Cog lifespan 6 social emotional (1)


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Cog lifespan 6 social emotional (1)

  1. 1. LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Social and Emotional Development
  2. 2. <ul><li>often harder to pinpoint than signs of physical development </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes many skills that increase self-awareness and self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that social skills and emotional development (reflected in the ability to pay attention, make transitions from one activity to another, and cooperate with others) are a very important part of school readiness </li></ul>
  3. 3. ATTACHMENT AND SOCIALISATION IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS <ul><li>Attachment is a strong emotional tie a person feels toward special people </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization is the process by which a person’s behaviours, values, skills, plans, and attitudes conform to and are adapted to those desired by society </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATTACHMENT IN RHESUS MONKEYS <ul><li>Harlow found that monkeys raised from birth in isolated bare-wire cages did not always survive </li></ul><ul><li>Other monkeys raised in the same conditions with scraps of terry cloth survived </li></ul><ul><li>Monkeys raised with a terry-cloth mother surrogate clung to that surrogate whether or not the surrogate could provide milk </li></ul>
  5. 5. BONDING <ul><li>Bonding is a special process of emotional attachment that may occur between parents and babies in the minutes and hours immediately after birth </li></ul>
  6. 6. ATTACHMENT IN INFANTS <ul><li>John Bowlby was one of the first modern psychologists to study attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Bowlby argued that an emotional tie to the caregiver evolved because it promotes survival </li></ul>
  7. 7. ATTACHMENT IN INFANTS (CONT’D) <ul><li>By 7 or 8 months of age, separation anxiety may develop in an infant </li></ul><ul><li>This is a fear response in which the infant protests the departure of the caregiver </li></ul><ul><li>The strange situation technique, used to study attachment, capitalises on separation anxiety </li></ul>
  8. 8. ATTACHMENT IN INFANTS (CONT’D) <ul><li>About 60% of children show secure attachment </li></ul><ul><li>About 20% show avoidant attachment </li></ul><ul><li>About 15% are resistant </li></ul><ul><li>About 5% are disoriented </li></ul>
  9. 9. ATTACHMENT IN INFANTS (CONT’D) <ul><li>Time spent with babies promotes secure attachment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Secure” babies have caregivers who are affectionate and especially responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers argue that secure attachment makes cognitive and social development smoother </li></ul>
  10. 10. ATTACHMENT AND CHILD CARE <ul><li>Children who participate in daycare experience minimal negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal research suggests daycare does not have significant negative effects if the quality of care is high </li></ul>
  11. 11. TEMPERAMENT <ul><li>Temperament refers to long-lasting individual differences in disposition, the intensity and quality of emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>A major study of temperament is the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) performed by Thomas and Chess </li></ul>
  12. 12. THOMAS AND CHESS (1977) DIMENSIONS Dimension Description Activity level Ratio of active periods to inactive periods Rhythmicity Regularity of bodily functions (sleep, hunger, etc) Distractibility Degree to which stimulation from the envt alters behaviour Approach/ withdrawal Response to new object, person or food item Adaptability Ease with which child adapts to changes in envt Attention span Amount of time devoted to an activity Reaction Intensity Energy level of response Responsiveness threshhold Intensity of friendly, joyful behaviour required to evoke a response Quality of mood Amount of friendly, joyful behaviour as opposed to unfriendly, unpleasant behaviour
  13. 13. TEMPERAMENT (CONT’D) <ul><li>The study found four types of infants: </li></ul><ul><li>The easy child (40% of children) </li></ul><ul><li>The slow-to-warm-up child (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>The difficult child (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>The unique child (35%) </li></ul>
  14. 14. TEMPERAMENT IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS <ul><li>Kagan found that extremely inhibited (shy) 2- and 3-year-olds tended to remain so for four or more years </li></ul><ul><li>Biological factors may play a role in shyness and temperament </li></ul>
  15. 15. EARLY SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHILD REARING <ul><li>Family is the first social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Although cultural differences exist, parents worldwide respond to their children in similar ways </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE ROLE OF FATHERS <ul><li>Research shows a father’s affection is as important as love from a mother </li></ul><ul><li>In general, fathers are affectionate and responsive caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Some fathers spend significant time with children but many do not </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of the time the father spends with children is affected by mother’s attitude </li></ul>
  17. 17. EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Infancy and toddlers
  18. 18. ERIKSON’S PERSONALITY THEORY <ul><li>NeoFruedian; Psychosocial theory </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the parent-infant relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Quality must be sufficiently well balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Through each stage the individual faces important events and experiences conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict that has to be negotiated </li></ul><ul><li>Successful negotiation of conflict leads to gaining strength </li></ul>
  19. 19. ERIKSON’S STAGES Infancy trust Vs mistrust Feeding 2 – 3 years autonomy Vs doubt Toileting 3 – 5 years initiative Vs guilt Exploration 6 – 11 years industry/competence Vs inferiority School 12 – 18 years identity Vs role confusion Social relationships 19 – 40 years intimacy Vs isolation Relationships 40 – 65 years generativity Vs stagnation Work, parenthood 65ys to death ego-integrity Vs despair Reflection on life
  20. 20. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 1 <ul><li>Learning Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Chronologically, this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life.  The child, well-handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism.  </li></ul><ul><li>Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.  </li></ul>
  21. 21. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 2 <ul><li>Learning Autonomy Versus Shame </li></ul><ul><li>The second psychosocial crisis, Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood, probably between about 18 months or 2 years and 3½ to 4 years of age.  The &quot;well - parented&quot; child emerges from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found control, and proud rather than ashamed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy is not entirely synonymous with assured self-possession, initiative, and independence but, at least for children in the early part of this psychosocial crisis, includes stormy self-will, tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism.  </li></ul>
  22. 22. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 3 <ul><li>Learning Initiative Versus Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson believes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the &quot;play age,&quot; or the later preschool years (from about 3½ to, in the United States culture, entry into formal school).  During it, the healthily developing child learns: (1) to imagine, to broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy (2) to cooperate with others (3) to lead as well as to follow.  </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilized by guilt, he is: (1) fearful (2) hangs on the fringes of groups (3) continues to depend unduly on adults and (4) is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination.   </li></ul>
  23. 23. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 4 <ul><li>Industry Versus Inferiority </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during what he calls the &quot;school age“. Here the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: (1) relating with peers according to rules (2) progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as baseball and (3) mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic.  Homework is a necessity, and the need for self-discipline increases yearly.  The child who, because of his successive and successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting, autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be industrious. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the mistrusting child will doubt the future. The shame - and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.  </li></ul>
  24. 24. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 5 <ul><li>Learning Identity Versus Identity Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>During the fifth psychosocial crisis (adolescence, from about 13 or 14 to about 20) the child, now an adolescent, learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of &quot;Who am I?&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>But even the best-adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity diffusion: most boys and probably most girls experiment with minor delinquency; rebellion flourishes; self-doubts flood the youngster, and so on </li></ul>
  25. 25. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 6 <ul><li>Learning Intimacy Versus Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>The successful young adult, for the first time, can experience true intimacy - the sort of intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship </li></ul>
  26. 26. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 7 <ul><li>Learning Generativity Versus Self-Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>In adulthood, the psychosocial crisis demands generativity, both in the sense of marriage and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively. </li></ul>
  27. 27. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 8 <ul><li>Integrity Versus Despair </li></ul><ul><li>If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved, the mature adult develops the peak of adjustment; integrity.  He trusts, he is independent and dares the new.  He works hard, has found a well-defined role in life, and has developed a self-concept with which he is happy.  He can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack of realism; and he is proud of what he creates - his children, his work, or his hobbies.  </li></ul><ul><li>If one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved, he may view himself and his life with disgust and despair. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ERIKSON’S STAGES trust Vs mistrust Hope Dependency or Paranoia autonomy Vs doubt Will Obsessive/Impulsive or Avoidant initiative Vs guilt Purpose Constricted or Antisocial/Narcissistic industry/competence Vs inferiority Competency Helplessness or Shallowness identity Vs role confusion Fidelity Identity Diffusion or Fanaticism intimacy Vs isolation Love Promiscuity or Exclusion generativity Vs stagnation Care Stagnation or Overextension ego-integrity Vs despair Wisdom Presumption or Disdain
  29. 29. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Basic emotions: emotions that are universal in humans and possibly other primates. They have a long (evolutionary) history of promoting survival, can be directly inferred from facial expressions </li></ul>
  30. 30. The basic emotions are happiness interest surprise sadness anger fear disgust By nature, humans are aggressive..
  31. 31. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Evolutionary history </li></ul>ApproxAge milestone Birth Attraction to pleasant, withdrawal from unpleasant 2-3mth Social smiling, response to adults’ facial expression 3-5mth Organised patterns of behaviour, matching emotions to voice 6-8mth Basic emotions organised, fear and suspicion are present. Stranger anxiety, separation anxiety 8-12mth Social referencing appears, respond to subtlety 18-24mth Self conscious emotions of shame, guilt. Empathy. Self regulation
  32. 32. BASIC EMOTION: HAPPINESS <ul><li>Smiles followed by laughter </li></ul><ul><li>From basic satisfaction – having a satisfying meal, affection/attention from mother, to interesting stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Between 6 to 10 weeks – development of social smile </li></ul>Quality of smile changes as they age – broader towards familiar people Changes in smiles is a related to the babies’ increasing sensitivity to visual patterns and the human face
  33. 33. BASIC EMOTION: ANGER & SADNESS <ul><li>Anger is a common reaction between the age of 4mth to 2yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of situations that infants react in anger towards </li></ul><ul><li>Anger is purposeful – control own actions, defence or overcome obstacles, control caregiver who wants to relieve infant’s distress </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness occurs when infant-caregiver communication is disrupted -> impairs development </li></ul>
  34. 34. BASIC EMOTIONS: FEAR <ul><li>Only activated around 6mth </li></ul><ul><li>Stranger anxiety: Toddlers show wariness of strangers </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of strangers can easily be overcome if stranger interaction gives reassurance – show warmth, play familiar games, approaching slowly rather than abruptly </li></ul><ul><li>Fear and anxiety is dependent on upbringing </li></ul><ul><li>Toddlers treat caregiver as a secure base that gives emotional support, from which exploration is conducted </li></ul>
  35. 35. UNDERSTANDING AND RESPONDING TO OTHERS’ EMOTIONS <ul><li>Infants’ emotions are tied to their ability to interpret emotional cues from others </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic process of emotional contagion during earlier months </li></ul><ul><li>Around 5mths infants are able to respond to facial cues </li></ul><ul><li>Social referencing – where the infant actively seeks emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation </li></ul>
  36. 36. EMERGENCE OF SELF CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS <ul><li>Emotions other than the six basic emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Second-order, higher-order emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, envy, pride </li></ul><ul><li>Involving injury or enhancement of sense of self </li></ul><ul><li>Develops around 18-24mths, when toddlers are fully aware of themselves – can distinguish that the person in the mirror is their reflection </li></ul>
  37. 37. BEGINNINGS OF EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION <ul><li>Emotional self-regulation involves voluntary effortful management of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>It is practiced so that we can accomplish our goals </li></ul><ul><li>This is the root to group differences in expression of emotion – gender, cultural – suppression and encouragement of certain expressions and emotions are discouraged / encouraged by the process of emotional self-regulation </li></ul>
  38. 38. SELF DEVELOPMENT Awareness of self, self recognition self control
  39. 39. SELF AWARENESS <ul><li>Young infants can distinguish themselves from the environment – gauged by the differential reaction to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>They respond to videos of unfamiliar people than to video of self by 3mths suggesting they can differentiate others and self </li></ul><ul><li>By second year, toddlers are conscious of self (consistently) and display self recognition skills </li></ul>
  40. 40. SELF-AWARENESS <ul><li>Self awareness -> self consciousness -> appreciating others’ perspectives i.e. development of empathy </li></ul><ul><li>By age 2yrs, language plays important part in self development </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to categorise themselves – by age, gender, physical characteristics etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Self awareness brings effortful control </li></ul>
  41. 41. SELF CONTROL, DELAY OF GRATIFICATION <ul><li>Extent to which inhibition of impulses, management of negative emotions, behaving in socially acceptable ways is practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance = when child is aware of caregiver’s wishes and gives in to expectations, obeys simple commands </li></ul><ul><li>(p208 table) </li></ul>
  42. 42. TEMPERAMENT AND DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Relatively stable characteristics of reaction and self-regulation with relation to emotional arousal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy child: generally cheerful, adaptive, establishes regular routines rapidly (40%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult child: irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new situations and tends to react intensely and negatively (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow-to-warm-up child: mild low-key reactions, negative in mood, adjusts slowly to new experiences (15%) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERAMENT <ul><li>A difficult child faces more challenges growing up </li></ul><ul><li>As such, weathering the difficulties, this adolescent has a larger likelihood of being awkward and suspicious, and withdrawn and antisocial as an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of parenting – helps reduce the negative impact of temperament </li></ul>
  44. 44. STABILITY OF TEMPERAMENT <ul><li>Overall stability of temperament is low to moderate, with irritability & shyness persisting. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament develops with age, early predictions based on new born may change; predictions made around 2yrs are more accurate of adult temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty children handled correctly can improve significantly due to parenting styles </li></ul>
  45. 45. INFLUENCES ON TEMPERAMENT <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Daring & active – xy </li></ul><ul><li>Anxious & timid – xx </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese, Chinese – less active, more easily soothed than their western counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Deprivation results in maladaptive reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition related to distractibility, fearfulness and easily overwhelmed by stress </li></ul>Perception of differences between sons and daughters happens within hours of birth – leading to different handling styles – girls are more sociable and boys more active etc.
  46. 46. ATTACHMENT <ul><li>Strong affectionate ties one has with significant others, where interaction brings pleasure and their nearness brings comfortable feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Theories – psychoanalytic, ethological </li></ul><ul><li>Research – strange person situation </li></ul>
  48. 48. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTACHMENT <ul><li>Pre-attachment phase (birth – 6weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment in the making phase (6weeks – 6 or 8mths) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear-cut attachment phase (6 or 8mths – 18mths) </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of a reciprocal relationship (18mths – 2yrs) </li></ul>
  49. 49. FACTORS THAT AFFECT ATTACHMENT SECURITY <ul><li>Opportunity for attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Infants and toddlers given opportunity of exclusive attention thrived and were more securely attached </li></ul>
  50. 50. EQ: DANIEL GOLEMAN <ul><li>knowing one's emotions: People who know their feelings are better pilots of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>managing emotions: people who are effective in managing their emotions can cope better with life's adversities and can bounce back faster than those who are poor in managing their feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>motivating oneself: people without emotional intelligence lack self-restraint and would just do whatever their impulses suggest. Emotional self-control, delaying gratification and stifling impulsiveness underlies accomplishment of every sort. </li></ul><ul><li>recognizing emotions in others: emotional self-awareness is the first step to empathic sensitivity. If we are in touch with our own feelings, then we can empathise with others and sense their needs. </li></ul><ul><li>handling relationships: the art of relating to others includes the skill in managing emotions in others. </li></ul>
  51. 51. CULTIVATING EQ <ul><li>Be in touch with your own feelings: find time to be alone, know yourself and write down your thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not deny your feelings: recognise that feelings are not sins. Where needed, share your feelings with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the maturity of your potential confidant: can he or she handle what you will be sharing? </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise caution in revealing feelings or facts that may hurt others </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow your feelings to dictate your behaviour: set your own criteria on what you should and should not do. It is important to establish principles beforehand as to what to do when caught in such situations because emotions may dominate your being and rational thoughts go out the window! </li></ul>