXISTENCE OF
STRUCTURAL STRENGTH
RESERVES
AVAILABILITY OF
TERRITORIAL RESERVES
FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION
HIGH INVESTMENT
ATTRACTIVENESS
EFFICIENT UTILIZATION
OF LIMITED LAND AND
MATERIAL RESOURCES IN
PROVIDING MODERN-LEVEL
HOUSING
IMPROVING LIVING CONDITIONS WITH
REDUCED UTILITY PAYMENTS, ENHANCING
THE CONSUMER QUALITIES OF HOUSING
021
ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
01
022
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI
Currently, one prevalent trend involves integrating new housing construction
processes with the reconstruction of existing residential developments. A
highly effective solution is densification—constructing energy-efficient, multi-
story residential buildings on the sites of reconstructed low-rise houses without
demolition.
This concept combines designing and constructing new, broad-corridor buildings
while upgrading existing early mass-produced houses. The goal is to enhance
their consumer qualities and extend their life cycle to match new buildings.
At the same time, this approach expands residential areas by two or more times
and increases the number of apartments within the reconstructed clusters. It
also develops engineering, transportation, and social infrastructure without
encroaching on new territories.
CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN RESIDENTIAL GROUP
REVITALIZATION
DENSIFICATION IN COMPREHENSIVE RESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION:
Densification in comprehensive residential reconstruction encapsulates:
• Housing Expansion: Augmenting housing within built-up areas.
• Space Optimization: Enhancing use of building footprints.
• Life Cycle Extension: Prolonging lifespan of suitable buildings.
• Modernization: Upgrading existing residential buildings.
• Energy Reduction: Implementing energy-efficient practices.
• Architectural Expression: Enhancing compatibility with the environment.
• Infrastructure Development: Fostering social and engineering infrastructure.
• Energy-Efficient Zones: Establishing dedicated areas.
• Ecological Safety: Mitigating human impacts.
• Economic Efficiency: Achieving cost-effective outcomes.
These collectively contribute to the transformation of residential spaces,
aligning them with modern architectural practices and sustainability standards.
Fig 9: Rehabilitation plans for large complexes. Creation of a new building envelope, insertion of new equipment and activities through a
slight densification of the urban fabric and transformation of distribution internal housing.
DOCUMENTS PRESENTED BY THE TEAM BERNADO SECCHI AND PAOLA VIGANO / STUDIO 08
023
ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
EXAMPLES OF RESIDENTIAL GROUP HOUSE MODERNIZATION
2007, Germany,
Dresden “Prager
Zeile”
500,000 sqft -
1,000,000 sqft
Transformation
Halle (Saale), 2010
Residential units: 125
Gross floor area
(GFA): 7300 m²
Conversion of
apartments: 125
Removal of
apartments: 81
YEAR/ COUNTRY TECHNIQUES OBJECT
Facade renovation
Expansion of balcony
areas
Apartment replanning
Facade renovation
Division of standard
sections into separate
“cottages”
Erection of new
balconies and loggias
Apartment replanning
01
024
REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI
Fig 10: PRAGER ZEILE, Dresden, Germany, KNERER
UND LANG, Residential › Multi Unit Housing
Fig 11: Halle (Saale) Transformation, 2010 125 Residential units
YEAR/ COUNTRY TECHNIQUES OBJECT
Transformation
Leinefelde, 2002
Residential units: 32
Gross floor area (GFA):
2270 m²
Conversion of apartments:
32
Removal of apartments:
16
Lausitz Tower:
A Green High-Rise
for a Shrinking City,
Hoyerswerda, 2007,3,700
sqm
3.8 million €
Creation of additional
green individual spaces
Addition of extra
terraces
Increase in apartment
area by extending onto
existing balconies
Replacement of fasad
covering
Creation of an
additional open floor
(public function)
025
ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
Fig 12: Leinefelde Transformation, 32 Residential
units
Fig 13: Lausitz Tower
02
METHODOLOGY FOR
REVITALIZATION
02
028
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
Amicrodistrictservesasthefundamentalprimaryelementintheurbanplanning
structure. According to scientific research and practical experimentation from
the 50s and 60s, the size and population of a microdistrict were determined
by the following factors:
Creating Optimal Living Conditions: This involves rational capacity planning
for service institutions and ensuring their pedestrian accessibility.
Residential Density: Dependent on building height and length, as well as
natural-climatic conditions.
Facilitating Comprehensive Development: Ensuring the feasibility of
integrated construction.
Hence, considering convenient pedestrian access (within 500 meters) to
schools, childcare facilities, and primary retail outlets (with a travel time not
exceeding 5 minutes), the microdistrict’s population ranged from 6,000 to
12,000 residents. This was based on the normative housing density for 4-5
story buildings. The microdistrict’s area typically varied between 25 and 35
hectares. For higher-rise constructions (9 stories and above), the population
could reach 16,000 to 18,000 individuals.
The entire microdistrict was further subdivided into groups of residential
buildings, each situated within a distance not exceeding 150-200 meters from
essential everyday facilities frequently visited by residents. These facilities
included preschool institutions, community leisure spaces, and specific
establishments for public dining and domestic services (such as communal
kitchens, cafeterias, and workshops for shoe and clothing repairs). The
population size of such residential groups was determined based on the
capacity of childcare institutions and typically ranged from 2,000 to 3,000
individuals (for 4-5 story constructions), with a norm of 9 square meters
of living space per person. The number of groups within a microdistrict
depended on the capacity of schools and other essential amenities. The
principle of integrating everyday service facilities within residential clusters
found expression in the planning and construction approaches of the initial
microdistricts.
FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING GROUPS
029
The architectural landscape of residential buildings during the mid-1950s to
1960s underwent significant transformations. These changes were primarily
influenced by housing developments. A series of decrees issued by the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the Council
of Ministers of the USSR, such as “On the Development of Prefabricated
Reinforced Concrete Structures and Components for Construction” (1954)
and “On the Development of Housing Construction in the USSR” (1957),
along with advancements in new technologies, construction materials, and
mechanization, facilitated the growth of industrial homebuilding. Consequently,
novel architectural concepts emerged for both residential and mass public
buildings, driven by the shift toward industrial construction methods within the
constraints of economic and technological demands.
In this context, the guiding principle was that a building’s volumetric and spatial
composition should align seamlessly with its internal layout and the technology
used for constructing its structural elements. During the initial stages of
industrial homebuilding, architectural and urban planning considerations took a
back seat, yielding to the dominance of machine-based production techniques
for building components.
As a result, the exploration of production technology possibilities, stringent
standardization requirements, and the pursuit of simplicity led to architectural
decisions characterized by:
• Simplified Spatial Solutions: Projects featured rectangular floor plans,
minimal balconies, and simplified wall panel junctions.
• Limited Residential Typology: The variety of residential building types
within series was restricted.
• Compositional Schematism: Buildings exhibited schematic design
solutions.
• Mechanical Repetition: Standard elements and details were mechanically
replicated without aesthetic interpretation.
• Primitivism and Monotony: Overall, mass residential construction lacked
distinctiveness and individuality.
RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE MID-1950S AND
1960S.
02
030
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
From the mid-1950s onward, particularly in cities like Marseille and other
major urban centers, mass construction using prefabricated elements saw the
emergence of a dominant residential type: the five-story apartment building.
This choice was deliberate for several reasons:
Economic Efficiency: The five-story design was considered the most
economical housing type. Notably, it did not require elevators (considering
only initial construction costs).
Prefabrication Technology: The technology for prefabricated reinforced
concrete elements was still evolving, allowing for straightforward planning
and basic structural solutions.
During this period, new norms introduced by the SNiP (Soviet construction
standards) in 1958 facilitated the development of a novel housing type: small,
cost-effective apartments suitable for family living arrangements.
The proposed changes included the following:
1. Reduction of Minimum Residential Area: Decreasing the minimum living
area of apartments, which consequently led to smaller room sizes.
2. Kitchen Area Reduction: Reducing the minimum kitchen area (from 7 to
4.5 square meters).
3. Combined Sanitary Units: Implementing combined sanitary facilities in
apartments with a living area up to 45 square meters.
4. Improved Room Connectivity: Allowing passage from common rooms to
the kitchen and from bedrooms to bathrooms or showers.
5. Lower Ceiling Heights: Lowering the height of residential spaces to 2.5
meters from floor to ceiling.
Standardization and Unification of structural elements became integral
requirements for designing typical residential buildings. Notably, many
factories focused on producing only one or two types of houses.
031
During the late 1950s to mid-1960s, four prevalent structural schemes emerged
for large-panel and large-block buildings:
1. Transverse and Longitudinal Load-Bearing Walls: Used with a small
spacing between load-bearing elements.
2. External Load-Bearing Walls with Internal Framework: Combining external
walls with an internal framework.
3. Internal Framework with Transverse Beams and External Load-Bearing
Walls: Incorporating transverse beams and external load-bearing walls.
4. Transverse Load-Bearing Walls for Large Spans.
The 1-464 series gained widespread popularity, characterized by closely
spaced transverse load-bearing walls, wall panels, and room-by-room floor
slabs. These elements were manufactured with high factory readiness levels
by Giprostrommash, led by N.P. Rozanov. The most economical five-story
section within this series included one-, two-, and three-bedroom apartments.
Structural unification dictated the use of two different spans: 2.6 meters
longitudinally and 5.6 meters transversely within the building.
However, this mechanistic approach to unification led to certain drawbacks,
including the application of a single kitchen type (measuring 5.9 square
meters) and combined sanitary facilities for both small and large apartments.
Additionally, suboptimal proportions in individual rooms and inconvenient
functional layouts affected the three-bedroom apartments.
02
032
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
Other sections, characterized by diverse structural solutions (corresponding
to varying production technologies), exhibited similar drawbacks and little
differentiation from one another. Further exploration of new structural solutions
for industrial-type residential buildings was marked by:
• Element Enlargement: A drive toward larger building components.
• Longer Spans: Application of larger-span constructions.
• Prefabricated Sanitary Units: Use of ready-made sanitary cabins.
• Transfer of Load-Bearing Functions: Shifting load-bearing functions from
external walls to internal structures (or the framework).
• Effective Thermal Insulation Materials: Adoption of efficient materials for
external walls.
• Weight Reduction: Efforts to reduce building weight.
• Increased Factory Readiness: Enhancing the degree of factory readiness.
In the early series of large-panel buildings, the tectonics of load-bearing
and non-load-bearing thermal enclosures were nearly identical. Uniformly,
external walls were divided into single panels, regardless of the building’s
structural scheme. Windows of the same size were often used for both large
and small rooms. However, essential architectural elements such as balconies
and bay windows—which enhance comfort and enrich the building’s volume—
were largely absent. Balconies and entrances were insufficiently developed
in terms of architectural possibilities, detailing, and variation. Due to limited
understanding of industrial surface finishing techniques for external wall panels,
a restricted color palette was applied, and textural treatments for facades were
rarely explored. Notably, residential buildings lacked distinctively emphasized
“main,” “courtyard,” and “side” facades.
033
During the mid-20th century, the rise of prefabricated elements led to the
widespread adoption of five-story residential buildings. These structures
were intentionally designed for economic efficiency (eliminating the need for
elevators) and leveraged evolving prefabrication technology.
However, these early buildings faced limitations:
Uniformity: Regardless of structural variations, external walls were uniformly
divided into panels.
Standardization: Common window sizes were used for all room types, and
features like balconies and bay windows were neglected.
Functional Constraints: Simplified layouts hindered architectural expression.
Surface Treatment: Limited color options and minimal facade detailing resulted
from unfamiliarity with industrial finishing techniques.
Residential Group: The fundamental structural unit, connecting residential
buildings with populations of up to 3,000-4,000 people, alongside primary
service institutions.
Microdistricts link residential groups to a central area, accommodating at least
6,000 residents and hosting everyday service facilities. In smaller towns with
low-rise construction, microdistricts may have populations as small as 2,500-
3,000 people.
ResidentialBloc,inturn,encompass20,000-30,000residents(andoccasionally
up to 80,000) along with their periodic service centers. These districts form the
primary structural elements of urban settlements.
Note 1: Blocs with an incomplete complex of institutions and service enterprises
are typically formed in small towns, settlements, and areas with complex terrain
during the reconstruction of established development.
Note 2: In the case of estate development, the area of blocs with an incomplete
complex of local institutions and service enterprises may be increased.
Note 3: When preschool institutions and schools are located in adjacent blocs,
it is necessary to ensure pedestrian safety across major streets.
02
034
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
RESIDENTIAL
GROUP
RESIDENTIAL
UNIT
RESIDENTIAL
BLOCK
035
Residential Group: The fundamental structural unit, connecting residential
buildings with populations of up to 3,000-4,000 people, alongside primary
service institutions.
Microdistricts link residential groups to a central area, accommodating at least
6,000 residents and hosting everyday service facilities. In smaller towns with
low-rise construction, microdistricts may have populations as small as 2,500-
3,000 people.
Residential Bloc, in turn, encompass 20,000-30,000 residents (and
occasionally up to 80,000) along with their periodic service centers. These
districts form the primary structural elements of urban settlements.
Note 1: Blocs with an incomplete complex of institutions and service enterprises
are typically formed in small towns, settlements, and areas with complex
terrain during the reconstruction of established development.
Note 2: In the case of estate development, the area of blocs with an incomplete
complex of local institutions and service enterprises may be increased.
Note 3: When preschool institutions and schools are located in adjacent blocs,
it is necessary to ensure pedestrian safety across major streets.
Residential District is a structural element within an urban area. Here are the
key features:
Purpose: It serves as a designated area for housing within a settlement.
Size: Typically spans an area of 80 to 400 hectares.
Components:
Residential Quarters: These are individual clusters of housing units.
Institutions and Enterprises: Within the block, you’ll find schools, shops, and
other essential services.
Service Radius: Institutions and enterprises cater to residents within a
1500-meter radius.
Urban Facilities: Strategically placed amenities enhance the quality of life.
TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL GROUPS:
02
036
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
BUILDING LAYOUT
SCHEME
DESCRIPTION
ROW, OR 2 BUILDINGS PARALLEL TO THE
STREET
P-SHAPED BUILDING
COURDON SOLUTION (WITH TWO
COURTYARDS)
T-SHAPED BUILDING
H-SHAPED BUILDING WITH TWO
COURTYARDS
BUILDING WITH A PERIMETER-DEVELOPED
AREA, WITH ONE OR SEVERAL WELL
COURTYARDS
037
hen considering the improvement of the urban environment during the
reconstruction of residential buildings, it is essential to account for urban
planning requirements (environmental factors):
• Adaptation of Residential Buildings: - Purpose: To enhance orderliness
and well-being in the urban environment.
• Protection: Safeguarding residential spaces from adverse urban influences.
Urban Environment Requirements: - These requirements should be
developed as part of projects at various design stages, specifically tailored to
different typological groups within established residential areas. - During the
master planning stage, urban planning requirements stem from the overall
transformation strategy.
Key Aspects of Requirements:
• Preservation and Continued Use of Residential Buildings in Block Groups:
Align with functional zoning within the central district.
• Adjustment of Housing Stock: - Based on projected population and housing
density needs.
• Structural Changes in Block Groups: - Consider the desired demographic
structure for the area.
URBAN PLANNING REQUIREMENTS FOR MODERNIZING
RESIDENTIAL GROUPS
During the development of detailed planning projects (DPP) and site layout
sketches for established planning districts, the following requirements should
be clarified:
• Demolition and Building Use: Normalization of Land Use Intensity:
Achieved through demolishing low-value structures or constructing
additions, extensions, and new buildings (in conjunction with supporting
elements).
• Ordering the Urban Environment: Placement of service institutions,
pedestrian crossings, technical services, and creating open spaces for
relaxation.
• Formation of Urban Nodes and Public Complexes: Adaptation of
residential buildings for institutional use.
• Isolation of Residential Spaces: In detailed planning projects and building
designs, identify groups of residential buildings where measures are
needed to insulate living spaces from adverse urban influences (such as
noise and pollution).
02
038
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
Enhancing Urban Environments during Residential Reconstruction.
When improving residential buildings, it is crucial to consider urban planning
requirements related to environmental factors:
• Adaptation of Residential Buildings:
Purpose: Enhancing orderliness and well-being in the urban environment.
Protection: Safeguarding residential spaces from adverse urban influences.
• Urban Environment Requirements:
These requirements should be developed during various design stages,
specifically tailored to different typological groups within established
residential areas.
During the master planning stage, urban planning requirements derive from
the overall transformation strategy.
• Key Aspects of Requirements:
Preservation and Continued Use of Residential Buildings in Block Groups:
Align with functional zoning within the central district.
Adjustment of Housing Stock:
Based on projected population and housing density needs.
Structural Changes in Block Groups:
Consider the desired demographic structure for the area
CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECT-DEFINED
FACTORS INFLUENCING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
RECONSTRUCTION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
039
These factors relate to the preservation of the
unique character and identity of the city and
district.
Consider protective zones around historical and
cultural monuments.
Address aspects such as:
Insolation: Ensuring adequate sunlight exposure
for buildings.
Noise Levels: Mitigating noise impact on
residents.
Microclimate and Ventilation: Creating
comfortable living conditions within courtyards
and building clusters.
Evaluate the land parcel where the building
stands:
Parcel Shape: Consider irregular shapes and
their impact on design.
Valuable Greenery: Preserve existing valuable
trees and greenery.
Terrain Relief: Adapt construction to the site’s
topography.
Understand the needs of different population
groups within the city:
Family Composition: Consider family sizes and
demographics.
Service Infrastructure: Plan for cultural,
recreational, and service facilities.
Vehicle Storage and Pedestrian Movement:
Organize parking and pedestrian pathways.
ARCHITECTURAL-COMPOSITIONAL
AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL
FACTORS:
SITE-SPECIFIC LAND FEATURES:
SANITARY AND HYGIENIC
FACTORS:
FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANTS
(INCLUDING DEMOGRAPHICS):
01
02
03
04
02
040
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
Effective collaboration during the development of projects for individual
city blocks or groups of blocks undergoing comprehensive reconstruction
is essential. Simultaneously implementing all necessary reconstruction
measures—such as demolishing low-value structures, constructing new
buildings, repairing preserved ones, enhancing engineering infrastructure,
and landscaping—yields optimal results.
The need for one-time reconstruction arises when buildings within one or
neighboring blocks exhibit similar physical wear. Group-based repair methods
become practical. Additionally, when constructing large public facilities amidst
existing development, harmonizing the surroundings with the quality of the
new structure necessitates comprehensive reconstruction of the entire area.
Collaboration among designers is also crucial when planning districts with
complex reconstruction conditions, such as areas with valuable historical and
urban heritage, multifunctional complexes, and public transport hubs.
For extensive project areas (entire cities or established central districts) and
individual building renovations, a form of mutual information exchange during
design work is advisable.
Enhancing the quality of project development could be facilitated by creating
a unified urban planning information repository, accumulating specialized
developments for use in holistic solutions or when updating specific elements
of the urban environment.
JOINT DESIGN
041
Depending on the specifics of transforming the layout structure of individual
city blocks and residential buildings, we can identify four primary typological
groups of territories:
• Group I: Houses, clusters of houses, and residential blocks located within
the urban center.
These areas actively contribute to forming central complexes. Notably,
residential territories within this group are situated in zones with varying
reconstruction strategies, depending on the historical and architectural
significance of the environment. They play a crucial role in the overall
urban planning, integrating into all functional systems—cultural, residential,
transportation, and architectural. Across different cities, these areas may
include historically established low-rise, densely built residential blocks,
individual villas, and Soviet-era mass housing.
• Group II: Encompasses medium-sized residential territories, subdivided
into historically established small-scale blocks.
These areas are in immediate proximity to the city center. Their location is within
pedestrian (up to 500 meters) reach of cultural and district service institutions
in the center. Group II residential territories often has mixed functional zoning,
with various non-residential plots dispersed within residential blocks.
• Group III: Residential territories situated between the development
directions of the city center, within the outer zone of the planning
district, approximately 1000-1500 meters from the area of cultural, district,
and transportation service institutions in the center. In most major cities.
Group III territories are within active reconstruction zone, necessitating
fundamental transformations in functional use and layout structure. These
residential areas can reach significant sizes. Often, the construction within this
group represents a diverse combination of building plots from various historical
periods.
• Group IV: Refers to residential territories located at the outer boundary of
planning districts in cities.
These areas are influenced by neighboring large industrial zones.
CLASSIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS BASED
ON URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTERISTICS
MACRO LEVEL:
A Modernizing the
Residential Districts
within the Global
Program for Urban
Development and
Transformation
MESO LEVEL:
A Comprehensive
modernization
of separate
Residential
Districts
URBAN REGENERATION
LEVELS:
Development of a new Moscow agglomeration. “Bolshaya Moskva,”
Restructuring of the Alnou sous Bois Residential District, France, with 82,000 inhabitants
DRAWINGS ILLUSTTATIONS
01
02
02
042
METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION
Fig 15: Reinvest in the Nationale 2 by recreating north-south links. Build a place of centrality and diversity (activities,
housing, facilities). Recreate connections to the park and the Villepinte RER station. Upgrade existing public
spaces, reinvest in free spaces and create soft services. DOCUMENTS PRESENTED BY THE YVES LION TEAM /
DESCARTES GROUP
Fig 14: Moscow Agglomeration Development Concept. OMA. Reinier De Graaf, 2012
MESO LEVEL:
B Modernization
of Housing blocks
within the district.
MICRO LEVEL:
Modernization
of individual
residential groups
URBAN REGENERATION
LEVELS:
BORDEAUX – ZAC DE LA BERGE DU LAC / ECOQUARTIER GINKO
Quartier du Grand Parc Lacaton Vassal Transformation of 530 dwellings, France
DRAWINGS ILLUSTTATIONS
03
04
043
Fig 16: BORDEAUX – ZAC DE LA BERGE DU LAC
Fig 17: Quartier du Grand Parc Lacaton Vassal Transformation
03
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES
TO MODERNIZATION
03
046
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
PARTIAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE
ATTIC SUPERSTRUCTURE:
The attic superstructure is a resourceful solution to urban reconstruction and
spatial organization. It involves the use of unused flat roofs and vacant attics
of buildings, enhancing the architectural quality of urban buildings.
Key benefits include:
1. Land Efficiency: Attic floors increase building density without requiring new
land, optimizing urban territory use.
2. Additional Space: They provide extra living space in areas with existing
infrastructure.
3. Energy Efficiency: Attic rooms reduce heat loss, ensuring roof durability.
4. The design of the attic floor requires compositional unity with the base
building. Its function depends on the base building’s purpose, and its
planning features relate to its placement in the building structure.
The attic floor can occupy the entire or partial area of the base building, usually
within the projection of the walls below. Architectural solutions are diverse and
unrestricted, with rooms of any area and configuration.
The spatial solution of attic rooms depends on the roof form. They may have
sloping ceilings, horizontal ceilings with sloping walls, or partially sloping
ceilings.
1. There are three main types of attic floors:
2. Single-level attic floor
3. Two-level development
4. Mezzanine floor or second level of the base building’s last floor
These types offer opportunities for typological expansion, such as multi-level
attic floors with a sectional scheme, or one-level attic floors with a mezzanine
in a corridor scheme.
047
SUPERSTRUCTURE WITH BUILDING EXTENSION
Building reconstruction can involve adding volumes to increase its width.
These extensions, either global (entire length) or local (discrete sections), can
include heated rooms, balconies, verandas, and galleries.
Key considerations include:
1. Joint Operation: Ensuring the existing building and extensions work
together. This involves minimizing subsidence differences between
structures, achieved by using pile foundations with a rigid monolithic
grillage.
2. Displacement: Small displacements at the junction of volumes are
accounted for by flexible connections between existing and new walls, with
careful external sealing.
3. Structure: When increasing building width with deep balconies or verandas,
the extension structure typically involves reinforced concrete racks with
vertical wall-piers and horizontal slabs.
SEISMIC REINFORCEMENT AND BUILDING EXTENSION
IN RECONSTRUCTION:
In seismically hazardous areas, wall-piers on both sides of a building,
connected at the attic or roof level, enhance transverse rigidity and seismic
resistance. This is particularly effective for buildings not meeting current
seismic resistance regulations.
The integration of existing buildings with extensions depends on the structural
scheme:
• Large-Panel Houses (1-468 series): Non-bearing exterior walls of cellular
concrete can be dismantled without affecting stability, allowing organic
connection of existing and attached rooms.
• Large-Panel Houses (1-464 series): Dismantling of self-supporting outer
walls is possible only at transverse axes of 2.6 m.
• Frame-Panel Houses (1-335 series) and Three-Wall Houses (1-447C
series): Overlap loads are transferred to exterior walls, which cannot be
removed. Connection occurs through a window opening, transforming
existing exterior wall partitions into pylons, dividing the new room into two
half-spaces. When extending the kitchen, wall-piers divide the room into a
dining area and the kitchen itself.
03
048
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
PRINCIPLES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING REPLANNING:
Replanning activities are guided by the building’s current layout, modern
requirements, and technical and economic efficiency. Replanning can be
partial or complete.
Partial Modification: This is recommended when the existing layout largely
meets modern standards or when apartment sizes necessitate minor
improvements or rearrangements.
Total Modification: This is carried out when the building’s layout and amenities
do not meet modern requirements. The process involves dividing the building
into sections, apartment cells, and functional zones, followed by detailed
room-by-room planning.
Planning Considerations: The choice of planning scheme depends on the
building’s parameters. For instance, in buildings with a wide body and a
large step of staircases, a sectional-pocket scheme is advisable. In contrast,
buildings with a large body width are typically repurposed for non-residential
uses.
Layout Reorganization: When reorganizing a floorplans layout, existing stairs
can be eliminated or used independently, depending on their location. New
staircases can be placed inside the body or in extensions to the rear facade,
depending on the building’s width.
Space Utilization: To maximize space utilization, it is recommended to
arrange built-in wardrobes, dressing rooms, and movable partitions, especially
in buildings with an irregular geometric shape.
Auxiliary Premises: These must be provided according to norms, typically
using spaces unsuitable for apartments on the first, basement, and basement
floors.
Maintenance Considerations: All engineering layouts should be easily
accessible for maintenance and subsequent planned preventive repairs.
Load-Bearing Structures: When replacing these, it is recommended to apply
newly arranged structures with a service life equal to the remaining service life
of the building walls.
049
USE OF THE FIRST FLOORS FOR PUBLIC FUNCTIONS
The first floors of buildings are seen resources for development, shaping
an environment of opportunities. This approach aligns with modern urban
planning methodologies, focusing on “ensuring future potential” rather than
“building a planned future”.
In the context of five-story building reconstruction, the use of first floors is
assessed at the pre-project stage using quantitative methods. This ensures
objective and comprehensive decisions, providing a solid basis for planning
the spatial development of buildings and “ensuring future potential”.
• Type A: Modernization of existing buildings.
• Type B: Superstructure, mansard.
• Type C: Insertion, extension.
• Type D: Combination of Types A, B, and C.
• Type E Combination of Types A, B, and C with the organization of an exploitable
flat roof above the courtyard area at the level of the second floor.
Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E
Existing Building
New Additions Using the Resources of the Building and the Territory
03
050
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
HOLISTIC APPROACH TO MODERNIZATION
Sag - area of coverage of the
base building (above-ground
area)
Sptr1 - area at ground level
(potential territorial resource)
Sptr3 - area of the first floors
of the base building (potential
territorial resource)
Sptr2 - courtyard areaat ground
level (potential territorial resource)
insert building
attic, superstructure
existing base
existing base first floor
051
TOTAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE
PRESERVATION OF THE EXTERNAL LOAD-BEARING FRAME
URBAN DENSIFICATION - DESIGN OF INFILL BUILDINGS
• Structural reinforcement
with an additional
internal framework;
• Construction of
additional floors;
• Creation of a usable
terraced roof.
• Integration of additional
volume (urban
densification);
• Construction of a three-
level mansard;
• Establishment of
open relaxation zones
on each level of the
mansard.
Fig 18: Reconstruction of former police station to apartment building, Riga Latvia by NRJA
Fig 19: Hacin + Associates - Fort Point Loft Condominiums in Boston, Massachusetts
03
052
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
PARTIAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE
LAYOUT MODIFICATION
ATTIC SUPERSTRUCTURES:
USE OF THE FIRST FLOORS FOR PUBLIC FUNCTIONS
• Addition of extra
balconies and winter
gardens;
• Relocation of
utilities;
• Expansion of
space through the
construction of a
self-supporting metal
structure.
• Integration of
additional volumes
into the attic space.
• Expanding the functional
range through the
utilization of the ground
floors;
• Incorporating public
functions into the
building structure
(across various floors);
• Utilizable rooftops as
public spaces.
Fig 20: Lacaton et Vassal, Transformation of a residential building, Saint-Nazaire, La Chesnaie
Fig 21: DANIEL FUGENSCHUH: house in a house
Fig 22:
053
GSPublisherVersion 0.84.100.100
2022-06-0
Мікрорайон комерція
При нарощуванні жил
Простори в розривах/ проходах
між будівлями - пішохідні
громадські «островки»:
дитячі майданчики
oзеленення
настільні ігри, тощо
Додавання пішохідних
галерей на першому п
Create public “islands” in
gaps/passageways between
buildings:
Children’s playgrounds
Green spaces
Board games, etc
Adding pedestria
the ground floor.
SYNTHESIS OF APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
STREET LEVEL
When expanding resid
03
054
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
06
KI
Обладнання перших поверхів під громадські функції
Сервіси:
поліклініка
відділення бібліотеки
дитсадок, тощо
Комерція:
кафе
перукарня
супермаркет
аптека, тощо
Відділення окремої зони
міських меблів, окремо від літніх
майданчиків кафе - можливість
відпочинку безкоштовно
Розташування зупинок
громадського транспорту
поблизу до активних/
комерційних перших поверхів
площі самонесучими конструкціями
Звуження проїжджої частини в місцях
перетинання з комерцією, наприклад
зупинка з анті-кишенею
Тяжіє більше до комерційної
складової
Тяжіє більше до міських сервісів
х
поверсі
an galleries on
.
Use of Ground Floors for Public Functions
dential areas with self-bearing structures:
Separate Zone for Urban Furniture,
Distinct from Café Terraces –
Opportunity for Free Relaxation
Location of public transport stops
near active/commercial ground
floors.
Implementation of narrower
roadways at intersections with
commercial areas, such as bus
stops with anti-pockets.
Gravitates toward the
commercial component
Gravitates more toward urban
services
Commercial:
Café
Hair salon
Supermarket
Pharmacy, etc
Services:
Clinic
Library branch
Kindergarten, etc
055
2022-06-0
Підцентр районного значення
Підцентр рай
значення
P
Можливе винесення сервісів в
окремі будівлі (1-2 поверхові)
Криті паркінги
• обирати прозорі матеріали
• зменшити кількість бетонних елементів
• уникати створення ліфтів і сходів, які відчуваються замкнутими
• наявність декількох входів і виходів
• не розміщуйте стоянку в заблокованих або безлюдних місцях
• забезпечити гарне освітлення
• розділити простір і регулювати доступ
• створити можливості для візуального спостереження
• мати чіткі вказівники, щоб людям було легше орієнтуватися.•
розміщення біля в'їздів на територію
Станції сортування сміття
Дитячі ігрові
майданчики
Прийоми роботи з першими
поверхами= схема вулиця
Covered Parkings:
Choose transparent materials.
Minimize concrete elements.
Avoid creating enclosed elevators and staircases.
Provide multiple entrances and exits.
Avoid placing parking in blocked or deserted areas.
Ensure proper lighting.
Divide the space and regulate access.
Facilitate visual surveillance.
Use clear signage for orientation.
Position them near entrances to the premises.
Waste sorting stations
Possible Relocation of Serv
Separate Buildings (1-2 F
For strategies for ground floors,
see street layout
Playgrounds
Subcenter of D
Significance
SYNTHESIS OF APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
HOUSING BLOCK LEVEL
03
056
FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
08
KI
йонного
Рекомендаціі щодо безпечного середовища при
проєктуванні зупинок громадського транспорту
• хороша оглядовість, відсутність недоступних кутів
• примикання до будівель
• знаходження поблизу важливих напрямків
• наявність хорошої доступності
• відсутність кущів, що приховують
• наявність освітлення, яке забезпечує хорошу видимість
для тих, хто стоїть і чекає
Відкриті авто та стоянки:
• безпечний доступ від стоянки до будинків
• розміщення біля в'їздів на територію
Квартал
P
Місця спільного користування
жителів кварталу
- спільні городи,
- місця для грилю,
- лавки,
- живоплоти, тощо
Інклюзивність та доступність всіх
просторів та будівель
vices to
Floors)
District
Recommendations for a Safe Environment in the
Design of Public Transport:
• Ensure good visibility and eliminate blind spots.
• Integrate with nearby buildings.
• Locate near important routes.
• Provide good accessibility.
• Avoid obstructive vegetation.
• Install adequate lighting for visibility of waiting
passengers.
Residential Block
Communal spaces for residents:
Shared gardens
Grilling areas
Benches
Hedges, etc
Inclusivity and accessibility across all
spaces and buildings.
Open Car Areas and Parking Lots:
Ensure safe access from parking areas to
buildings.
Position them near entrances to the premises.
057
04
ANALYZING REGIONAL
CHARACTERISTICS IN REVITALIZATION
IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
04
060
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
The primary issue uniting social housing and peripheral “sleeping districts”
worldwide is their absolute anonymity. Regardless of their location, these
districts always exist outside the historical and urban context. Consequently,
residents are destabilized, as the homogeneous urban environment, devoid
of distinctive features, negatively impacts the overall quality of life.
Historically, the emergence of Northern Districts or suburban settlements
(First Mass Series Settelments) is noteworthy. While Marseille does not
have suburbs consisting solely of “sleeping districts,” it does have the
so-called “Northern Districts” within the city limits. As a coastal, port city,
Marseille has a dense urban structure at its heart, where people of various
origins and occupations intermingle. This demographic heterogeneity has
generated a unique urban culture, more resilient than in continental cities.
However, this fact also gives rise to another problem. The immigrants
gradually arriving in Marseille are primarily workers and sailors, who
are progressively resettled in specially created worker settlements.
These settlements become distinctive “worker ghettos” with a high level
of criminality. As a result, Marseille is one of the French cities with the
most significant income disparity. The high-income level exceeds the low-
income level by 15 times, creating a situation where different city quarters
significantly vary.
During the industrialization surge Marseille experienced a significant influx
of workers. These individuals were initially expected to integrate into various
neighborhoods, thereby immersing themselves in the city’s social and urban
fabric. However, they predominantly settled in peripheral areas. This spatial
shift of the working population, often referred to as ‘deportation’, was a
prominent outcome of post-war urban redevelopment. This phenomenon
significantly influenced the city’s architectural and social landscape.
URBAN ANONYMITY AND THE EVOLUTION OF
NORTHERN DISTRICTS
THE WORKERS’ AND IMMIGRATION MOVEMENT
061
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
Data from:MIGRANTS AND CITIES. Mobility and Integration. Mireille Meyer. Institute for Research and
Studies on Arab and Muslim Worlds. Aix-en-Provence, 1988
04
062
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
The beginning of the 19th century
marked the start of migration to the
“Northern Quarters,” which were primarily
characterized by country houses and
large estates.
With the changing demographic
structure of the incoming population,
the urban structure of the quarters also
transformed. By the end of the 19th
century, railway paths were constructed
to connect the remote outskirts of the city
with the main nearby populated areas as
well as the “old city.”
1820: COUNTRY HOUSES AND
LARGE ESTATES
1890: RAILWAY PATHS AND RURAL
CORES
063
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population
Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
In the post-war period, the functional
orientation of the “Northern Quarters”
changed significantly. These areas
became increasingly populated by
workers and immigrants, and the
presence of military barracks further
deteriorated the social level of these
districts.
Gradually, the worker settlements
transformed into social housing
settlements, which increased the
diversity of the demographic composition
of the population. However, this did not
alleviate the social tension in these
quarters.
1949: SLUMS, MILITARY BARRACKS,
AND WORKER SETTLEMENTS
1970: HIGHWAYS AND SOCIAL
HOUSING
04
064
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
065
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population
Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
Despite the massive development of
infrastructure in the 1980s, the “Northern
Quarters” remained isolated from the
rest of the city, continuing to be an
unattractive place to live.
1980: HIGHWAY AND LARGE TRADE
NODES
04
066
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
067
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population
Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
04
068
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
The focus of our project lies in the northern part of the city—a region
characterized by the concentration of collective housing. But why are these
Northern Districts situated outside the urban context? To understand this, we
must examine their location on the city’s periphery, where urbanization has
occurred through the juxtaposition of monofunctional zones. These zones,
unfortunately, remain isolated from one another, connected only externally by
highway bypasses.
However, this rigid division and fragmentation of space stand in stark contrast
to the fundamental essence of urban life: the ability of a place to accommodate
diverse activities and people. The prevalence of Mass Housing in this context
clashes with the historical continuity embedded within urban spaces. As Alèssi
Dell’Umbria eloquently states in his work “The Contemporary Landscape of the
City of Marseille,” these districts deny the very essence of urban phenomena.
In the late 1970s, a giant graffiti inscription adorned a housing building in
these Northern Districts, succinctly capturing their isolation: “Here, far from
the world.”
METROPOLITAN SCALE AND ISOLATED HOUSING
GROUPS
The Archipelago theory, chosen to illustrate the simultaneous isolation and
potential for connection, defines an archipelago as a closely-knit collection of
islands. Each island, while autonomous, forms part of a robust chain where
each element reinforces the other.
The Northern Districts of Marseille exemplify this concept, where:
• Each ‘island’ represents an administrative district. The northern part
comprises three districts, encompassing 33 isolated quarters.
• City formation shares common features: geological fragmentation due to
mountains.
• Four levels of isolation exist: mountains, hills, plains, and sea.
This metaphorical archipelago underscores the interplay between autonomy
and interdependence in the urban landscape of Marseille.
MARSEILLE: AN ARCHITECTURAL ARCHIPELAGO
069
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
04
070
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
In my analysis, I identified various isolating and severing factors that hinder
Marseille’s transformation into an archipelago. The goal is to comprehend
these factors and subsequently convert them into potential connections.
The primary factors include:
• Industrial Port of Marseille: This port obstructs sea access, creating a
physical barrier.
• Transport Infrastructure: Highways and railways traverse the territories,
yet they fail to establish connections between most specific points.
• Geographical Isolation: The Northern part is isolated due to its unique
topography, where towering hills and lowlands segregate one housing
group from another.
• Neglected Green Spaces: Derelict green natural massifs contribute to the
creation of alienation zones.
DISSECTING FACTORS: HYPOTHESES FOR A
CONNECTED MARSEILLE ARCHIPELAGO
urbanised nature fringes nature as an isolation factor
nature present but forsaken
sea present but inaccessible
crossed but not connected
port as an isolation factor big isolations by landscape
small isolations by landscape
transport as an isolation factor
071
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
04
072
ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
In my analysis, I identified various isolating and
severing factors that hinder Marseille’s transformation
into an archipelago. The goal is to comprehend these
factors and subsequently convert them into potential
connections.
The primary factors include:
• Industrial Port of Marseille: This port obstructs sea
access, creating a physical barrier.
• Transport Infrastructure: Highways and railways
traverse the territories, yet they fail to establish
connections between most specific points.
• Geographical Isolation: The Northern part is isolated
due to its unique topography, where towering hills
and lowlands segregate one housing group from
another.
• Neglected Green Spaces: Derelict green natural
massifs contribute to the creation of alienation
zones.
MARSEILLE: A CONNECTED
ARCHIPELAGO HYPOTHESES AND
CONNECTIONS
073
ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
05
CASE STUDY. HOUSING
REVITALISATION PROJECT IN
MARSEILLE, FR
LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPELAGO
05
076
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
Second stage of Metropolitan Development of Northern districts
of Marseilles. Masters degree project. Marseilles France.
OBJECTIVES:
Renovation of social housing in northern Marseilles using the
conception of Urban Archipelago.
CONTEXT: The project site is situated within the Savine Housing
Group in the 16th district of Marseilles, the most remote and
secluded district in the city. The site, perched atop a steep hill,
is isolated by neglected and abandoned green spaces, which
serve as impediments to pedestrian movement.
While the majority of the Stribick program is located in various
sectors of the Z.U.P. No. 1, La Savine is situated on the outskirts
of the city on a shoulder of the Mure massif, bypassed by the
Marseille canal, which further reinforces the impression of the
operation’s remoteness. Despite the massive effect of site
acquisition, the buildings have ten floors, and the master plan,
organized in hexagonal cells around the 13 floors of a K tower,
establishes the idea of a closed and secluded city. The only
concession to the surrounding geography is the small Savine,
which clings to the hillside along the path of the Tuves valley.
(Ensembles & Résidences à Marseille 1955-1975 Notices
monographiques)
SECOND STAGE OF THE CONCEPTUAL
ARCHIPELAGO PROJECT
077
LAGO
05
078
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
La Savine is located in the Notre Damme de Limite neighborhood.
In this neighborhood, the question of housing typology reveals
the essence of the place. Because a great diversity of housing
typology is present. Large complexes are surrounded by
individual houses.
From the 1960s, urban sprawl in the form of individual housing
continues without being very important, and large complexes
appear in this sector with the construction of condominiums
and HLM estates. But also, the suburbanization continues with
increased dynamism since 2004. 13.5 hectares of land have
been urbanized for the realization of 156 villas and 88 collective
dwellings.
In terms of facilities, their presence is insufficient, which is too
small for such a large number of dwellings.
The absence of a strong centrality in this neighborhood. The
existence of a neighborhood-scale centrality is to be sought on
the side of Saint-Antoine or further away at Saint-Louis.
In parallel, the territory consists of physically enclosed real estate
complexes. This situation is also reflected in socio-economic
terms: the large complexes built in the 60s/70s represent
more than 3,500 dwellings (56% of the main residences of the
operational sector.
(Agam / GIP : Politique de la Ville - Observatoire des Quartiers -
Mai 2009)
HOUSING TYPOLOGY
HLM de plus de 100 loge-
ments
copropriétés de plus de
100 logements
copropriétés de plus de
100 logements
pavillionnaire
école
079
LAGO
05
080
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
The district, predominantly in the north, is situated at considerable
distances from key amenities: 5 km from Grand Littoral, 3 km
from Vallon des Pins and Elsa Triolet colleges, 6 km from Saint
Exupéry high school, and 12 km from the city center.
The RN 8, a significant North/South axis, connects to the city
center, while the A7 highway extends to the municipality’s
periphery.However,thepublictransportserviceoutsidethedistrict
is hindered by the complex road network. The neighborhood’s
remoteness and inadequate transport infrastructure pose
challenges.
The embankments of this infrastructure act as a physical
barrier, severing the Notre-Dame-Limite valley from Saint-
Antoine. Communication restoration is facilitated by occasional
overpasses (bridges) and underpasses (beneath the highway).
Furthermore, the introduction of ihighway interchanges between
the A7 and the RN8 at Saint-Antoine has complicated highway
crossing due to converging traffic flows at this junction.
Lastly, the construction of the Bosphore and Dramard boulevards
has isolated Notre-Dame-Limite from Saint-Antoine. These
boulevards provide an alternative to the RN8, but lead to the
intersection of the Borels/Vallon des Tuves/chemin de Saint-
Antoine à Saint-Joseph.
Public transport access is limited to a single bus route that
traverses the road at one point, typically looping around individual
residences. The travel conditions are challenging due to a poorly
integrated road network with the RN8’s structuring axis and a
public transport service plagued by numerous dysfunctions.
(Agam / GIP : Politique de la Ville - Observatoire des Quartiers -
Mai 2009)
CONNECTIONS
081
LAGO
05
082
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
The original demolition and rehabilitation program has been
altered due to the discovery of asbestos, leading to the decision
to demolish the affected buildings.
The urban study is set to conclude in early 2012, but three
scenarios are already emerging:
The first scenario, costing €50 million, involves preserving 347
housing units for asbestos removal and demolishing 584 others.
The second scenario, with a budget of €100 million, plans for the
asbestos removal from buildings in Petite Savine only, and the
demolition of 806 housing units.
The final scenario envisages the complete demolition of Savine:
930 housing units destroyed, no rehabilitation, and a bill of €150
million. This last scenario is the one that is anticipated, according
to Samia Ghali.
These scenarios reflect the complex architectural and financial
considerations involved in urban redevelopment projects.
http://www.lamarseillaise.fr/societe-quartiers/l-avenir-de-la-cite-passe-
par-la-case-demolition-23191
Instead of 930 housing units, there will be 350 social housing
units. Today, all the towers are slated for demolition. They should
be replaced by 350 social housing units, distributed between the
upper and lower parts of the hill, with some buildings dedicated
to affordable homeownership and others available for market
rent.” 12
This plan aims to transform the existing housing landscape,
prioritizing social housing and creating a mix of ownership and
rental options for residents.
LA SAVIDE DEMOLITION PROGRAMM
35 immeubles
1391 logements
29 immeubles 24 immeubles 19 immeubles
1973 1993 2003 2012
50 MILLIONS D’EUROS
logements démolis
DÉSTRUCTION DE 584 LOGEMENTS
logements conservés
63%
100 MILLIONS D’EUROS
logements démolis
DÉSTRUCTION DE 806 LOGEMENTS
logements conservés
87%
150 MILLIONS D’EUROS
logements démolis
DÉSTRUCTION DE 931 LOGEMENTS
100%
083
LAGO
05
084
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
LA SAVIDE, CURRENT SITUATION
01
05
06
02
03
04
01
085
LAGO
02
05 06
03 04
05
086
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
ISOLATED ISLAND -
CONNECTED ARCHIPELAGO
PROPOSAL
In accordance with the concept of an archipelago, where each
island represents an autonomous unit interlinked with others,
forming an unbreakable and robust chain, wherein each element
reinforces the other. Alberto Magnaghi, in his work “Le projet local,”
describes this as a plurality of centralities and urban identities that
allow for the decomposition and recomposition of the metropolis
into a complex system of cities (villages or neighborhoods)
Contrary to the desire to unify the architectural environment and
enhance its versatility, I do not perceive my island as a standalone
entity with a variety of functions. Instead, I view it as an equivalent
element within the archipelago chain, creating a powerful and
distinctly marked singular entity.
RE-ACTIVATING THE NORTHERN TRAIN STATION.
CABLE CAR FROM LA SAVINE
As part of the Northern Train Station (Gare Du Nord) project and
public transportation initiative, I propose the establishment of a
cable car system:
• Direct Urban Linkage: The cable car would directly connect
the city center to Gare du Nord, enhancing accessibility and
connectivity.
• Dual Purpose: The proposed cable car would serve a dual
function:
• Touristic Gateway: It would serve as a starting point for visitors
exploring the nearby mountains, offering scenic views and an
immersive experience.
• Daily Commute: Simultaneously, it would function as a practical
means of daily transportation for residents.
This solution aligns with the vision of an integrated urban fabric,
seamlessly bridging urban and natural landscapes while enhancing
mobility and convenience.
LA GARE DU NORD LA SAVINE
087
LAGO
0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 2
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05
088
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
FOUR KEY ASPECTS OF THE PROJECT
WITHIN THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE
GREEN ARCHIPELAGO
PROPOSAL
1. Revitalisation on the Masterplan level:
• Adaption to contemporary recuirements and improving
of the Housing Group spatial layout organization.
• Focusing on optimizing land use, circulation patterns,
and public spaces.
2. Existing Housing Rehabilitation:
• Revitalizing and upgrading the existing housing stock.
• Prioritizing adaptive reuse, sustainable materials, and
energy-efficient design.
3. Densification by Intermediate Housing Creation:
• Introducing a new layer of housing typology.
• Addressing the gap between social housing and real
estate housing.
• Providing affordable options for diverse income groups.
4. Creation of Abandoned Nature Observatory:
• Establishing a facility to study and appreciate neglected
natural areas.
• Promoting ecological awareness and biodiversity
conservation.
• Creation of the cable-way network, which would open up
the district to the visitors.
0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000
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10 meters
Vehicle traffic only outside of
Housing group
Cable car network, connecting
living cluster with the North
Railway Station and other
Housing Groups
Reconstruction/ functional
diversity shops on the ground
floor
Pedestrian Quarter. Circulation
of vehicles is forbidden on the
inner territory
Reception buildings of the
Observatory
Observatory Bridge
Parking
Densification/ intermediate
multistory housing
Final stop of cable cars on the
rooftop of the parking
An observatory of derelict
nature in relation with regional
universities
089
LAGO
0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000
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05
090
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
01 REVITALISATION ON THE MASTERPLAN
LEVEL
CREATING A PEDESTRIAN-ONLY URBAN FABRIC
One of the most significant challenges in La Savine is
spontaneous vehicle parking. To address this issue, I
propose a radical transformation: converting the entire
Housing Group into a pedestrian-only zone.
To adress and compensate the parking need, a parking
garage is created on trhe outer part of the Housing block.
The original logic of the city, which once mirrored natural
patterns, has been disrupted by the demolition of certain
towers. In our quest to reconnect with nature and urbanism,
I advocate for unearthing lost traces—reclaiming forgotten
elements that once defined the cityscape.
This endeavor seeks to harmonize the urban fabric, restore
ecological balance, and foster a renewed sense of place
within the evolving metropolis.
PROPOSAL
0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000
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10 meters
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LAGO
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T3
T1
T1
T1
05
092
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION:
01
EXISTING EXISTING
REVITALISED REVITALISED
02 03
Within the existing building structure, there are four apartments with a central
staircase. While maintaining the same number of housing units, I am reworking the
housing structure to enhance comfort. Additionally, I propose creating additional
glased winter g rdens and expanding the existing balconies.
By introducing bearing structure for balconies and winter gardens, I aim to seamlessly
integrate nature into the urban environment.
Three distinct module types are proposed:
1. Intermediate Module
2. Corner Module
3. Intermediate Module with Shared Public Space Access
PROPOSAL
000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000
093
LAGO
03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
In alignment with revitalization strategies outlined in the theoretical framework,
I propose enhancing the Housing Group by introducing intermediate-scale
housing. This approach aims to optimize site utilization and foster social diversity,
bridging the gap between social housing and real estate developments.
For the proposed housing location, I’ve selected the site of a recently demolished
tower. By repurposing this space, we create a plot ready for construction without
disturbing additional green areas. This optimization maximizes its potential and
contributes to the overall urban fabric.
THE ROLE OF INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
The intermediate housing I recommend represents the pinnacle of our
comprehensive design vision. It achieves cohesion through two pivotal factors:
1. Location: Situated adjacent to the bridge leading to the abandoned nature
observatory, our chosen site seamlessly integrates with the natural
environment. This reinforces our commitment to harmonious coexistence.
2. Functionality: Strategically positioned near the cable car stop, the
intermediate housing ensures accessibility and connectivity. This deliberate
placement emphasizes the symbiosis between urban living and the
surrounding landscape.
GROUND FLOOR
TYPICAL FLOOR
10 meters
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0
580
0
173
00
19,045
1800
5800
3500
4000
1800
1800
58
00
58
00
58
00
58
00
58
00
58
00
35
00
0
180
0
580
0
350
0
400
0
180
0
180
0
19,
045
19500
1900
5800
5800
5800
195
00
580
0
580
0
580
0
190
0
A2
0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
14000
15000
16000
17000
18000
19000
20000
2000
05
094
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
The ground floors of residential
buildings are freed from residential
function, and commercial spaces
and public areas are created there.
This approach introduces functional
diversity, allowing the integration of
all project components.
02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION:
13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000
095
LAGO
03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
05
096
CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL
02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION:
097
LAGO
03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
Cable car network, connecting
living cluster with the North
Railway Station and other
Housing Groups
Reconstruction/ selfberaring
structure creating new
balconies and winter
gardens
Vehicle and transport
traffic
098
Reconstruction/ functional
diversity -common spaces
on different levels
Reconstruction/ functional
diversity - shops on the
ground floor
An observatory of derelict
nature in relation with
regional universities
Reception
buildings of the
Observatory
Densification/
intermediate
multistory housing
Observatory
Bridge
Final stop of
cable cars on the
rooftop of the
parking
Parking
Garage
Vehicle traffic only outside
of Housing group +
technical and emergency
trafic
099

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MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communities: Revitalization of a Housing Group in Marseille

  • 1. MARSEILLE AN ARCHIPELAGO STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES: REVITALIZATION OF A HOUSING GROUP IN MARSEILLE Kateryna Ivanenko École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Marseille/ Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture Department of Architecture & Civil Engineering Supervisor: Nadiia Yeksarova, Rémi Marciano
  • 2. ÉCOLE NATIONALE SUPÉRIEURE D’ARCHITECTURE DE MARSEILLE ODESSA STATE ACADEMY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE & CIVIL ENGINEERING KATERYNA IVANENKO GRADUATION YEAR 2013 SUPERVISOR: NADIIA YEKSAROVA, RÉMI MARCIANO * This document represents a translation and compilation of two master thesis documents originally published in Russian and French.
  • 3. CONTENTS ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATION IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS CASE STUDY: MARSEILLE, FR LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPELAGO 01 02 03 04 05 4-5 6-13 14-27 28-47 48-59 60--77 78-103
  • 4. 04 ABSTRACT MASS HOUSING, a hallmark of 50s/60s urbanism, has become a global phenomenon. Initially intended as a temporary solution, it has permanently reshaped our perception of collective living. Despite its global prevalence, its anonymity and disconnection from historical and urban contexts remain problematic. Consequently, research into the factors, patterns, and drivers of communal living has become a central thesis topic. The significance of this research lies in the imperative to preserve, reconstruct, and modernize residential complexes within established urban districts. These districts, once dominated by mass housing, play a critical role in shaping our urban residential environment. Sustainable urban development faces the challenge of rejuvenating residential structures from the past century. Over time, these buildings have not only developed structural defects but also become morally outdated, failing to meet contemporary housing quality standards. Given that a significant portion of residential space is concentrated in the multy- story prefabricated buildings of the first mass housing series, the issue of housing provision remains pressing. Therefore, finding methods to reconstruct the aging housing stock to extend its lifespan and align it with current requirements is particularly relevant. The rapid construction of these buildings in the 1950s and 1960s aimed to provide post-war housing swiftly. Residential complexes, complete with comprehensive social and domestic services, sprouted in every city and district. However, the urgency to meet housing needs and industrial imperfections led to incomplete structures. From a holistic perspective, the architecture of early mass housing lacked expressiveness. Valuable research and theoretical work from that period often remained unrealized in practice.
  • 5. 05 Fig 2: Stéphane COUTURIER, Paris – La Défense – 2000. Ilfochrome – 173 x 126 cm – Ed. of 5. Fig 1: Comparing Greater London to the Banlieue Parisienne Fig 3: Stéphane COUTURIER, Séoul - triptyque n°2 - 1999-2000. Ilfochrome 200 x 125 cm (x2) + 200 x 110 cm – Ed. of 5. Fig 4: The Disappearing Mass Housing of the Soviet Union, AP Photo/Novosti
  • 6. 06 INTRODUCTION RENOVATION OF EXISTING RESIDENTIAL STOCK: A COMPARATIVE EXPLORATION Marseille, as a historic city, experienced significant growth during the period of intensified panel construction. Free areas were rapidly developed into mass housing districts using panel buildings. The historical context for the emergence of such districts in Marseille was driven by the urgent need to resettle immigrants arriving since the early 20th century. By the 1950s and 1960s, these inflows primarily consisted of workers who required housing. In Ukraine during the Soviet era, constructing “sleeping districts” near workplaces (large enterprises, factories, plants) was paramount. However, times have changed. Communication advancements and labor reorganization have shifted the purpose of residential districts. Modern society now craves multifunctional spaces that cater to diverse human needs. Thus, creating housing complexes aligned with contemporary requirements becomes crucial.
  • 7. 07 Fig 6: Odesa_Grandes Ensembles_Kotovskogo Fig 5: Quartiers nord, une banlieue dans la ville. cite-campagne-leveque-l-immeuble-central
  • 8. 08 INTRODUCTION The solution to challenges posed by mass housing lies in increasing housing density. This approach addresses shortages, attracts private investments, and optimizes municipal resources. Intensive territorial and spatial development achieves several objectives: • Holistic Living Environment: Forming complete systems for residents’ daily life within established territories. • Socially Favorable and Efficient Residential Spaces: Enhancing overall living quality. Contextualenvironmentsmatter.Underestimatingspecificcontextsrisksmonotony and undermines vibrant, expressive architectural and spatial compositions. BALANCING URBAN, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS From an economic and sustainability standpoint, renovating existing residential buildings offers several advantages over demolition and new construction: 1. Infrastructure Constraints: Developing new building sites requires extensive infrastructure construction (engineering networks, transportation arteries), often exceeding available budgets. 2. High Load-Bearing Capacity: Older buildings often possess significant load- bearing capacity reserves. Renovation optimizes limited financial and material resources. 3. Territorial-Construction Resources: • Above-Ground Areas: Utilizing rooftops for superstructures and mansard extensions. • Potential Territorial Resources: Leveraging open spaces between residential buildings for inserts and extensions. 4. Improved Living Conditions: Renovation enhances living conditions while potentially reducing utility costs. 5. Optimized Urban Space: Creating mansard floors within existing social, transportation, and engineering infrastructure efficiently utilizes urban areas. 6. Enhanced Architectural and Urban Planning Quality: Thoughtful reconstruction elevates overall urban development. ADVANTAGES OF RENOVATION AND REVITALIZATION
  • 9. 09 OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE In the context of Marseille—a strategically positioned coastal city with significant tourist appeal—preserving its overall character becomes paramount. However, Marseille faces a pressing challenge: the strain on central districts due to the homogeneity of residential environments in outlying neighborhoods and the lack of developed infrastructure. This situation leads to chaotic densification and urban sprawl, ultimately steering the city in an incorrect development direction. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify structural, planning, and architectural features, along with applicable renovation techniques for residential buildings. Our goal is to apply these insights in an experimental design proposal for the comprehensive reconstruction of a residential group. The research tasks include: • Analyze and Investigate Key Factors: Understand the preconditions influencing the renovation of early mass-series residential groups. • Study Domestic and International Experience: Explore successful approaches to renovating and modernizing early mass-series residential buildings. • Identify Structural, Planning, and Architectural Characteristics: Uncover essential elements for renovating early mass-series residential buildings. • Synthesize Data: Determine optimal renovation approaches for residential buildings in Marseille based on research findings. • Develop Practical Proposals: Create a Case Study proposal for social housing within the context of holistic residential group reconstruction in Marseille.
  • 10. 010 INTRODUCTION Given the complexity of residential group reconstruction, we must highlight several areas related to open spaces. These areas encompass architectural, urban planning, and environmental design principles. 1. Historical Context: Scholars like N.I. Baranovskaya, A.P. Borisov, and I.I. Borovkov have evaluated the effectiveness of residential building reconstruction. Their focus lies in developing theoretical foundations for revamping historical residential areas in large, highly urbanized cities, often involving phased removal of outdated mass housing. 2. Spatial Organization: While structural and spatial organization within residential districts and micro-districts has received less attention, studies by V.A. Manukyan and V.I. Ivanov analyze planning changes using examples from new cities. However, understanding architectural development in new settlements—where timeframes are tight—remains insufficiently explored. Further scientific research in this area is essential. 3. Urban Development Challenges: Reshaping residential neighborhoods involves various aspects. Researchers have explored historical contexts, open spaces, and contemporary challenges related to service organization, land markets, and spatial transformation. The importance of visual perception in urban design and architecture gained prominence in the 1980s. Earlier scholars like Ladovsky, Ginzburg, and Krinsky had already analyzed fundamental volumetric-spatial compositions. As industrial construction expanded in the 1950s, questions arose about aligning the perceived architectural environment with human qualities. 1. The Human Factor: Researchers like Simonides, Lynch, and Belyaeva investigated psychophysiological aspects of perceiving architectural environments in motion. Shimko explored aesthetic and artistic perceptions of open urban spaces, while Minervin, Branca, and Nefyodova scrutinized architectural and environmental qualities. 2. Comprehensive Environmental Approach: Belyaeva’s work examines aesthetically perceived qualities across various development contexts, focusing on visual perception. Researchers raise questions about monotony in perceived architectural spatial environments within residential areas, considering factors like sparsity, uniformity, and exaggerated spaces. 3. Interdisciplinary Exploration: Perception of our surroundings now spans multiple disciplines, including philosophy, sociology, psychology, cultural studies, and biology. Continued research in this field is crucial for sustainable urban growth and development. BACKGROUND VISUAL PERCEPTION AND ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENTS
  • 11. Fig 7: L’avenir des villes, Raymond Lopez, 1964 Fig 8: L’avenir des villes, Raymond Lopez, 1964 011
  • 12. 012 INTRODUCTION OBJECT: This thesis centers on a residential block in Marseille, comprising Housing group from the First Mass-production Series. SUBJECT: The research investigates the techniques and features associated with the reconstruction and revitalization of this residential group. METHODOLOGY: The study employs a comprehensive examination of structural-planning and architectural-environmental principles for shaping residential clusters within their architectural context. GUIDED BY THE FOLLOWING TASKS: • Review and analysis of literature sources, scientific studies, and design developments related to the topic. • Analysis of project materials and examples of realized reconstructions in residential buildings from the first mass series to identify reconstruction methods and approaches. • On-site inspections of typical residential buildings to assess their current condition. • Synthesis of research findings to determine optimal reconstruction methods for residential buildings from the first mass series in Odessa. • Proposal of a conceptual design for the comprehensive revitalization of the La Savine Housing Group in Marseille.
  • 13. 013 DELIMITATIONS: The study concentrates on residential blocks formed within mass housing neighborhoods in historically significant cities of Southern Ukraine and Southern France during the 1950s and 1960s. A case study is conducted in Marseille, focusing on La Savine housing group. Holistic Microdistrict Revitalization: The approach involves the comprehensive reconstruction of microdistricts, addressing both individual dwelling units and the surrounding territory. Architectural Transformation: A broad spectrum of architectural modifications, ranging from interior spaces within apartments to the surrounding residential zones. Evidence Based Practices: Leveraging international and domestic experiences, particularly from the standardized housing series in Odessa and Marseille, incorporating novel construction techniques and materials. Increased Residential Building Area: Achieved through strategic reconstruction measures. Consideration of Open Spaces: Deliberating existing open spaces within established residential neighborhoods as pivotal factors shaping the direction of residential environment reconstruction. These spaces form an integral part of the architectural and planning framework. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to sustainable urban development by addressing architectural, social, economic and environmental challenges in residential clusters. This research sheds light on the complexities of urban spaces and their impact on our daily lives. It underscores the need for holistic approaches that consider both practical functionality and aesthetic appeal. By studying visual perception and architectural environments, we can create more harmonious and livable cities for everyone.
  • 14. 01
  • 15. REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
  • 16. 01 016 REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI SOCIO-ECONOMIC PRECONDITIONS FOR REVITALIZATION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE 1. Aging Housing Stock and Wear and Tear Annually, the aging and deteriorating housing stock, with wear and tear exceeding 50%, continues to expand. In 1995, it amounted to over 37 million square meters, while by 2001, it reached approximately 50 million square meters, and by 2007, it exceeded 80 million square meters. The residential stock of early mass housing series encompasses 71.4 million square meters, constituting 22.46% of Ukraine’s urban multi-story residential housing. Given this context, addressing the condition of early mass housing series becomes imperative. 2. International Experience and Building Reconstruction Drawing from international experience, systematic reconstruction plays a pivotal role. Approximately 20-30% of funding is allocated to new construction, while the remaining portion focuses on reconstruction. This approach not only enhances structural integrity and reliability but also addresses moral wear and tear. UNESCO highlights that residential buildings experience moral obsolescence approximately every 8 years. Thus, reconstruction should prioritize both structural improvements and comfort levels. Scandinavian countries (Sweden - 40%, Finland - 51%) and Central Europe (France - up to 60%, Germany - 30-40%, United Kingdom - up to 60%) allocate significant resources to reconstruction. Notably, the cost burden often shifts toward residential properties. Chronic underfunding for major repairs and reconstruction may render a significant portion of housing unsuitable for habitation within the next 10-15 years. Urgent comprehensive reconstruction of early mass production houses is essential. 3. Challenges and Opportunities in Residential Development The challenge of mass housing extends to the moral and physical wear and tear of 4- to 5-story residential buildings from the early mass production series. These structures, constructed during the mid-20th century, demand urgent attention.
  • 17. 017 ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS In constructing microdistricts during the 1950s and 1960s, there were instances of unsuccessful decisions: Underestimation of Social and Urban Significance: Microdistricts often lacked creative spatial compositions, resulting in mechanical and monotonous building placements. • Limited Experimentation: Small-scale experimental construction hindered testing novel urban planning approaches. • Rigid Product Catalogs: Standardized, characterless architectural solutions prevailed due to limitations in building components. • However, the physical wear and tear, not exceeding 20%, indicate substantial structural strength reserves. This allows for adding one or two floors to typical “five-story” buildings without reinforcing foundations and walls. 4. Enhancing Residential Environments: A Holistic Approach To address these challenges, comprehensive strategies are essential. Territorial resources responsible for spatial development must complement other resources to: • Compensate for territorial deficits arising from intensive development. • Enhance territorial potential without physical expansion. • Foster addressable, adaptive, and multifunctional spaces. • Lay the groundwork for future residential quality. • Marseille faces similar challenges, necessitating comprehensive programs based on global reconstruction practices. By studying experiences worldwide, effective strategies can be developed to revitalize housing stock. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF RESIDENTIAL GROUP HOUSING RECONSTRUCTION The emergence of new residential structural units, known as residential groups, was driven by several factors. In the 1920s, a shift away from income-generating houses and worker barracks led to the construction of residential quarters. Simultaneously, efforts were made to explore novel elements of social-cultural services and their integration with housing. These residential complexes and settlements were meticulously designed to include schools, preschool institutions, shops, and cultural centers in close proximity to residential areas. Spacious green inner courtyards were thoughtfully planned, ensuring proper ventilation and exposure to sunlight.
  • 18. 01 018 REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI • Territorial Constraints: In smaller quarters (5-6 hectares) with relatively low population density (predominantly 4-5-story buildings, housing no more than 3,500-4,000 people), accommodating the full spectrum of cultural and domestic service facilities (sports, shops, schools, etc.) necessary for residents’ convenience was unfeasible. Consequently, such facilities were scattered without a coherent system, serving mixed neighborhoods often separated by major streets. • Frequent Street Networks: The extensive street network occupied up to 20-25% of the residential area, which was economically inefficient. Additionally, considering the complex traffic organization and numerous intersections, this approach posed challenges. In the 1940s and early 1950s, further investigations did not lead to significant changes in the organization of urban development. Instead, they followed a path of even greater aggregation of city blocks and groups of blocks (ranging from 7-8 to 12-16 hectares), with differentiation of their territories based on functional purpose. The functional zoning of these enlarged city blocks involved designating areas for service buildings, while residential construction continued to be situated along the perimeter. However, housing construction methods remained traditional, which failed to address the acute housing problem due to insufficient building volumes. As the country’s economy and culture evolved, and with advancements in scientific and technical foundations, the urban planning structure underwent transformation. Starting from the mid-1930s, residential clusters gradually expanded, covering territories of 5-6 hectares. Within these large quarters, provisions were made for preschool institutions, shops, and, in some cases, schools. This transformation was driven by a new form of organizing social-cultural services and improvements in the system of main streets and traffic flow. However, during the operation of these quarters, certain drawbacks were identified: • School Placement: Schools were situated within individual quarters and designed to serve populations from adjacent neighborhoods. Consequently, children had to cross streets with heavy urban traffic on their way to school. • Spatial Constraints: Preschool and school buildings, located within courtyards, sometimes occupied the entire courtyard area. This hindered compliance with insulation requirements and simultaneously deprived residents of adjacent houses of courtyard space.
  • 19. ANALYSIS OF THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL GROUP MODERNIZATION PRE-WAR TIME POST-WAR TIME INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PERIOD INDUSTRIAL AND FINANCIAL STAGNATION PERIOD CONTEMPORARY STAGE Modernization of low-rise residential buildings (1-2 floors), built before 1917 Period Economic-Political Factor Type of Modernization Restoration of urban economy and improvement of population service conditions Development of mass housing construction based on industrial methods of erecting buildings and structures Predominance of communal construction Predominance of new construction over modernization Lack of funding, economic stability against the backdrop of the collapse of the USSR Widespread modernization and rehabilitation of the housing stock of the 1920s-30s Fragmentation, locality of reconstruction. Absence of comprehensive programs Reconstruction of the first mass series houses Rare cases of modernization, solving the housing problem 019 ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
  • 20. 01 020 REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI MODERNIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE By the early 1980s, a sense of moral aging permeated the large-panel residential housing stock built after World War II in cities across Western Europe. These buildings, lacking elevators, featuring small apartments, devoid of garages and land plots, and uniform in appearance, began to lose their social appeal. To enhance the prestige of this housing stock, various countries initiated projects for its revitalization. Municipalities, construction firms, and real estate companies collaborated to develop renewal plans, taking into account the opinions of residents from micro- districts, residential groups, and individual households. In the mid-1990s, Western European countries largely completed the rehabilitation process for four- to five-story large-panel and other residential buildings constructed from prefabricated reinforced concrete elements. Key municipal departments played a pivotal role by engaging with the population. Their efforts included: Surveying the Housing Stock: Analyzing the composition of the housing stock. Capturing Residents’ Preferences: Identifying residents’ desires regarding the nature of building upgrades. Architectural Involvement: Collaborating with architects to design projects and discussing them with families to finalize options. Cost Estimation: Calculating the cost of design, major repairs, and funding contributions. Coordinated Reconstruction: Developing schedules for reconstruction in consultation with families. The practice in many countries underscores the wisdom of continuous interaction with residents during the decision-making process for housing modernization and reconstruction. Notable examples include: • United Kingdom (1974): A specialized housing law was enacted, mandating public participation in the development of reconstruction programs. • Denmark: A similar law emphasizes residents’ involvement in modernizing their own apartments. • France: Reconstruction occurred without displacement, with both residents (50%) and municipalities (50%) contributing to financing. • Germany: The reconstruction and modernization of 5-story large-panel residential buildings in Germany are fully funded by federal budget resources. • **Scandinavian countries
  • 21. REVITALISATION OF HOUSING CLUSTERS CONTRIBUTES TO: THE DEGREE OF SATISFACTION OF THE NEED FOR COMFORTABLE HOUSING INFLUENCES THE FORMATION OF PEOPLE’S LIFESTYLE ENHANCING THE ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETICS OF THE CITY THROUGH REDUCTION OF OLD HOUSING VOLUMES FORMING A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM OF LIFE ACTIVITY IN ESTABLISHED TERRITORIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH MODERN HOUSING REQUIREMENTS PROMOTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SOCIALLY FAVORABLE AND EFFICIENT RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT problematics INADEQUACY OF HOUSING TO MODERN CONSUMER STANDARDS PHYSICAL AND MORAL DEPRECIATION PROBLEM OF PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HOUSING TO THE POPULATION INCREASING BUILDING DENSITY 2.5-3 TIMES COMPARED TO THE 1960S-70S REDUCED INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF CITIES DUE TO A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF DILAPIDATED AND EMERGENCY HOUSING FRAGMENTATION, LOCALISM OF MODERNIZATION, AND LACK OF COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMS potential ADVANTAGEOUS URBAN PLANNING LOCATION WITHIN THE CITY’S STRUCTURAL LAYOUT PRESENCE OF DEVELOPED ENGINEERING AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE EXISTENCE OF STRUCTURAL STRENGTH RESERVES AVAILABILITY OF TERRITORIAL RESERVES FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION HIGH INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF LIMITED LAND AND MATERIAL RESOURCES IN PROVIDING MODERN-LEVEL HOUSING IMPROVING LIVING CONDITIONS WITH REDUCED UTILITY PAYMENTS, ENHANCING THE CONSUMER QUALITIES OF HOUSING 021 ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
  • 22. 01 022 REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI Currently, one prevalent trend involves integrating new housing construction processes with the reconstruction of existing residential developments. A highly effective solution is densification—constructing energy-efficient, multi- story residential buildings on the sites of reconstructed low-rise houses without demolition. This concept combines designing and constructing new, broad-corridor buildings while upgrading existing early mass-produced houses. The goal is to enhance their consumer qualities and extend their life cycle to match new buildings. At the same time, this approach expands residential areas by two or more times and increases the number of apartments within the reconstructed clusters. It also develops engineering, transportation, and social infrastructure without encroaching on new territories. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN RESIDENTIAL GROUP REVITALIZATION DENSIFICATION IN COMPREHENSIVE RESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION: Densification in comprehensive residential reconstruction encapsulates: • Housing Expansion: Augmenting housing within built-up areas. • Space Optimization: Enhancing use of building footprints. • Life Cycle Extension: Prolonging lifespan of suitable buildings. • Modernization: Upgrading existing residential buildings. • Energy Reduction: Implementing energy-efficient practices. • Architectural Expression: Enhancing compatibility with the environment. • Infrastructure Development: Fostering social and engineering infrastructure. • Energy-Efficient Zones: Establishing dedicated areas. • Ecological Safety: Mitigating human impacts. • Economic Efficiency: Achieving cost-effective outcomes. These collectively contribute to the transformation of residential spaces, aligning them with modern architectural practices and sustainability standards.
  • 23. Fig 9: Rehabilitation plans for large complexes. Creation of a new building envelope, insertion of new equipment and activities through a slight densification of the urban fabric and transformation of distribution internal housing. DOCUMENTS PRESENTED BY THE TEAM BERNADO SECCHI AND PAOLA VIGANO / STUDIO 08 023 ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS
  • 24. EXAMPLES OF RESIDENTIAL GROUP HOUSE MODERNIZATION 2007, Germany, Dresden “Prager Zeile” 500,000 sqft - 1,000,000 sqft Transformation Halle (Saale), 2010 Residential units: 125 Gross floor area (GFA): 7300 m² Conversion of apartments: 125 Removal of apartments: 81 YEAR/ COUNTRY TECHNIQUES OBJECT Facade renovation Expansion of balcony areas Apartment replanning Facade renovation Division of standard sections into separate “cottages” Erection of new balconies and loggias Apartment replanning 01 024 REVITALIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS IN EARLY MASS HOUSI Fig 10: PRAGER ZEILE, Dresden, Germany, KNERER UND LANG, Residential › Multi Unit Housing Fig 11: Halle (Saale) Transformation, 2010 125 Residential units
  • 25. YEAR/ COUNTRY TECHNIQUES OBJECT Transformation Leinefelde, 2002 Residential units: 32 Gross floor area (GFA): 2270 m² Conversion of apartments: 32 Removal of apartments: 16 Lausitz Tower: A Green High-Rise for a Shrinking City, Hoyerswerda, 2007,3,700 sqm 3.8 million € Creation of additional green individual spaces Addition of extra terraces Increase in apartment area by extending onto existing balconies Replacement of fasad covering Creation of an additional open floor (public function) 025 ING SERIES: PRECONDITIONS Fig 12: Leinefelde Transformation, 32 Residential units Fig 13: Lausitz Tower
  • 26. 02
  • 28. 02 028 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION Amicrodistrictservesasthefundamentalprimaryelementintheurbanplanning structure. According to scientific research and practical experimentation from the 50s and 60s, the size and population of a microdistrict were determined by the following factors: Creating Optimal Living Conditions: This involves rational capacity planning for service institutions and ensuring their pedestrian accessibility. Residential Density: Dependent on building height and length, as well as natural-climatic conditions. Facilitating Comprehensive Development: Ensuring the feasibility of integrated construction. Hence, considering convenient pedestrian access (within 500 meters) to schools, childcare facilities, and primary retail outlets (with a travel time not exceeding 5 minutes), the microdistrict’s population ranged from 6,000 to 12,000 residents. This was based on the normative housing density for 4-5 story buildings. The microdistrict’s area typically varied between 25 and 35 hectares. For higher-rise constructions (9 stories and above), the population could reach 16,000 to 18,000 individuals. The entire microdistrict was further subdivided into groups of residential buildings, each situated within a distance not exceeding 150-200 meters from essential everyday facilities frequently visited by residents. These facilities included preschool institutions, community leisure spaces, and specific establishments for public dining and domestic services (such as communal kitchens, cafeterias, and workshops for shoe and clothing repairs). The population size of such residential groups was determined based on the capacity of childcare institutions and typically ranged from 2,000 to 3,000 individuals (for 4-5 story constructions), with a norm of 9 square meters of living space per person. The number of groups within a microdistrict depended on the capacity of schools and other essential amenities. The principle of integrating everyday service facilities within residential clusters found expression in the planning and construction approaches of the initial microdistricts. FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING GROUPS
  • 29. 029 The architectural landscape of residential buildings during the mid-1950s to 1960s underwent significant transformations. These changes were primarily influenced by housing developments. A series of decrees issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the Council of Ministers of the USSR, such as “On the Development of Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Structures and Components for Construction” (1954) and “On the Development of Housing Construction in the USSR” (1957), along with advancements in new technologies, construction materials, and mechanization, facilitated the growth of industrial homebuilding. Consequently, novel architectural concepts emerged for both residential and mass public buildings, driven by the shift toward industrial construction methods within the constraints of economic and technological demands. In this context, the guiding principle was that a building’s volumetric and spatial composition should align seamlessly with its internal layout and the technology used for constructing its structural elements. During the initial stages of industrial homebuilding, architectural and urban planning considerations took a back seat, yielding to the dominance of machine-based production techniques for building components. As a result, the exploration of production technology possibilities, stringent standardization requirements, and the pursuit of simplicity led to architectural decisions characterized by: • Simplified Spatial Solutions: Projects featured rectangular floor plans, minimal balconies, and simplified wall panel junctions. • Limited Residential Typology: The variety of residential building types within series was restricted. • Compositional Schematism: Buildings exhibited schematic design solutions. • Mechanical Repetition: Standard elements and details were mechanically replicated without aesthetic interpretation. • Primitivism and Monotony: Overall, mass residential construction lacked distinctiveness and individuality. RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE MID-1950S AND 1960S.
  • 30. 02 030 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION From the mid-1950s onward, particularly in cities like Marseille and other major urban centers, mass construction using prefabricated elements saw the emergence of a dominant residential type: the five-story apartment building. This choice was deliberate for several reasons: Economic Efficiency: The five-story design was considered the most economical housing type. Notably, it did not require elevators (considering only initial construction costs). Prefabrication Technology: The technology for prefabricated reinforced concrete elements was still evolving, allowing for straightforward planning and basic structural solutions. During this period, new norms introduced by the SNiP (Soviet construction standards) in 1958 facilitated the development of a novel housing type: small, cost-effective apartments suitable for family living arrangements. The proposed changes included the following: 1. Reduction of Minimum Residential Area: Decreasing the minimum living area of apartments, which consequently led to smaller room sizes. 2. Kitchen Area Reduction: Reducing the minimum kitchen area (from 7 to 4.5 square meters). 3. Combined Sanitary Units: Implementing combined sanitary facilities in apartments with a living area up to 45 square meters. 4. Improved Room Connectivity: Allowing passage from common rooms to the kitchen and from bedrooms to bathrooms or showers. 5. Lower Ceiling Heights: Lowering the height of residential spaces to 2.5 meters from floor to ceiling. Standardization and Unification of structural elements became integral requirements for designing typical residential buildings. Notably, many factories focused on producing only one or two types of houses.
  • 31. 031 During the late 1950s to mid-1960s, four prevalent structural schemes emerged for large-panel and large-block buildings: 1. Transverse and Longitudinal Load-Bearing Walls: Used with a small spacing between load-bearing elements. 2. External Load-Bearing Walls with Internal Framework: Combining external walls with an internal framework. 3. Internal Framework with Transverse Beams and External Load-Bearing Walls: Incorporating transverse beams and external load-bearing walls. 4. Transverse Load-Bearing Walls for Large Spans. The 1-464 series gained widespread popularity, characterized by closely spaced transverse load-bearing walls, wall panels, and room-by-room floor slabs. These elements were manufactured with high factory readiness levels by Giprostrommash, led by N.P. Rozanov. The most economical five-story section within this series included one-, two-, and three-bedroom apartments. Structural unification dictated the use of two different spans: 2.6 meters longitudinally and 5.6 meters transversely within the building. However, this mechanistic approach to unification led to certain drawbacks, including the application of a single kitchen type (measuring 5.9 square meters) and combined sanitary facilities for both small and large apartments. Additionally, suboptimal proportions in individual rooms and inconvenient functional layouts affected the three-bedroom apartments.
  • 32. 02 032 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION Other sections, characterized by diverse structural solutions (corresponding to varying production technologies), exhibited similar drawbacks and little differentiation from one another. Further exploration of new structural solutions for industrial-type residential buildings was marked by: • Element Enlargement: A drive toward larger building components. • Longer Spans: Application of larger-span constructions. • Prefabricated Sanitary Units: Use of ready-made sanitary cabins. • Transfer of Load-Bearing Functions: Shifting load-bearing functions from external walls to internal structures (or the framework). • Effective Thermal Insulation Materials: Adoption of efficient materials for external walls. • Weight Reduction: Efforts to reduce building weight. • Increased Factory Readiness: Enhancing the degree of factory readiness. In the early series of large-panel buildings, the tectonics of load-bearing and non-load-bearing thermal enclosures were nearly identical. Uniformly, external walls were divided into single panels, regardless of the building’s structural scheme. Windows of the same size were often used for both large and small rooms. However, essential architectural elements such as balconies and bay windows—which enhance comfort and enrich the building’s volume— were largely absent. Balconies and entrances were insufficiently developed in terms of architectural possibilities, detailing, and variation. Due to limited understanding of industrial surface finishing techniques for external wall panels, a restricted color palette was applied, and textural treatments for facades were rarely explored. Notably, residential buildings lacked distinctively emphasized “main,” “courtyard,” and “side” facades.
  • 33. 033 During the mid-20th century, the rise of prefabricated elements led to the widespread adoption of five-story residential buildings. These structures were intentionally designed for economic efficiency (eliminating the need for elevators) and leveraged evolving prefabrication technology. However, these early buildings faced limitations: Uniformity: Regardless of structural variations, external walls were uniformly divided into panels. Standardization: Common window sizes were used for all room types, and features like balconies and bay windows were neglected. Functional Constraints: Simplified layouts hindered architectural expression. Surface Treatment: Limited color options and minimal facade detailing resulted from unfamiliarity with industrial finishing techniques. Residential Group: The fundamental structural unit, connecting residential buildings with populations of up to 3,000-4,000 people, alongside primary service institutions. Microdistricts link residential groups to a central area, accommodating at least 6,000 residents and hosting everyday service facilities. In smaller towns with low-rise construction, microdistricts may have populations as small as 2,500- 3,000 people. ResidentialBloc,inturn,encompass20,000-30,000residents(andoccasionally up to 80,000) along with their periodic service centers. These districts form the primary structural elements of urban settlements. Note 1: Blocs with an incomplete complex of institutions and service enterprises are typically formed in small towns, settlements, and areas with complex terrain during the reconstruction of established development. Note 2: In the case of estate development, the area of blocs with an incomplete complex of local institutions and service enterprises may be increased. Note 3: When preschool institutions and schools are located in adjacent blocs, it is necessary to ensure pedestrian safety across major streets.
  • 35. 035 Residential Group: The fundamental structural unit, connecting residential buildings with populations of up to 3,000-4,000 people, alongside primary service institutions. Microdistricts link residential groups to a central area, accommodating at least 6,000 residents and hosting everyday service facilities. In smaller towns with low-rise construction, microdistricts may have populations as small as 2,500- 3,000 people. Residential Bloc, in turn, encompass 20,000-30,000 residents (and occasionally up to 80,000) along with their periodic service centers. These districts form the primary structural elements of urban settlements. Note 1: Blocs with an incomplete complex of institutions and service enterprises are typically formed in small towns, settlements, and areas with complex terrain during the reconstruction of established development. Note 2: In the case of estate development, the area of blocs with an incomplete complex of local institutions and service enterprises may be increased. Note 3: When preschool institutions and schools are located in adjacent blocs, it is necessary to ensure pedestrian safety across major streets. Residential District is a structural element within an urban area. Here are the key features: Purpose: It serves as a designated area for housing within a settlement. Size: Typically spans an area of 80 to 400 hectares. Components: Residential Quarters: These are individual clusters of housing units. Institutions and Enterprises: Within the block, you’ll find schools, shops, and other essential services. Service Radius: Institutions and enterprises cater to residents within a 1500-meter radius. Urban Facilities: Strategically placed amenities enhance the quality of life.
  • 36. TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL GROUPS: 02 036 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION BUILDING LAYOUT SCHEME DESCRIPTION ROW, OR 2 BUILDINGS PARALLEL TO THE STREET P-SHAPED BUILDING COURDON SOLUTION (WITH TWO COURTYARDS) T-SHAPED BUILDING H-SHAPED BUILDING WITH TWO COURTYARDS BUILDING WITH A PERIMETER-DEVELOPED AREA, WITH ONE OR SEVERAL WELL COURTYARDS
  • 37. 037 hen considering the improvement of the urban environment during the reconstruction of residential buildings, it is essential to account for urban planning requirements (environmental factors): • Adaptation of Residential Buildings: - Purpose: To enhance orderliness and well-being in the urban environment. • Protection: Safeguarding residential spaces from adverse urban influences. Urban Environment Requirements: - These requirements should be developed as part of projects at various design stages, specifically tailored to different typological groups within established residential areas. - During the master planning stage, urban planning requirements stem from the overall transformation strategy. Key Aspects of Requirements: • Preservation and Continued Use of Residential Buildings in Block Groups: Align with functional zoning within the central district. • Adjustment of Housing Stock: - Based on projected population and housing density needs. • Structural Changes in Block Groups: - Consider the desired demographic structure for the area. URBAN PLANNING REQUIREMENTS FOR MODERNIZING RESIDENTIAL GROUPS During the development of detailed planning projects (DPP) and site layout sketches for established planning districts, the following requirements should be clarified: • Demolition and Building Use: Normalization of Land Use Intensity: Achieved through demolishing low-value structures or constructing additions, extensions, and new buildings (in conjunction with supporting elements). • Ordering the Urban Environment: Placement of service institutions, pedestrian crossings, technical services, and creating open spaces for relaxation. • Formation of Urban Nodes and Public Complexes: Adaptation of residential buildings for institutional use. • Isolation of Residential Spaces: In detailed planning projects and building designs, identify groups of residential buildings where measures are needed to insulate living spaces from adverse urban influences (such as noise and pollution).
  • 38. 02 038 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION Enhancing Urban Environments during Residential Reconstruction. When improving residential buildings, it is crucial to consider urban planning requirements related to environmental factors: • Adaptation of Residential Buildings: Purpose: Enhancing orderliness and well-being in the urban environment. Protection: Safeguarding residential spaces from adverse urban influences. • Urban Environment Requirements: These requirements should be developed during various design stages, specifically tailored to different typological groups within established residential areas. During the master planning stage, urban planning requirements derive from the overall transformation strategy. • Key Aspects of Requirements: Preservation and Continued Use of Residential Buildings in Block Groups: Align with functional zoning within the central district. Adjustment of Housing Stock: Based on projected population and housing density needs. Structural Changes in Block Groups: Consider the desired demographic structure for the area CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECT-DEFINED FACTORS INFLUENCING RESIDENTIAL BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
  • 39. 039 These factors relate to the preservation of the unique character and identity of the city and district. Consider protective zones around historical and cultural monuments. Address aspects such as: Insolation: Ensuring adequate sunlight exposure for buildings. Noise Levels: Mitigating noise impact on residents. Microclimate and Ventilation: Creating comfortable living conditions within courtyards and building clusters. Evaluate the land parcel where the building stands: Parcel Shape: Consider irregular shapes and their impact on design. Valuable Greenery: Preserve existing valuable trees and greenery. Terrain Relief: Adapt construction to the site’s topography. Understand the needs of different population groups within the city: Family Composition: Consider family sizes and demographics. Service Infrastructure: Plan for cultural, recreational, and service facilities. Vehicle Storage and Pedestrian Movement: Organize parking and pedestrian pathways. ARCHITECTURAL-COMPOSITIONAL AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL FACTORS: SITE-SPECIFIC LAND FEATURES: SANITARY AND HYGIENIC FACTORS: FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANTS (INCLUDING DEMOGRAPHICS): 01 02 03 04
  • 40. 02 040 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION Effective collaboration during the development of projects for individual city blocks or groups of blocks undergoing comprehensive reconstruction is essential. Simultaneously implementing all necessary reconstruction measures—such as demolishing low-value structures, constructing new buildings, repairing preserved ones, enhancing engineering infrastructure, and landscaping—yields optimal results. The need for one-time reconstruction arises when buildings within one or neighboring blocks exhibit similar physical wear. Group-based repair methods become practical. Additionally, when constructing large public facilities amidst existing development, harmonizing the surroundings with the quality of the new structure necessitates comprehensive reconstruction of the entire area. Collaboration among designers is also crucial when planning districts with complex reconstruction conditions, such as areas with valuable historical and urban heritage, multifunctional complexes, and public transport hubs. For extensive project areas (entire cities or established central districts) and individual building renovations, a form of mutual information exchange during design work is advisable. Enhancing the quality of project development could be facilitated by creating a unified urban planning information repository, accumulating specialized developments for use in holistic solutions or when updating specific elements of the urban environment. JOINT DESIGN
  • 41. 041 Depending on the specifics of transforming the layout structure of individual city blocks and residential buildings, we can identify four primary typological groups of territories: • Group I: Houses, clusters of houses, and residential blocks located within the urban center. These areas actively contribute to forming central complexes. Notably, residential territories within this group are situated in zones with varying reconstruction strategies, depending on the historical and architectural significance of the environment. They play a crucial role in the overall urban planning, integrating into all functional systems—cultural, residential, transportation, and architectural. Across different cities, these areas may include historically established low-rise, densely built residential blocks, individual villas, and Soviet-era mass housing. • Group II: Encompasses medium-sized residential territories, subdivided into historically established small-scale blocks. These areas are in immediate proximity to the city center. Their location is within pedestrian (up to 500 meters) reach of cultural and district service institutions in the center. Group II residential territories often has mixed functional zoning, with various non-residential plots dispersed within residential blocks. • Group III: Residential territories situated between the development directions of the city center, within the outer zone of the planning district, approximately 1000-1500 meters from the area of cultural, district, and transportation service institutions in the center. In most major cities. Group III territories are within active reconstruction zone, necessitating fundamental transformations in functional use and layout structure. These residential areas can reach significant sizes. Often, the construction within this group represents a diverse combination of building plots from various historical periods. • Group IV: Refers to residential territories located at the outer boundary of planning districts in cities. These areas are influenced by neighboring large industrial zones. CLASSIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS BASED ON URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 42. MACRO LEVEL: A Modernizing the Residential Districts within the Global Program for Urban Development and Transformation MESO LEVEL: A Comprehensive modernization of separate Residential Districts URBAN REGENERATION LEVELS: Development of a new Moscow agglomeration. “Bolshaya Moskva,” Restructuring of the Alnou sous Bois Residential District, France, with 82,000 inhabitants DRAWINGS ILLUSTTATIONS 01 02 02 042 METHODOLOGY FOR REVITALIZATION Fig 15: Reinvest in the Nationale 2 by recreating north-south links. Build a place of centrality and diversity (activities, housing, facilities). Recreate connections to the park and the Villepinte RER station. Upgrade existing public spaces, reinvest in free spaces and create soft services. DOCUMENTS PRESENTED BY THE YVES LION TEAM / DESCARTES GROUP Fig 14: Moscow Agglomeration Development Concept. OMA. Reinier De Graaf, 2012
  • 43. MESO LEVEL: B Modernization of Housing blocks within the district. MICRO LEVEL: Modernization of individual residential groups URBAN REGENERATION LEVELS: BORDEAUX – ZAC DE LA BERGE DU LAC / ECOQUARTIER GINKO Quartier du Grand Parc Lacaton Vassal Transformation of 530 dwellings, France DRAWINGS ILLUSTTATIONS 03 04 043 Fig 16: BORDEAUX – ZAC DE LA BERGE DU LAC Fig 17: Quartier du Grand Parc Lacaton Vassal Transformation
  • 44. 03
  • 46. 03 046 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION PARTIAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE ATTIC SUPERSTRUCTURE: The attic superstructure is a resourceful solution to urban reconstruction and spatial organization. It involves the use of unused flat roofs and vacant attics of buildings, enhancing the architectural quality of urban buildings. Key benefits include: 1. Land Efficiency: Attic floors increase building density without requiring new land, optimizing urban territory use. 2. Additional Space: They provide extra living space in areas with existing infrastructure. 3. Energy Efficiency: Attic rooms reduce heat loss, ensuring roof durability. 4. The design of the attic floor requires compositional unity with the base building. Its function depends on the base building’s purpose, and its planning features relate to its placement in the building structure. The attic floor can occupy the entire or partial area of the base building, usually within the projection of the walls below. Architectural solutions are diverse and unrestricted, with rooms of any area and configuration. The spatial solution of attic rooms depends on the roof form. They may have sloping ceilings, horizontal ceilings with sloping walls, or partially sloping ceilings. 1. There are three main types of attic floors: 2. Single-level attic floor 3. Two-level development 4. Mezzanine floor or second level of the base building’s last floor These types offer opportunities for typological expansion, such as multi-level attic floors with a sectional scheme, or one-level attic floors with a mezzanine in a corridor scheme.
  • 47. 047 SUPERSTRUCTURE WITH BUILDING EXTENSION Building reconstruction can involve adding volumes to increase its width. These extensions, either global (entire length) or local (discrete sections), can include heated rooms, balconies, verandas, and galleries. Key considerations include: 1. Joint Operation: Ensuring the existing building and extensions work together. This involves minimizing subsidence differences between structures, achieved by using pile foundations with a rigid monolithic grillage. 2. Displacement: Small displacements at the junction of volumes are accounted for by flexible connections between existing and new walls, with careful external sealing. 3. Structure: When increasing building width with deep balconies or verandas, the extension structure typically involves reinforced concrete racks with vertical wall-piers and horizontal slabs. SEISMIC REINFORCEMENT AND BUILDING EXTENSION IN RECONSTRUCTION: In seismically hazardous areas, wall-piers on both sides of a building, connected at the attic or roof level, enhance transverse rigidity and seismic resistance. This is particularly effective for buildings not meeting current seismic resistance regulations. The integration of existing buildings with extensions depends on the structural scheme: • Large-Panel Houses (1-468 series): Non-bearing exterior walls of cellular concrete can be dismantled without affecting stability, allowing organic connection of existing and attached rooms. • Large-Panel Houses (1-464 series): Dismantling of self-supporting outer walls is possible only at transverse axes of 2.6 m. • Frame-Panel Houses (1-335 series) and Three-Wall Houses (1-447C series): Overlap loads are transferred to exterior walls, which cannot be removed. Connection occurs through a window opening, transforming existing exterior wall partitions into pylons, dividing the new room into two half-spaces. When extending the kitchen, wall-piers divide the room into a dining area and the kitchen itself.
  • 48. 03 048 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION PRINCIPLES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING REPLANNING: Replanning activities are guided by the building’s current layout, modern requirements, and technical and economic efficiency. Replanning can be partial or complete. Partial Modification: This is recommended when the existing layout largely meets modern standards or when apartment sizes necessitate minor improvements or rearrangements. Total Modification: This is carried out when the building’s layout and amenities do not meet modern requirements. The process involves dividing the building into sections, apartment cells, and functional zones, followed by detailed room-by-room planning. Planning Considerations: The choice of planning scheme depends on the building’s parameters. For instance, in buildings with a wide body and a large step of staircases, a sectional-pocket scheme is advisable. In contrast, buildings with a large body width are typically repurposed for non-residential uses. Layout Reorganization: When reorganizing a floorplans layout, existing stairs can be eliminated or used independently, depending on their location. New staircases can be placed inside the body or in extensions to the rear facade, depending on the building’s width. Space Utilization: To maximize space utilization, it is recommended to arrange built-in wardrobes, dressing rooms, and movable partitions, especially in buildings with an irregular geometric shape. Auxiliary Premises: These must be provided according to norms, typically using spaces unsuitable for apartments on the first, basement, and basement floors. Maintenance Considerations: All engineering layouts should be easily accessible for maintenance and subsequent planned preventive repairs. Load-Bearing Structures: When replacing these, it is recommended to apply newly arranged structures with a service life equal to the remaining service life of the building walls.
  • 49. 049 USE OF THE FIRST FLOORS FOR PUBLIC FUNCTIONS The first floors of buildings are seen resources for development, shaping an environment of opportunities. This approach aligns with modern urban planning methodologies, focusing on “ensuring future potential” rather than “building a planned future”. In the context of five-story building reconstruction, the use of first floors is assessed at the pre-project stage using quantitative methods. This ensures objective and comprehensive decisions, providing a solid basis for planning the spatial development of buildings and “ensuring future potential”.
  • 50. • Type A: Modernization of existing buildings. • Type B: Superstructure, mansard. • Type C: Insertion, extension. • Type D: Combination of Types A, B, and C. • Type E Combination of Types A, B, and C with the organization of an exploitable flat roof above the courtyard area at the level of the second floor. Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Existing Building New Additions Using the Resources of the Building and the Territory 03 050 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION HOLISTIC APPROACH TO MODERNIZATION
  • 51. Sag - area of coverage of the base building (above-ground area) Sptr1 - area at ground level (potential territorial resource) Sptr3 - area of the first floors of the base building (potential territorial resource) Sptr2 - courtyard areaat ground level (potential territorial resource) insert building attic, superstructure existing base existing base first floor 051
  • 52. TOTAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE PRESERVATION OF THE EXTERNAL LOAD-BEARING FRAME URBAN DENSIFICATION - DESIGN OF INFILL BUILDINGS • Structural reinforcement with an additional internal framework; • Construction of additional floors; • Creation of a usable terraced roof. • Integration of additional volume (urban densification); • Construction of a three- level mansard; • Establishment of open relaxation zones on each level of the mansard. Fig 18: Reconstruction of former police station to apartment building, Riga Latvia by NRJA Fig 19: Hacin + Associates - Fort Point Loft Condominiums in Boston, Massachusetts 03 052 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
  • 53. PARTIAL MODIFICATION OF BUILDING STRUCTURE LAYOUT MODIFICATION ATTIC SUPERSTRUCTURES: USE OF THE FIRST FLOORS FOR PUBLIC FUNCTIONS • Addition of extra balconies and winter gardens; • Relocation of utilities; • Expansion of space through the construction of a self-supporting metal structure. • Integration of additional volumes into the attic space. • Expanding the functional range through the utilization of the ground floors; • Incorporating public functions into the building structure (across various floors); • Utilizable rooftops as public spaces. Fig 20: Lacaton et Vassal, Transformation of a residential building, Saint-Nazaire, La Chesnaie Fig 21: DANIEL FUGENSCHUH: house in a house Fig 22: 053
  • 54. GSPublisherVersion 0.84.100.100 2022-06-0 Мікрорайон комерція При нарощуванні жил Простори в розривах/ проходах між будівлями - пішохідні громадські «островки»: дитячі майданчики oзеленення настільні ігри, тощо Додавання пішохідних галерей на першому п Create public “islands” in gaps/passageways between buildings: Children’s playgrounds Green spaces Board games, etc Adding pedestria the ground floor. SYNTHESIS OF APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION STREET LEVEL When expanding resid 03 054 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
  • 55. 06 KI Обладнання перших поверхів під громадські функції Сервіси: поліклініка відділення бібліотеки дитсадок, тощо Комерція: кафе перукарня супермаркет аптека, тощо Відділення окремої зони міських меблів, окремо від літніх майданчиків кафе - можливість відпочинку безкоштовно Розташування зупинок громадського транспорту поблизу до активних/ комерційних перших поверхів площі самонесучими конструкціями Звуження проїжджої частини в місцях перетинання з комерцією, наприклад зупинка з анті-кишенею Тяжіє більше до комерційної складової Тяжіє більше до міських сервісів х поверсі an galleries on . Use of Ground Floors for Public Functions dential areas with self-bearing structures: Separate Zone for Urban Furniture, Distinct from Café Terraces – Opportunity for Free Relaxation Location of public transport stops near active/commercial ground floors. Implementation of narrower roadways at intersections with commercial areas, such as bus stops with anti-pockets. Gravitates toward the commercial component Gravitates more toward urban services Commercial: Café Hair salon Supermarket Pharmacy, etc Services: Clinic Library branch Kindergarten, etc 055
  • 56. 2022-06-0 Підцентр районного значення Підцентр рай значення P Можливе винесення сервісів в окремі будівлі (1-2 поверхові) Криті паркінги • обирати прозорі матеріали • зменшити кількість бетонних елементів • уникати створення ліфтів і сходів, які відчуваються замкнутими • наявність декількох входів і виходів • не розміщуйте стоянку в заблокованих або безлюдних місцях • забезпечити гарне освітлення • розділити простір і регулювати доступ • створити можливості для візуального спостереження • мати чіткі вказівники, щоб людям було легше орієнтуватися.• розміщення біля в'їздів на територію Станції сортування сміття Дитячі ігрові майданчики Прийоми роботи з першими поверхами= схема вулиця Covered Parkings: Choose transparent materials. Minimize concrete elements. Avoid creating enclosed elevators and staircases. Provide multiple entrances and exits. Avoid placing parking in blocked or deserted areas. Ensure proper lighting. Divide the space and regulate access. Facilitate visual surveillance. Use clear signage for orientation. Position them near entrances to the premises. Waste sorting stations Possible Relocation of Serv Separate Buildings (1-2 F For strategies for ground floors, see street layout Playgrounds Subcenter of D Significance SYNTHESIS OF APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION HOUSING BLOCK LEVEL 03 056 FUNDAMENTAL APPROACHES TO MODERNIZATION
  • 57. 08 KI йонного Рекомендаціі щодо безпечного середовища при проєктуванні зупинок громадського транспорту • хороша оглядовість, відсутність недоступних кутів • примикання до будівель • знаходження поблизу важливих напрямків • наявність хорошої доступності • відсутність кущів, що приховують • наявність освітлення, яке забезпечує хорошу видимість для тих, хто стоїть і чекає Відкриті авто та стоянки: • безпечний доступ від стоянки до будинків • розміщення біля в'їздів на територію Квартал P Місця спільного користування жителів кварталу - спільні городи, - місця для грилю, - лавки, - живоплоти, тощо Інклюзивність та доступність всіх просторів та будівель vices to Floors) District Recommendations for a Safe Environment in the Design of Public Transport: • Ensure good visibility and eliminate blind spots. • Integrate with nearby buildings. • Locate near important routes. • Provide good accessibility. • Avoid obstructive vegetation. • Install adequate lighting for visibility of waiting passengers. Residential Block Communal spaces for residents: Shared gardens Grilling areas Benches Hedges, etc Inclusivity and accessibility across all spaces and buildings. Open Car Areas and Parking Lots: Ensure safe access from parking areas to buildings. Position them near entrances to the premises. 057
  • 58. 04
  • 59. ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS IN REVITALIZATION IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
  • 60. 04 060 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO The primary issue uniting social housing and peripheral “sleeping districts” worldwide is their absolute anonymity. Regardless of their location, these districts always exist outside the historical and urban context. Consequently, residents are destabilized, as the homogeneous urban environment, devoid of distinctive features, negatively impacts the overall quality of life. Historically, the emergence of Northern Districts or suburban settlements (First Mass Series Settelments) is noteworthy. While Marseille does not have suburbs consisting solely of “sleeping districts,” it does have the so-called “Northern Districts” within the city limits. As a coastal, port city, Marseille has a dense urban structure at its heart, where people of various origins and occupations intermingle. This demographic heterogeneity has generated a unique urban culture, more resilient than in continental cities. However, this fact also gives rise to another problem. The immigrants gradually arriving in Marseille are primarily workers and sailors, who are progressively resettled in specially created worker settlements. These settlements become distinctive “worker ghettos” with a high level of criminality. As a result, Marseille is one of the French cities with the most significant income disparity. The high-income level exceeds the low- income level by 15 times, creating a situation where different city quarters significantly vary. During the industrialization surge Marseille experienced a significant influx of workers. These individuals were initially expected to integrate into various neighborhoods, thereby immersing themselves in the city’s social and urban fabric. However, they predominantly settled in peripheral areas. This spatial shift of the working population, often referred to as ‘deportation’, was a prominent outcome of post-war urban redevelopment. This phenomenon significantly influenced the city’s architectural and social landscape. URBAN ANONYMITY AND THE EVOLUTION OF NORTHERN DISTRICTS THE WORKERS’ AND IMMIGRATION MOVEMENT
  • 61. 061 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS Data from:MIGRANTS AND CITIES. Mobility and Integration. Mireille Meyer. Institute for Research and Studies on Arab and Muslim Worlds. Aix-en-Provence, 1988
  • 62. 04 062 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO The beginning of the 19th century marked the start of migration to the “Northern Quarters,” which were primarily characterized by country houses and large estates. With the changing demographic structure of the incoming population, the urban structure of the quarters also transformed. By the end of the 19th century, railway paths were constructed to connect the remote outskirts of the city with the main nearby populated areas as well as the “old city.” 1820: COUNTRY HOUSES AND LARGE ESTATES 1890: RAILWAY PATHS AND RURAL CORES
  • 63. 063 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
  • 64. In the post-war period, the functional orientation of the “Northern Quarters” changed significantly. These areas became increasingly populated by workers and immigrants, and the presence of military barracks further deteriorated the social level of these districts. Gradually, the worker settlements transformed into social housing settlements, which increased the diversity of the demographic composition of the population. However, this did not alleviate the social tension in these quarters. 1949: SLUMS, MILITARY BARRACKS, AND WORKER SETTLEMENTS 1970: HIGHWAYS AND SOCIAL HOUSING 04 064 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
  • 65. 065 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
  • 66. Despite the massive development of infrastructure in the 1980s, the “Northern Quarters” remained isolated from the rest of the city, continuing to be an unattractive place to live. 1980: HIGHWAY AND LARGE TRADE NODES 04 066 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO
  • 67. 067 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS Data from: Evolution of Closed Housing Groups in Marseille, Aix-Marseille University Population Environment Development Laboratory (LPED) Elisabeth Dorier- April)
  • 68. 04 068 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO The focus of our project lies in the northern part of the city—a region characterized by the concentration of collective housing. But why are these Northern Districts situated outside the urban context? To understand this, we must examine their location on the city’s periphery, where urbanization has occurred through the juxtaposition of monofunctional zones. These zones, unfortunately, remain isolated from one another, connected only externally by highway bypasses. However, this rigid division and fragmentation of space stand in stark contrast to the fundamental essence of urban life: the ability of a place to accommodate diverse activities and people. The prevalence of Mass Housing in this context clashes with the historical continuity embedded within urban spaces. As Alèssi Dell’Umbria eloquently states in his work “The Contemporary Landscape of the City of Marseille,” these districts deny the very essence of urban phenomena. In the late 1970s, a giant graffiti inscription adorned a housing building in these Northern Districts, succinctly capturing their isolation: “Here, far from the world.” METROPOLITAN SCALE AND ISOLATED HOUSING GROUPS The Archipelago theory, chosen to illustrate the simultaneous isolation and potential for connection, defines an archipelago as a closely-knit collection of islands. Each island, while autonomous, forms part of a robust chain where each element reinforces the other. The Northern Districts of Marseille exemplify this concept, where: • Each ‘island’ represents an administrative district. The northern part comprises three districts, encompassing 33 isolated quarters. • City formation shares common features: geological fragmentation due to mountains. • Four levels of isolation exist: mountains, hills, plains, and sea. This metaphorical archipelago underscores the interplay between autonomy and interdependence in the urban landscape of Marseille. MARSEILLE: AN ARCHITECTURAL ARCHIPELAGO
  • 69. 069 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
  • 70. 04 070 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO In my analysis, I identified various isolating and severing factors that hinder Marseille’s transformation into an archipelago. The goal is to comprehend these factors and subsequently convert them into potential connections. The primary factors include: • Industrial Port of Marseille: This port obstructs sea access, creating a physical barrier. • Transport Infrastructure: Highways and railways traverse the territories, yet they fail to establish connections between most specific points. • Geographical Isolation: The Northern part is isolated due to its unique topography, where towering hills and lowlands segregate one housing group from another. • Neglected Green Spaces: Derelict green natural massifs contribute to the creation of alienation zones. DISSECTING FACTORS: HYPOTHESES FOR A CONNECTED MARSEILLE ARCHIPELAGO
  • 71. urbanised nature fringes nature as an isolation factor nature present but forsaken sea present but inaccessible crossed but not connected port as an isolation factor big isolations by landscape small isolations by landscape transport as an isolation factor 071 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
  • 72. 04 072 ANALYZING REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REVITALIZATIO In my analysis, I identified various isolating and severing factors that hinder Marseille’s transformation into an archipelago. The goal is to comprehend these factors and subsequently convert them into potential connections. The primary factors include: • Industrial Port of Marseille: This port obstructs sea access, creating a physical barrier. • Transport Infrastructure: Highways and railways traverse the territories, yet they fail to establish connections between most specific points. • Geographical Isolation: The Northern part is isolated due to its unique topography, where towering hills and lowlands segregate one housing group from another. • Neglected Green Spaces: Derelict green natural massifs contribute to the creation of alienation zones. MARSEILLE: A CONNECTED ARCHIPELAGO HYPOTHESES AND CONNECTIONS
  • 73. 073 ON IN MARSEILLE NORTHERN DISTRICTS
  • 74. 05
  • 75. CASE STUDY. HOUSING REVITALISATION PROJECT IN MARSEILLE, FR LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPELAGO
  • 76. 05 076 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL Second stage of Metropolitan Development of Northern districts of Marseilles. Masters degree project. Marseilles France. OBJECTIVES: Renovation of social housing in northern Marseilles using the conception of Urban Archipelago. CONTEXT: The project site is situated within the Savine Housing Group in the 16th district of Marseilles, the most remote and secluded district in the city. The site, perched atop a steep hill, is isolated by neglected and abandoned green spaces, which serve as impediments to pedestrian movement. While the majority of the Stribick program is located in various sectors of the Z.U.P. No. 1, La Savine is situated on the outskirts of the city on a shoulder of the Mure massif, bypassed by the Marseille canal, which further reinforces the impression of the operation’s remoteness. Despite the massive effect of site acquisition, the buildings have ten floors, and the master plan, organized in hexagonal cells around the 13 floors of a K tower, establishes the idea of a closed and secluded city. The only concession to the surrounding geography is the small Savine, which clings to the hillside along the path of the Tuves valley. (Ensembles & Résidences à Marseille 1955-1975 Notices monographiques) SECOND STAGE OF THE CONCEPTUAL ARCHIPELAGO PROJECT
  • 78. 05 078 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL La Savine is located in the Notre Damme de Limite neighborhood. In this neighborhood, the question of housing typology reveals the essence of the place. Because a great diversity of housing typology is present. Large complexes are surrounded by individual houses. From the 1960s, urban sprawl in the form of individual housing continues without being very important, and large complexes appear in this sector with the construction of condominiums and HLM estates. But also, the suburbanization continues with increased dynamism since 2004. 13.5 hectares of land have been urbanized for the realization of 156 villas and 88 collective dwellings. In terms of facilities, their presence is insufficient, which is too small for such a large number of dwellings. The absence of a strong centrality in this neighborhood. The existence of a neighborhood-scale centrality is to be sought on the side of Saint-Antoine or further away at Saint-Louis. In parallel, the territory consists of physically enclosed real estate complexes. This situation is also reflected in socio-economic terms: the large complexes built in the 60s/70s represent more than 3,500 dwellings (56% of the main residences of the operational sector. (Agam / GIP : Politique de la Ville - Observatoire des Quartiers - Mai 2009) HOUSING TYPOLOGY
  • 79. HLM de plus de 100 loge- ments copropriétés de plus de 100 logements copropriétés de plus de 100 logements pavillionnaire école 079 LAGO
  • 80. 05 080 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL The district, predominantly in the north, is situated at considerable distances from key amenities: 5 km from Grand Littoral, 3 km from Vallon des Pins and Elsa Triolet colleges, 6 km from Saint Exupéry high school, and 12 km from the city center. The RN 8, a significant North/South axis, connects to the city center, while the A7 highway extends to the municipality’s periphery.However,thepublictransportserviceoutsidethedistrict is hindered by the complex road network. The neighborhood’s remoteness and inadequate transport infrastructure pose challenges. The embankments of this infrastructure act as a physical barrier, severing the Notre-Dame-Limite valley from Saint- Antoine. Communication restoration is facilitated by occasional overpasses (bridges) and underpasses (beneath the highway). Furthermore, the introduction of ihighway interchanges between the A7 and the RN8 at Saint-Antoine has complicated highway crossing due to converging traffic flows at this junction. Lastly, the construction of the Bosphore and Dramard boulevards has isolated Notre-Dame-Limite from Saint-Antoine. These boulevards provide an alternative to the RN8, but lead to the intersection of the Borels/Vallon des Tuves/chemin de Saint- Antoine à Saint-Joseph. Public transport access is limited to a single bus route that traverses the road at one point, typically looping around individual residences. The travel conditions are challenging due to a poorly integrated road network with the RN8’s structuring axis and a public transport service plagued by numerous dysfunctions. (Agam / GIP : Politique de la Ville - Observatoire des Quartiers - Mai 2009) CONNECTIONS
  • 82. 05 082 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL The original demolition and rehabilitation program has been altered due to the discovery of asbestos, leading to the decision to demolish the affected buildings. The urban study is set to conclude in early 2012, but three scenarios are already emerging: The first scenario, costing €50 million, involves preserving 347 housing units for asbestos removal and demolishing 584 others. The second scenario, with a budget of €100 million, plans for the asbestos removal from buildings in Petite Savine only, and the demolition of 806 housing units. The final scenario envisages the complete demolition of Savine: 930 housing units destroyed, no rehabilitation, and a bill of €150 million. This last scenario is the one that is anticipated, according to Samia Ghali. These scenarios reflect the complex architectural and financial considerations involved in urban redevelopment projects. http://www.lamarseillaise.fr/societe-quartiers/l-avenir-de-la-cite-passe- par-la-case-demolition-23191 Instead of 930 housing units, there will be 350 social housing units. Today, all the towers are slated for demolition. They should be replaced by 350 social housing units, distributed between the upper and lower parts of the hill, with some buildings dedicated to affordable homeownership and others available for market rent.” 12 This plan aims to transform the existing housing landscape, prioritizing social housing and creating a mix of ownership and rental options for residents. LA SAVIDE DEMOLITION PROGRAMM
  • 83. 35 immeubles 1391 logements 29 immeubles 24 immeubles 19 immeubles 1973 1993 2003 2012 50 MILLIONS D’EUROS logements démolis DÉSTRUCTION DE 584 LOGEMENTS logements conservés 63% 100 MILLIONS D’EUROS logements démolis DÉSTRUCTION DE 806 LOGEMENTS logements conservés 87% 150 MILLIONS D’EUROS logements démolis DÉSTRUCTION DE 931 LOGEMENTS 100% 083 LAGO
  • 84. 05 084 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL LA SAVIDE, CURRENT SITUATION 01 05 06 02 03 04 01
  • 86. 05 086 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL ISOLATED ISLAND - CONNECTED ARCHIPELAGO PROPOSAL In accordance with the concept of an archipelago, where each island represents an autonomous unit interlinked with others, forming an unbreakable and robust chain, wherein each element reinforces the other. Alberto Magnaghi, in his work “Le projet local,” describes this as a plurality of centralities and urban identities that allow for the decomposition and recomposition of the metropolis into a complex system of cities (villages or neighborhoods) Contrary to the desire to unify the architectural environment and enhance its versatility, I do not perceive my island as a standalone entity with a variety of functions. Instead, I view it as an equivalent element within the archipelago chain, creating a powerful and distinctly marked singular entity. RE-ACTIVATING THE NORTHERN TRAIN STATION. CABLE CAR FROM LA SAVINE As part of the Northern Train Station (Gare Du Nord) project and public transportation initiative, I propose the establishment of a cable car system: • Direct Urban Linkage: The cable car would directly connect the city center to Gare du Nord, enhancing accessibility and connectivity. • Dual Purpose: The proposed cable car would serve a dual function: • Touristic Gateway: It would serve as a starting point for visitors exploring the nearby mountains, offering scenic views and an immersive experience. • Daily Commute: Simultaneously, it would function as a practical means of daily transportation for residents. This solution aligns with the vision of an integrated urban fabric, seamlessly bridging urban and natural landscapes while enhancing mobility and convenience.
  • 87. LA GARE DU NORD LA SAVINE 087 LAGO
  • 88. 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 2 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 2000 05 088 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL FOUR KEY ASPECTS OF THE PROJECT WITHIN THE GENERAL TOPIC OF THE GREEN ARCHIPELAGO PROPOSAL 1. Revitalisation on the Masterplan level: • Adaption to contemporary recuirements and improving of the Housing Group spatial layout organization. • Focusing on optimizing land use, circulation patterns, and public spaces. 2. Existing Housing Rehabilitation: • Revitalizing and upgrading the existing housing stock. • Prioritizing adaptive reuse, sustainable materials, and energy-efficient design. 3. Densification by Intermediate Housing Creation: • Introducing a new layer of housing typology. • Addressing the gap between social housing and real estate housing. • Providing affordable options for diverse income groups. 4. Creation of Abandoned Nature Observatory: • Establishing a facility to study and appreciate neglected natural areas. • Promoting ecological awareness and biodiversity conservation. • Creation of the cable-way network, which would open up the district to the visitors.
  • 89. 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 2000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 10 meters Vehicle traffic only outside of Housing group Cable car network, connecting living cluster with the North Railway Station and other Housing Groups Reconstruction/ functional diversity shops on the ground floor Pedestrian Quarter. Circulation of vehicles is forbidden on the inner territory Reception buildings of the Observatory Observatory Bridge Parking Densification/ intermediate multistory housing Final stop of cable cars on the rooftop of the parking An observatory of derelict nature in relation with regional universities 089 LAGO
  • 90. 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 2000 05 090 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL 01 REVITALISATION ON THE MASTERPLAN LEVEL CREATING A PEDESTRIAN-ONLY URBAN FABRIC One of the most significant challenges in La Savine is spontaneous vehicle parking. To address this issue, I propose a radical transformation: converting the entire Housing Group into a pedestrian-only zone. To adress and compensate the parking need, a parking garage is created on trhe outer part of the Housing block. The original logic of the city, which once mirrored natural patterns, has been disrupted by the demolition of certain towers. In our quest to reconnect with nature and urbanism, I advocate for unearthing lost traces—reclaiming forgotten elements that once defined the cityscape. This endeavor seeks to harmonize the urban fabric, restore ecological balance, and foster a renewed sense of place within the evolving metropolis. PROPOSAL
  • 91. 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 2000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 10 meters 091 LAGO
  • 92. 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 160 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 2000 T3 T2 T1 T1 T3 T2 T2 T1 T3 T2 T1 T1 T3 T1 T1 T1 05 092 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL 02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION: 01 EXISTING EXISTING REVITALISED REVITALISED 02 03 Within the existing building structure, there are four apartments with a central staircase. While maintaining the same number of housing units, I am reworking the housing structure to enhance comfort. Additionally, I propose creating additional glased winter g rdens and expanding the existing balconies. By introducing bearing structure for balconies and winter gardens, I aim to seamlessly integrate nature into the urban environment. Three distinct module types are proposed: 1. Intermediate Module 2. Corner Module 3. Intermediate Module with Shared Public Space Access PROPOSAL
  • 93. 000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 093 LAGO 03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING: In alignment with revitalization strategies outlined in the theoretical framework, I propose enhancing the Housing Group by introducing intermediate-scale housing. This approach aims to optimize site utilization and foster social diversity, bridging the gap between social housing and real estate developments. For the proposed housing location, I’ve selected the site of a recently demolished tower. By repurposing this space, we create a plot ready for construction without disturbing additional green areas. This optimization maximizes its potential and contributes to the overall urban fabric. THE ROLE OF INTERMEDIATE HOUSING: The intermediate housing I recommend represents the pinnacle of our comprehensive design vision. It achieves cohesion through two pivotal factors: 1. Location: Situated adjacent to the bridge leading to the abandoned nature observatory, our chosen site seamlessly integrates with the natural environment. This reinforces our commitment to harmonious coexistence. 2. Functionality: Strategically positioned near the cable car stop, the intermediate housing ensures accessibility and connectivity. This deliberate placement emphasizes the symbiosis between urban living and the surrounding landscape.
  • 94. GROUND FLOOR TYPICAL FLOOR 10 meters LONGITUDINAL SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 a c b Б В Г Д А Е Б'' В'' Г'' Д'' А'' Е'' Ж'' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 1'' 2'' 3'' 5'' 4'' Б''' В''' Г''' Д''' А''' Е''' Ж''' 1''' 2''' 3''' 5''' 4''' Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х Х A2 18800 8700 8700 194 00 580 0 580 0 580 0 200 0 180 0 180 0 400 0 350 0 580 0 173 00 19,045 1800 5800 3500 4000 1800 1800 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 35 00 0 180 0 580 0 350 0 400 0 180 0 180 0 19, 045 19500 1900 5800 5800 5800 195 00 580 0 580 0 580 0 190 0 1 2 3 4 5 a c b Б В Г Д А Е Б'' В'' Г'' Д'' А'' Е'' Ж'' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 1'' 2'' 3'' 5'' 4'' Б''' В''' Г''' Д''' А''' Е''' Ж''' 1''' 2''' 3''' 5''' 4''' 18800 8700 8700 194 00 580 0 580 0 580 0 200 0 180 0 180 0 400 0 350 0 580 0 173 00 19,045 1800 5800 3500 4000 1800 1800 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 58 00 35 00 0 180 0 580 0 350 0 400 0 180 0 180 0 19, 045 19500 1900 5800 5800 5800 195 00 580 0 580 0 580 0 190 0 A2 0 1000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 2000 05 094 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL The ground floors of residential buildings are freed from residential function, and commercial spaces and public areas are created there. This approach introduces functional diversity, allowing the integration of all project components. 02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION:
  • 95. 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 095 LAGO 03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
  • 96. 05 096 CASE STUDY. MARSEILLE, FR. LA SAVINE, GREEN ARCHIPEL 02 EXISTING HOUSING REHABILITATION:
  • 97. 097 LAGO 03 DENSIFICATION THROUGH INTERMEDIATE HOUSING:
  • 98. Cable car network, connecting living cluster with the North Railway Station and other Housing Groups Reconstruction/ selfberaring structure creating new balconies and winter gardens Vehicle and transport traffic 098
  • 99. Reconstruction/ functional diversity -common spaces on different levels Reconstruction/ functional diversity - shops on the ground floor An observatory of derelict nature in relation with regional universities Reception buildings of the Observatory Densification/ intermediate multistory housing Observatory Bridge Final stop of cable cars on the rooftop of the parking Parking Garage Vehicle traffic only outside of Housing group + technical and emergency trafic 099