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Child development, chapter 7, Caprice Paduano

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Child development, chapter 7, Caprice Paduano Child development, chapter 7, Caprice Paduano Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7 Social Development in Infancy Caprice Paduano Child Development
  • Chapter 7 Key Questions
    • Do infants experience emotions?
    • What sort of mental lives do infants have?
    • What is attachment in infancy and how does it affect a person’s future social competence?
    • What roles do other people play in infants’ social development?
    • What individual differences distinguish one infant from another?
    • How does nonparental child care impact infants?
  • Emotions in Infancy: Do Infants Experience Emotional Highs and Lows?
    • Infants display a fairly wide range of emotional expressions.
    • According to research, almost all mothers think that by the age of 1 month, their babies have expressed interest and joy. In addition, 84% of mothers think their infants have expressed anger, 75% surprise, 58% fear, and 34% sadness.
  • Emotions in Infancy: Do Infants Experience Emotional Highs and Lows?
    • Research also finds that interest, distress, and disgust are present at birth, and that other emotions emerge over the next few months.
    • Although infants display similar kinds of emotions, the degree of emotional expressivity varies among infants.
  • Experiencing Emotions
    • The fact that children display nonverbal expressions in a manner similar to that of adults does not necessarily mean that their actual experience is identical.
    • However, most developmental researchers argue that the nonverbal expressions of infants represent actual emotional experiences.
    • It now seems clear that infants are born with an innate repertoire of emotional expressions.
  • Stranger Anxiety and Separation Anxiety
    • Stranger anxiety The caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person
    • Separation anxiety The distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
    • Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety represent important social progress.
  • Smiling
    • Social smile Smiling in response to other individuals
    • As babies get older, their social smiles become directed toward particular individuals, not just anyone.
    • By the age of 18 months, social smiling, directed more toward mothers and other caregivers, becomes more frequent than smiling directed toward nonhuman objects.
  • Decoding Others’ Facial and Vocal Expressions
    • Infants seem to be able to discriminate vocal expressions of emotion at a slightly earlier age than they can interpret facial expressions.
    • Scientists know more about the sequence in which nonverbal facial decoding ability progresses.
    • By the time they reach the age of 4 months, infants may already have begun to understand the emotions behind facial and vocal expressions.
  • Social Referencing: Feeling What Others Feel
    • Social referencing The intentional search for information about others’ feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events
    • Social referencing first occurs around the age of 8 or 9 months.
    • It is a fairly sophisticated social ability: Infants need it not only to understand the significance of others’ behavior, but also the meaning of those behaviors within the context of a specific situation
  • The Development of Self: Do Infants Know Who They Are?
    • Self-awareness Knowledge of oneself
    • At around 17 to 24 months, children begin to show awareness of their own capabilities.
    • Children’s cultural upbringing also impacts the development of self-recognition.
  • Theory of Mind: Infants’ Perspectives on the Mental Lives of Others— and Themselves
    • Theory of mind Knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and how it affects behavior
    • Infants learn to see other people as compliant agents , beings similar to themselves who behave under their own power and who have the capacity to respond to infants’ requests.
    • Empathy An emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person
  • Forming Relationships
    • The arrival of a newborn brings a dramatic change to a family’s dynamics.
    • The bonds that grow between infants and their parents, siblings, family, and others provide the foundation for a lifetime’s worth of social relationships.
  • Attachment: Forming Social Bonds
    • Attachment The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
    • When children experience attachment to a given person, they feel pleasure when they are with them and feel comforted by their presence at times of distress.
    • As children become more independent, they can progressively roam farther away from their secure base.
  • Attachment: Forming Social Bonds
    • Ainsworth Strange Situation A sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between a child and (typically) his or her mother
    • Secure attachment pattern A style of attachment in which children use the mother as a kind of home base and are at ease when she is present; when she leaves, they become upset and go to her as soon as she returns (Table 7-1)
  • Infant Attachment
  • Attachment Patterns
    • Avoidant attachment pattern A style of attachment in which children do not seek proximity to the mother; after the mother has left, they seem to avoid her when she returns as if they are angered by her behavior
  • Attachment Patterns
    • Ambivalent attachment pattern A style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers; they show great distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit and kick her
  • Attachment Patterns
    • Disorganized-disoriented attachment pattern A style of attachment in which children show inconsistent, often contradictory behavior, such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at her; they may be the least securely attached children of all
  • Mothers and Attachment
    • Sensitivity to their infants’ needs and desires is the hallmark of mothers of securely attached infants.
    • Research has shown that overly responsive mothers are just as likely to have insecurely attached children as underresponsive mothers.
    • In contrast, others whose communication involves interactional synchrony are more likely to produce secure attachment.
  • Fathers and Attachment
    • Research has shown that fathers’ expressions of nurturance, warmth, affection, support, and concern are extremely important to their children’s emotional and social well-being.
    • Certain kinds of psychological disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, have been found to be related more to the father’s than to the mother’s behavior
  • Infant Interactions: Developing a Working Relationship
    • Research shows that infants may develop multiple attachment relationships.
    • Variations in attachment show that developing relationships is an ongoing process throughout our lifetimes.
  • Infant Interactions: Developing a Working Relationship
    • Mutual regulation model The model in which infants and parents learn to communicate emotional states to one another and to respond appropriately
    • Reciprocal socialization A process in which infants’ behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers, which in turn bring about further responses from the infants
  • Infants’ Sociability With Their Peers: Infant–Infant Interaction
    • Babies react positively to the presence of peers from early in life, and they engage in rudimentary forms of social interaction.
    • Infants’ sociability is expressed in several ways and generally rises with age.
    • As infants age, they begin to imitate each other.
    • To some developmentalists, the capacity of young children to engage in imitation suggests that imitation may be inborn.
  • Differences Among Infants
    • Differences among infants include overall personality and temperament, and differences in the lives they lead.
    • Differences are also based on their gender, the nature of their families, and the ways in which they are cared for.
  • Personality Development: The Characteristics That Make Infants Unique
    • Personality The sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
    • Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development The theory that considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others’—and their own—behavior
  • Personality Development: The Characteristics That Make Infants Unique
    • Trust-versus-mistrust stage According to Erikson, the period during which infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust, largely depending on how well their needs are met by their caregivers
    • Autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage The period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (aged 18 months to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if they are allowed the freedom to explore, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
  • Temperament: Stabilities in Infant Behavior
    • Temperament Patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual
    • Temperament refers to how children behave, as opposed to what they do or why they do it.
  • Temperament: Stabilities in Infant Behavior
    • Infants show temperamental differences in general disposition from the time of birth, initially being largely due to genetic factors, and temperament is fairly stable well into adolescence.
    • However, it is not fixed and unchangeable.
  • Dimensions of Temperament
  • Categorizing Temperament: Easy, Difficult, and Slow-to-Warm Babies
    • Easy babies Babies who have a positive disposition; their body functions operate regularly, and they are adaptable
    • Difficult babies Babies who have negative moods and are slow to adapt to new situations; when confronted with a new situation, they tend to withdraw
  • Categorizing Temperament: Easy, Difficult, and Slow-to-Warm Babies
    • Slow-to-warm babies Babies who are inactive, showing relatively calm reactions to their environment; their moods are generally negative, and they withdraw from new situations, adapting slowly
  • The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter?
    • Goodness-of-fit The notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children’s temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised
    • Research suggests that certain temperaments are, in general, more adaptive than others.
  • The Consequences of Temperament: Does Temperament Matter?
    • Temperament seems to be at least weakly related to infants’ attachment to their adult caregivers.
    • Cultural differences also have a major influence on the consequences of a particular temperament.
  • The Biological Basis of Temperament
    • From the behavioral genetics perspective, temperamental characteristics are seen as inherited traits that are fairly stable during childhood and across the entire life span.
    • These traits are viewed as making up the core of personality and playing a substantial role in future development.
  • Gender: Boys in Blue, Girls in Pink
    • Parents play with boy and girl babies differently.
    • The behavior exhibited by girls and boys is interpreted in very different ways by adults.
    • Gender The sense of being male or female
    • All cultures prescribe gender roles for males and females, but these roles differ greatly between cultures.
  • Gender Differences
    • There is a considerable amount of disagreement over both the extent and causes of such gender differences, even though most agree that boys and girls do experience at least partially different worlds based on gender.
    • Differences between male and female infants, however, are generally minor.
  • Gender Roles
    • Gender differences emerge more clearly as children age and become increasingly influenced by the gender roles that society sets out for them.
    • Societal encouragement and reinforcement do not completely explain differences in behavior between boys and girls.
    • Differences in behavior between boys and girls begin in infancy, and continue throughout childhood (and beyond).
  • Family Life in the 21st Century
    • Key statistics suggest that many infants are being raised in environments in which substantial stressors are present.
    • Such stress makes it an unusually difficult task to raise children—which is never easy, even under the best circumstances.
    • On the other hand, society is adapting to the new realities of family life in the 21st century.