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Social and Emotional Development

Erikson's theory

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SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
Concept of Social and Emotional
Development
• Social development describes the quality of a
person’s social development as a function of past
relationships in one’s life.
• Emotional development is the growth of feeling or
affect that involves physiologic arousal, behavioral
expression, and sometime conscious experience.
• The social and emotional development is
essential to his appropriate behavior, under-standing
of life and reactions to emotional matters.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
• Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined
with biological maturation provides each individual with a
set of “crises” that must be resolved.
• The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which
to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is
presented.
Social and Emotional Development
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
Trust
vs.
Mistrust
infancy
(Birth to 1
year)
• Baby and infancy develops a belief
that the environment can be counted
on to meet his or her basic
physiological and social needs.
• If a baby and infancy is nurtured, and
loved, he will develop trust and
security and a basic optimism. Badly
handled, he becomes insecure and
mistrustful.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
Autonomy
vs. Shame
& Doubt
Toddlerhood
(1 to 3 years)
• Child learns what he/she can
control and develops a sense of
free will and corresponding sense
of regret and sorrow for
inappropriate use of self-control.
• The well-adjusted child emerges
from this stage sure of himself,
elated with his new found control,
and proud rather than ashamed.

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Social and Emotional Development

  • 2. Concept of Social and Emotional Development • Social development describes the quality of a person’s social development as a function of past relationships in one’s life. • Emotional development is the growth of feeling or affect that involves physiologic arousal, behavioral expression, and sometime conscious experience. • The social and emotional development is essential to his appropriate behavior, under-standing of life and reactions to emotional matters.
  • 3. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development • Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved. • The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented.
  • 5. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust infancy (Birth to 1 year) • Baby and infancy develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. • If a baby and infancy is nurtured, and loved, he will develop trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.
  • 6. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years) • Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. • The well-adjusted child emerges from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found control, and proud rather than ashamed.
  • 7. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood (3 to 6 years) • Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. • Child learns to broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, to cooperate with others and to lead as well as to follow. • If the child is immobilised by guilt, he is fearful, hangs on the fringes of groups, continues to depend on adults, and is restricted in imagination.
  • 8. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood (6 to 12 years) • Child learns to do things well and to skills like relating with peers according to rules, progressing from free play, mastering social studies, reading, math at school and creating self-disciplined approaches to learning. • Child is trusting, autonomous, full of initiative and will learn easily enough to be industrious. However, the mistrusting child will doubt the future and experience inferiority.
  • 9. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence (12 to 20 years) • Adolescent develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires and develop social & personal identity. • Adolescent learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of "Who am I?". But even the best-adjusted teenager experiences some role identity problems and starts rebelling and filling with self-doubt. The young person acquires self-certainty as opposed to self-consciousness and self-doubt.
  • 10. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood (20 to 40 years) • Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships. • The successful young adult, for the first time, can experience true intimacy - the sort of intimacy that makes possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship.
  • 11. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) • Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation • In adulthood, the psychosocial crisis demands a person becomes more emotionally and socially generous, both in the sense of marriage and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively.
  • 12. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Ego-integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood (over 65 years) • If the psychosocial crises have been resolved, the mature adult develops the peak of integrity. He trusts, independent . He works hard, has developed a self-concept. He can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack of realism, and he is proud of what he creates. • If psychosocial crises have not been resolved, he may view himself and his life with disgust and despair.
  • 13. Review of Erikson’s Psycho social Lifespan Development
  • 14. Mental Models – Self and Others • Students’ enduring beliefs and expectations about what they are like and what other people are like
  • 15. Characteristics of high-quality relationships Attunement Sensing and reading another’s state of being and adjusting one’s own behavior accordingly. Relatedness The psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people
  • 16. Characteristics of high-quality relationships Supportiveness Affirmation of the other person’s capacity for self-direction and contribution to help realize his or her self-set goals Gentle- discipline socialization strategy that revolves around explaining why a way of thinking or behaving is right or wrong.
  • 17. Characteristics of low-quality relationships • Neglect and abuse • Indifference • Permissiveness • Lack of support • Lack of involvement • Insensitivity • Rejection • Hostility
  • 18. Positive Social Development • Trust : confidence that the other person in the relationship cares, is looking out for your welfare, and will be there when needed. • Self-esteem : trust applied to oneself; an attitude that one is worthy of a positive or negative evaluation. • Care : an emotional concern and sense of responsibility to protect or enhance another person’s welfare or well-being.
  • 19. Positive Social Development • Attachment : a close emotional relationship between two persons that is characterized by mutual affection and the desire to maintain proximity with the other. • Initiative : the child’s capacity to use a surplus of energy to plan and constructively carry out a task. • Self concept : set of beliefs the individual uses to mentally represent or understand his or her sense of self.
  • 20. Positive Social Development • Identity : the sense of being a distinct and productive individual within the larger social framework. • Competence : the psychological need to be effective as one interacts with the surrounding environment • Social competence : how skilled children and adolescents are at managing the sometimes frustrating and challenging experiences they have with other people.
  • 21. Importance of Social and Emotional Development • Develop relationships • Controlling their internal emotions • Master the ability to initiate, discover, play and learn • Develop persistence and attention • Self-regulate their behaviour • Develop emotional range • Develop social skills