Erikson's theory of psychosocial

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Erikson's theory of psychosocial

  1. 1. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
  2. 2. • Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages.
  3. 3. • One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others.
  4. 4. • In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.
  5. 5. • In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
  6. 6. Psychosocial Stage 1 -  Trust vs.Mistrust The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.
  7. 7. • Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers. • If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
  8. 8. • Psychosocial Conflict: Trust vs Mistrust • Major Question: "Can I trust the people around me?" • Basic Virtue: Hope
  9. 9. • Important Event(s): Feeding The trust versus mistrust stage is the first stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development . This stage occurs between birth and approximately 18 months of age. According to Erikson, the trust versus mistrust stage is the most important period in a person’s life.
  10. 10. • Because an infant is entirely dependent upon his or her caregivers, the quality of care that the child receives plays an important role in the shaping of the child’s personality. During this stage, children learn whether or not they can trust the people around them. When a baby cries, does his caregiver attend to his needs? When he is frightened, will someone comfort him?
  11. 11. • When these needs are consistently met, the child will learn that he can trust the people that are caring for him. If, however, these needs are not consistently met, the child will begin to mistrust the people around him.
  12. 12. • If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
  13. 13. Psychosocial Stage 2 –   Autonomy vs. The second stage of Doub Shame and • Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.
  14. 14.   • Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
  15. 15. • Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. • Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
  16. 16. • Psychosocial Conflict: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt • Major Question: "Can I do things myself or am I reliant on the help of others?" • Basic Virtue: Will
  17. 17. • Important Event(s): Toilet Training • Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson’sstages of  psychosocial development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately age two to three years. According to Erikson, children at this stage are focused on developing a greater sense of self-control. • Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
  18. 18. Psychosocial Stage 3 -  Initiative vs. Guilt • During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions. • Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, selfdoubt, and lack of initiative.
  19. 19. • Psychosocial Conflict: Initiative versus Guilt • Major Question: “Am I good or bad?” • Basic Virtue: Purpose
  20. 20. • Important Event(s): Exploration, Play • Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and five. During the initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction.
  21. 21. • Play and imagination takes on an important role at this stage. Children have their sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. When efforts to engage in physical and imaginative play are stifled by caregivers, children begin to feel that their self-initiated efforts are a source of embarrassment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose, while failure results in a sense of guilt.
  22. 22. Psychosocial Stage 4 –   Industry vs. Inferiority • This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. • Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
  23. 23. • Psychosocial Conflict: Industry versus Inferiority • Major Question: "How can I be good?" • Basic Virtue: Competence
  24. 24. • Important Event(s): School • Industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage of Erik Erikson'stheory of  psychosocial development. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven. School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
  25. 25. • During the industry versus inferiority stage, children become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
  26. 26. • According to Erikson, this stage is vital in the development of self-confidence. During school and other social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading, writing, drawing and solving problems. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
  27. 27. Psychosocial Stage 5 -  Identity vs. Confusion • During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self. • Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will feel insecure and confused about themselves and the future.
  28. 28.   • Psychosocial  Conflict: Identity  Versus Confusion • Major Question: "Who  am I?" • Basic Virtue: Fidelity
  29. 29. • Important Event(s): Social Relationships • Identity versus confusion is the fifth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of  psychosocial development. This stage occurs during adolescence between the ages of approximately 12 to 18. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self.
  30. 30. • Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.
  31. 31. Psychosocial Stage 6 –   Intimacy vs. Isolation • This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. • Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will form relationships that are committed and secure.
  32. 32. • Psychosocial  Conflict: Intimacy Versus  Isolation • Major Question: "Will I be  loved or will I be alone?“ • Basic Virtue: Love
  33. 33. • Important Event(s): Romantic Relationships • Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 19 and 40. During this period of time, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people.
  34. 34. • Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
  35. 35. Psychosocial Stage 7 -  Generativity vs. Stagnation • During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family. • Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
  36. 36. • Psychosocial  Conflict: Generativity  Versus Stagnation • Major Question: "How can I  contribute to the world?" • Basic Virtue: Care
  37. 37. • Important Event(s): Parenthood and Work • Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh stage of Erik Erikson’s theory ofpsychosocial development. This stage takes place during middle adulthood between the ages of approximately 40 and 65. During this time, adults strive to create or nurture things that will outlast them; often by having children or contributing to positive changes that benefits other people.
  38. 38. • Contributing to society and doing things to benefit future generations are important needs at the generativity versus stagnation stage of development. Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world, through caring for others, creating things and accomplishing things that make the world a better place.
  39. 39. • Stagnation refers to the failure to find a way to contribute. These individuals may feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole. • Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attsain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
  40. 40. Psychosocial Stage 8 -  Integrity vs. Despair • This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life. • Those who are unsuccessful during this stage will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.
  41. 41. • Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
  42. 42. • Psychosocial Conflict: Integrity versus despair • Major Question: "Did I live a meaningful life?“ • Basic Virtue: Wisdom
  43. 43. • Important Event(s): Reflecting back on life • Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson's theory ofpsychosocial development. This stage occurs during late adulthood from age 65 through the end of life. During this period of time, people reflect back on the life they have lived and come away with either a sense of fulfillment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent.
  44. 44. • Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
  45. 45. • Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
  46. 46. • Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.
  47. 47. •Thank you and Godbless 

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