Introduction to Education, Chapter 5, Caprice Paduano
Caprice Paduano Chapter 5Historical Foundations of U.S. Education
1. Why is educational history important?2. What were teaching and schools like in the American colonies (1620–1750)?3. What were the goals of education during the Revolutionary Period (1750-1820)4. How was the struggle won for state-supported common school (1820-1865)?5. How did compulsory education change schools and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?6. What were the aims of education during the Progressive Era (1920-1945)?7. How did education change during the modern postwar era (1945-2000)?8. What are the educational priorities of the new century (2000 to the present)?
• Knowledge of events that influenced schools will help in evaluation of current proposals for change.• Awareness of events that have influenced teaching is a hallmark of professionalism
Curriculum Essentialist reading, writing and math based on religionTeacher Status Low, minimal qualifications, high moralsSchools Puritan – Often harsh schools that taught reading and writing to learn scriptures Parochial – Schools based on religious beliefs Dame – Schools for initial instruction of reading, writing and arithmetic boys and only school for girls Reading and Writing – Schools for boys beyond what parents could teach Latin Grammar Schools – Schools for boys to prep for Harvard
Origins of Mandated Education (Acts) Massachusetts Act of 1642 First educational law in country – declared children needed to read and write. If not able parents could receive fine Massachusetts Act of 1647 Old Deluder Satan Act – Mandated the establishment and support of schools – towns with 50 or more families had to fund schools.
Education of Students African Americans received training from masters or church groups, also Philadelphia African School Native Americans Received education from Quaker Indian Schools Mexican Americans Received training from missionaries
Ben Franklin Started Philadelphia Academy - secular academic supported privately Wrote “Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania”Sarah Pierce Started Sarah Pierce’s Female Academy – emphasized essentialist curriculumFemale Seminaries Troy Seminary – One of the first women’s colleges
Thomas JeffersonViewed education of the common people mosteffective means of preserving libertyFor a society to remain free, it must support acontinuous system of public educationBill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge –called for state controlled schools that would teach atno cost to parents 3 yrs of reading, writing andarithmetic
Webster’s Speller Written by Noah Webster “The Old Blue-Back” Purpose was to “instill first rudiments of language, some just ideas of religion, morals and domestic economy”
Common Schools state supported high schools•Infavor – city residents, nontaxpayers, democraticleaders, philanthropist, humanitarians•Opposed – rural residents, taxpayers, aristocraticand conservative groups, private school owners,conservative religious groups, Southerners andNon-English speaking groups
Horace Mann Champion of Common School Movement free public local schools Improved Massachusetts schools Convince Conservative moneyed classes free schools were cheapest means of self – protection and insurance Started Normal Schools general knowledge course and courses in pedagogy for teacher preparation
McGuffey Reader Written by Reverend William Holmes McGuffey Readers (books) emphasized virtues of hard work, honesty, truth, charity and obedience Morrill Land Grant ActProvided federal land for states to either sell or rent for fundsfor the establishment of colleges of agriculture and mechanicalarts
Compulsory Education Laws•Required common school attendance•More students attended school•Increased attendance created need formanagement•Scientific Management • Top down management taken from big business
Higher Education for African AmericansBooker T. Washington Founded Tuskegee Institute – Industrial school for African Americans in rural Alabama Believed that as the race grows in knowledge, experience, culture, taste and wealth that the wants of the people will become more diverse and to satisfy this the number of professional business men and women will increase
W.E.B. Dubois First Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) Founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Called to educate the most talented tenth of the African American population to equip them for leadership
Kindergarten Garden where children grow Founded by Friedrich Froebel Stress motor development and self activity before children began formal schoolingProfessionalization of Teaching Professional Teacher Organizations Started National Education Association (NEA) American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Worked to increase teacher salaries and professionalize teaching.
Reorganization of Secondary Education Called for high school curriculum to accommodate individual instruction Determined 7 goals to provide focus for schooling at all levels: health, command of individual processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, and ethical character
Women’s Influence on Teaching Greater demand for teachers Linked schools with social service agencies and institutions
Progressivism Belief that life is evolving in positive direction, people should be trusted to act in own best interest Education should focus on children’s interests and practical needs Teachers served as guides John Dewey’s Laboratory School Gave students meaningful relevant education Test principles Curriculum should be a natural outgrowth of child interests
Maria Montessori’s Method Believed children’s mental, physical and spiritual development should be enhanced by providing them with developmentally appropriate activities Teachers created learning environments based on student’s level of development and readiness to learn new material
• Decline in progressivism due to public criticism• Lasting effects of progressivism• Inquiry or discovery learning• Self paced instructional approaches• Field trips• Flexible scheduling• Open Concept classrooms• Non-graded schools• Small group activities• School-based counseling
Education of Immigrants and Minorities•Goal – rapid assimilation into English-speakingAnglo-European society • Children often punished for speaking native language • Ethnic groups established separate schools to preserve culture
Education of Immigrants and Minorities•Native Americans – Federal Government placedtribes on reservations and tribal children inboarding schools to assimilate them into thedominate culture•The Problem of Indian Administration • Recommended Native American Education be restructured • Built day schools • Revised curricula to reflect tribal cultures and needs
Mary McLeod Bethune•Started what became Bethune-Cookman College•Directed Office of Minority Affairs in the NationalYouth Administration (NYA)
World War II and Federal GovernmentInfluences Lanham Act Provided funding for: Worker training Construction of school in military areas Childcare for working parents G.I. Bill of Rights provided funding for tuition and board at colleges and universities for veterans
Trends How can full and equal educational opportunity be extended to all groups? What knowledge and skills should be taught? How should knowledge and skills be taught?
1950sNational Defense Education Act of 1958 • Started in response to Russian Satellite – Sputnik first into space • Education is the first line of defense • New math, science, social studies and foreign language programsDesegregation•Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka•Separation is unequal•Schools order to desegregate
1960s•Elementary and Secondary Education Act • Allocated funds on the basis of the number poor children•Title VII – The Bilingual Education Act • Provided federal aid to low-income children of limited English-speaking ability
1970s Accountability of teachers demanded Back-to-basics Movement Title IX No person in the United State shall on the basis of sex be excluded from education or activity receiving federal assistance Education for All Handicapped Children (PL94-142) Referred to as Mainstreaming Law Children with special needs will receive a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive environment
1980s Nation at Risk Gave evidence that schools were failing Paideia Proposal Response to Nation at Risk Proposal for perrenialist core curriculum High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America Suggested strengthening academic core curriculum
1990s Challenges Greater diversity Greater international competition Less support for public education Decentralization and deregulation of schools Response Teacher leadership and collaboration
Equity for all students The achievement gapExcellence 2010 ESEA reauthorization Race to the Top grantsAccountability Holding schools, teachers, and administrators accountable for student learning.