I!3:2210-1988
Indian St&mhrd
CRITERIA FOR
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELL
STRUCTURES AND FOLDED PLATES
( First Revisio...
.I
IS :2210 - 1988
Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELL
STRUCTURES AND FOLDED PLATES
(First Re...
FIG.1 SINGLEBARRELSHELL
FIG.2 B~ITERFLYSHELL
FIG.3 MULTIPLEBARRELSHELL
2
2.7 Edge Member - A member provided at the
edge of a shell.
NOTE- Edge members increase the rigidity of the shell
edge and...
-
f cc =
H =
permissible compressive stress from
buckling consideration;
total depth of shell, measured from the
crown of ...
Non+ Diaphragms 4F
u
e‘IG- 4 FOLDED PLAYnoiSbOWO,
6A CONbID
68 HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID
6C HYPERBOLOID OF REVOLUTION OF ONE SHEET
FIG. 6 RULED SURFACES
6
Is : 2210- 1988
7A SEGMENTAL DOME
78 PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION
Fro. 7 !fhLU OFREVOLUTION
8A ELLIPTIC PARABOLOID
88 HYPERBOL...
IS : 2210 - 1988
6. LOADS
6.1 Unless otherwise specified, shells and folded
plates shall be designed to resist the followi...
7.2.2.1 The angle of inclination of the plates to
horizontal shall be limited to about 40 for in-situ
construction in orde...
IS : 2210- 1988
In such shells, if P exceeds 10 and K exceeds 0’15,
the effect at any point on the shell of the dis-
turba...
8.4 Folded Plates - The structural action of folded
plates may be thought of as consisting of two parts.
the ‘slab action’...
IS : 2210 - 1988
9.4 Buckling in Doubly-Carved Shells - For
spherical shells, the permissible buckling load per
unit area ...
IS:2210-1988
11.1.1 Thickness - A width of two to three times
the thickness of the shell subject to a minimum of
15 cm is ...
APPENDIX A
( Clause 4.2 )
DETAILED CLASSIFICATION OF STRESSED SKIN SURFACES
Stressed Skin Surfaces
? I
Polded+Pla*es
!
1Do...
El.
IS : 2210 - 1988
APPENDIX B
( Clauses 8.1.1.3, 8.1.2.1, 8.1.2.2 and 8.1.3.1 )
TABLES AND THE METHODS OF- ANALYSIS OF C...
IS : 2210- 1988
On introducing the stress function, the third where
equilibrium equation reduce to the following:
F = stre...
Bmrma of IBdiu St8mdard8
BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Stan&r& Act, 1986 to
promot...
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2210

  1. 1. I!3:2210-1988 Indian St&mhrd CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELL STRUCTURES AND FOLDED PLATES ( First Revision) First Reprint JANUARY 1992 -UDC 624’012’45 - 04 : 624’07’4/‘42 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110 002 Gr 7 November 1989 ( Reaffirmed 1998 )
  2. 2. .I IS :2210 - 1988 Indian Standard CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SHELL STRUCTURES AND FOLDED PLATES (First Revision ) 0. FOREWORD 0.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on I5 November 1988, after the draft finalized by the Criteria for Design of Special Structures Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineer- ing Division Council. 0.2 Shells and folded plates belong to the class of stressed-skin structures which, because of their geometry and small flexural rigidity of the skin, tend to carry loads primarily by direct stresses acting in their plane. Wherever shell is referred to in this standar$ it refers to thin shell. On account of multiphclty of the types of reinforced concrete shell and folded plate structures used in present day building practice for a variety of applications demand- ing roofing of large column-free area, it is not practicable to lay down a rigid code of practice to cover all situations. Therefore, this standard lays down certain general recommendations for the guidance of the designers. .* 0.3 Cylindrical shells have been in use in building construction for the past six decades. Well developed theories exist for their analysis. Labour-saving short cuts, such as, charts and tables for their design, are also available. 0.4 Although shells of double curvature, with the exception of domes, have been introduced on a large scale comparatively recently into building construc- tion, these are likely to be used more and more in future. Being non-developable surfaces, they are more resistant to buckling than cylindrical sheTls and in general, require less thickness. This saving in materials is, however, often offset by the datively expensive shuttering required for casting them. Among the doubly-curved shells, ’ the hyperbolic paraboloid and the conoid have, however, the advantage of less expensive shuttering because their ruled surfaces can be formed by straight plank shuttering. 0.5 Folded plates are often competitive with shells for covering large column-free areas. They usually consume relatively more materials compared to shell but this disadvantage is often offset by the simpler framework required for their construction. 0.6 This standard was first published. in 1962. The present revision is based on the developments in the design of shell and folded plate structures subsequent- ly and to include more rigorous methods of analysis which have become available to enforce more rational criteria of design. 0.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. *Rules for rounding off numerical values (revised ). 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard lays down recommendations for the classification, dimensional proportioning, analysis and design of cast in situ, reinforced concrete thin shells and folded plates. This standard does not deal with construction practices relating to these structures which have been separately dealt in IS : 2204-1962*. 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.0 For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall apply. 2.1 Asymmetrical Cylindrical Shells - Cylindrical shells which are asymmetrical about the crown. *Code of practice for construction of reinforced concrete shell roof. 2.2 Barrel Shells - Cylindrical shells which are symmetrical about the crown (see Fig. 1). 2.3 Butterfly Shells - Butterfly shells are those which consist of two parts of a cylindrical shell joined together at their lower edges (see Fig. 2). 2.4 Chord Width - The chord width is the horizon- tal projection of the arc of the cylindrical shell. 2.5 Continuous Cylindrical Shells - Cylindrical shells which are longitudinally continuous over the traverses (see Fig. 3 ). NOTE- Doubly-curved shells continuous in one or both directions may be termed as continuous shells. 2.6 Cylindrical Shells - Shells in which either the directrix or generatrix is a straight line. 1
  3. 3. FIG.1 SINGLEBARRELSHELL FIG.2 B~ITERFLYSHELL FIG.3 MULTIPLEBARRELSHELL 2
  4. 4. 2.7 Edge Member - A member provided at the edge of a shell. NOTE- Edge members increase the rigidity of the shell edge and h&p in accommodating the reinforcement. 2.8 End Frames or Traverses - End frames or traverses are structures provided to support and preserve the geometry of the shell. NOTE- They may be solid diaphragms, arch ribs, portal frames or bowstring girders. Where a clear soffit is required, specially for the use of movable formwork, the end frames may consist of upstand ribs. 2.9 Folded Plates - Folded plates consist of a series of thin plates, usually rectangul c, joined monolithi- cally along their common e2ges and supported on diaphragms. They are also known as hipped plates. NOTE- Shapes of Folded Plates and Their Applications- A few of the commonly used shapes of folded plates are shown in Fig. 4. The simplest is V-shaped unit (Fig. 4A) but this may not provide enough area of concrete at the top and bottom to resist the compressive forces due to bending and to accommodate the reinforcement. The trough-shaPed or the trapezoidal unit (Fig. 4B and 4E) eliminates _ these disadvantages. Asy&meirical section; of the ‘2’ shape (Fig. 4C) provided with window glazing between two adjacent units serve as north-light roofs for factory buildings. The shape shown in Fig. 4D is obtained by replacing the curved cross-se&x of a cylindrical shell by a series of straight plates. This has the advantage of greater structural depth compared to other shapes. Buttetiy type of folded plates shown in Fig. 4F are also employed to cover factory roofs as there are provisions for window glazing. Tapering plates are also used as roofs mainly for aesthetic reasons. I-lipped plate structures of the pyramidal types are used for tent- shaped roofs, cooling towers, etc. 2.10 Gauss Curvature - The product of the two principal curvatures, ~/RIand l/R1 at any point on the surface of the shell. 2.11 Generatrix, Directrix - A curve which moves parallel to itself over a stationary curve generates a surface. The moving curve is called the generatrix and the stationary curve the directrix. One of them may be a straight line. NOTE- The common curves used for cylindrical shells are, arc of a circle, semi-ellipse, parabola, catenary and cycloid. 2.12 Junction Member - The common edge mem- ber at the junction of two adjacent shells. 2.13 Multiple Cylindrical Shells - A series of parallel cylindrical shells w.lich are transversely continuous. 2.14 North-Light Shells - Cylindrical shells with two springings at different levels and having provisions for north-light glazing (see Fig. 5). 2.15 Radius - Radius at any point of the. shell- in one of the two principal directions. NOTE- If cylindrical shell of a circular arc is used, the radius of the arc is the radius of the shell. In other cases, the radius R at any point is related to the radius &, at thd crown by R = R, cos n#, where 4 is the angle of inclination IS : 2210- 1988 of the tangent to the curve at that point. The parabola, value ofn is 1, -2 and -3 for cycloid, catenary and para- bola, respectively. For an ellipse: R- . a2P (a’ sin*+ + b* c&d )*I* where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes, respectively, and d is the slope of the tangent at the point. 2.16 Rise - The vertical distance between the apex of the curve representing the centre line of the shell and the lower most springing. 2.17 Ruled Surfaces - Surfaces which can be generated entirely by straight lines. The surface is said to be ‘singly ruled’ if at every point, a single straight line only can be ruled and ‘doubly ruled’ if at every point, two straiglt lines can be ruled. Cylindrical shells, conical shells and conoids are examples of singly ruled surfaces; hyperbolic para- bol jids and hyperboloids of revolution of one sheet are examples of doubly ruled surface ( see Fig. 6 ). 2.18 Semi-Central Angle - Half the angle subtend- ed by the arc of a symmetrical circular shell at the centre. 2.19 Shells - Thin shells are those in which the radius to thickness ratio should not be more than 20. 2.20 Shells of Revolation - Shells which are obtain- ed when a plane curve is rotated about the axis of symmetry. Examples are segmental domes, cones, parab Jloids of revolution, hyperboloids OI revolu- tion, etc ( see Fig. 7 ). 2.21 Shells of Translation - Shells which are obtained when the plane of the generatrix and the directrix are at right angles. Examples are cylindri- cal shells, elliptic paraboloids, hyperbolic paraboloids, etc ( see Fig. 8 ) , 2.22 span - The span of a cylindrical shell is the distance between the centre lines of two adjacent end frames of traverses (see Fig. 1). 3. NOTATIONS 3.1 For the purpose of this standard, unless other- wise defined in the text, the following notations shall have the meaning indicated against each: a = B ZZ b = D s d = Ec = Es = F = f = r’ol= h = semi-major axis of an elliptical shell; chord width; semi-minor axis of an elliptical shell; flexural rigidity; thickness of shell; Modulus of elasticity of concrete (long term ); Modulus of elasticity of steel; stress function which gives the in-plane stress in doubly-curved shells when bending is also considered; characteristic strength of concrete; critical buckling stress; rise of shell; 3
  5. 5. - f cc = H = permissible compressive stress from buckling consideration; total depth of shell, measured from the crown of the shell to the bottom of the edge member; L = Mx = span; bending moment in the shell in the x-direction; My = bending moment in the shell in the y-direction; iuxy= 2x2 I k NJW J NXP,NVP and NXYP 1 P = twisting moment in the shell; = real membrane stresses in the shell; = projected membrane forces; permissible buckling load per unit area of the surface of doubly-curved shells; & . n =. -- 6x ’ SZ 4 =Sy; S"Z r = 62; S'Z s =6x.6yi t 8’z . =w R = radius; & = radius at crown; R, and Rx = principal radii of curvature at any point on the surface of shell; s = shear stress; Tx = normal stress in the x-direction; TV = normal stress in the y-direction; Wx, WV and Wx = real forces on unit area of the shell in the x, y and z- direction; IV = de&&on in the direction of z-axis; X, YandZ = fictitious forces on unit projected area of the shell in the X, y and z- directions; X, y and z = axes of co-ordinates; Q, = stress function used in the membrane analysis of doubly-curved shell; 9 = angle of inclination of tangent to the curve at any point; +c = semi-central angle of a symmetrical circular cylindrical shell; P and K = Aas Jakobsen’s varameters for V = V’ = cylindrical shells; _ Poisson’s ratio; and 4. CLASSIFICATION OF SHELLS 4.1 General - Shells may be broadly classified as ‘singly-curved’ and ‘doubly-curved’. This is based on Gauss curvature. The gauss curvature of singly- curved shells is zero because one of their principal curvatures is zero. They are, therefore, developable. Doubly-curved shells are non-developable and are classified as synclastic or anticlastic according as their Gauss curvature is positive or negative. 4.1.1 The governing equations of membrane theory of singly curved shells are parabolic. It is -elliptic for synclastic shells and hyperbolic for anticlastic shells. If z = f (x, y) is the equation to the surface of a shell, the surface will be synclas- tic, developable or anticlastic according as s2-rf 4 0 where t, s and t are as defined in 3.1. 4.1.2 There are other special types of doubly curved shells, such as, funicular shells, which are synclastic and anticlastic in parts and corrugated shells which are alternately synclastic and anticlastic. The gauss curvature for such shells is positive where they are synclastic and negative where they are anticlastic. 4.2 The detailed classification of shell structures is given in Appendix A. 5. MATERIALS 5.1 Con&&e - Controlled concrete shall be used for all shell. and folded plate structures. The concrete is of minimum grade M20. The quality of materials used in concrete, the methods of pro- portioning and mixing the concrete shall be done in accordance with the relevant provisions of IS : 456-1978*. NOTE-High cement content mixes are generally undesirable as they shrink excessively giving rise to cracks. 5.2 Steel - The steel for the reinforcement shall be: a) mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire conforming to IS : 432 (Part I)-1982 and IS : 432 (Part 2)-1982t; b) hard-drawn steel. wire fabric for concrete Ti$forcement conforming to IS : 1566-19821; c) high strength deformed bars conforming to IS : 1786-1985s. 5.2.1 Welding may be used in .reinforccment in accordance with IS : 456-1978*. *Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ). tSpecification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement: Part 1 Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars (third rcvisfon ) . Part 2 Hard-drawn steel wire (third revision). SSpecification for hard-drawn steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement (second revision ). #Specification for high strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete reinforcement ( rhfrdrevlsfon). 4
  6. 6. Non+ Diaphragms 4F u e‘IG- 4 FOLDED PLAYnoiSbOWO,
  7. 7. 6A CONbID 68 HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID 6C HYPERBOLOID OF REVOLUTION OF ONE SHEET FIG. 6 RULED SURFACES 6
  8. 8. Is : 2210- 1988 7A SEGMENTAL DOME 78 PARABOLOID OF REVOLUTION Fro. 7 !fhLU OFREVOLUTION 8A ELLIPTIC PARABOLOID 88 HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID FIG. 8 SHELLS OF TRANSLATION 7
  9. 9. IS : 2210 - 1988 6. LOADS 6.1 Unless otherwise specified, shells and folded plates shall be designed to resist the following load combinations: a) Dead load, b) Dead load + appropriate live load or snow load, c) Dead load + appropriate live load -I- wind load, and d) Dead load + appropriate live load + seismic load. 6.2 Dead loads shall be calculated on the basis of the unit weights taken in accordance with IS : 875 (Part I)-1987*. 6.3 Live loads, wind loads and snow loads shall be taken as specified in IS : 875 (Parts 2 to 4)-1987*. 6.4 Seismic loads shall be taken in accordance with IS : 1893-1984t. 6.5 Where concentrated loads occur, special consi- derations should be given in analysis and design. 7. SELECTION OF DIMENSIONS 7.1 Thickness 7.1.1 Thickness of Shells - Thickness of shells shall not normally be less than 50 mm if singly- curved and 40 mm if doubly-curved. This require- ment does not, however, apply to small precast con- crete shell units in which the thickness may be less than that specified above but it shall in no case be less than 25 mm (see IS : 6332-19842). 7.1.1.1 The reinforcement shall have a minimum clear cover of 15 mm or its nominal size whichever is greater. 7.1.2 Shells are usually thickened for some dis- tance from their junction with edge members and traverses. The thickening is usually of the order of 30 percent of the shell thickness. It is, however, important to note that undue thickening is undesir- able. In the case ‘of singly-curved shells, the dis- tance over which the thickening at the junction of the shell and traverse is made should be between 0’38 4R.d and 0’76 1/rd, where R and d are the radius and the thickness, respectively. The thicken- ing of shell at straight edges shall depend on the *Code of practice for design loads (other than earth- quake) for building and structures: Part 1 Dead loads (second revision ). Part 2 Imposed loads (second revision ). Part 3 Wind loads (second revision ). Part 4 Snow loads (secotlri revision ). tCriteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (fourth revision ) . *Code of practice for construction of floors and roofs using Precast doubly-curved shell units (first revislon ). transverse bending moment. For doubly-curved shells, this distance will depend upon the geometry of the shell and the boundary conditions as the ex- tent of bending penetration is governed by these factors. 7.1.3 Thickness of Folded Plates - The thickness of folded plates shall not normally be less than 75 mm. 7.2 Other Dimensions 7.2.1 CyIindrical Shells 7.2.1.1 The span should preferably be less than 30 m. Shells longer than 30 m will involve special design considerations, such as the application of prestressing techniques. 7.2.1.2 The width of the edge member shall generally be limited to’ three times the thickness of the shell. 7.2.1.3 The radius of shell structures shall be selected keeping acoustic requirements in view. Coincidence of the centre of curvature with the working level should be avoided unless suitable acoustic correction is made. It is, however, impor- tant to note that even where coincidence of centre of curvature with the working level is avoided, acoustic treatment may be necessary iu certain cases. 7.2.1.4 A single cylindrical shell whose span is larger than three times the chord width shall have a total depth, H, between l/6 and l/l2 of its span (the former value being applicable to smaller spans). The rise in the case of a shell without edge members shall not be less than l/l0 of its span. 7.2.1.5 For a shell with chord width larger than three times the span, the rise of the shell shall not be less than l/8 of its chord width. 7.2.1.6 The chord width of shells shall pre- ferably be restricted to six times the span as other- wise arch action is likely to predominate. 7.2.1.7 The semi-central angle shall preferably be between 30 and 40”. NOTE - Keeping the semi-central angle between these limits is advisable for the following reasons: a) If the angle is below 40°, the effect of wind load on the shell produces only suction; and b) With slopes steeper than 40”. backforms may become necessary. Within these limits the semi-central angle shall be as high as possible consistent with the functional requirements. 7.2.2 Folded Plates - For folded plates of type shown in Fig. 4D, the selection of depth may be based on the rules applicable to cylindrical shells. With other shapes, such as, the ‘V’ or the trough, the depth may be taken as about l/l5 of the span for preliminary designs. 8
  10. 10. 7.2.2.1 The angle of inclination of the plates to horizontal shall be limited to about 40 for in-situ construction in order to facilitate placing of concrete without the use of the backforms. 8. ANALYSIS 8.0 General - Shells may be analyzed either by linear elastic analysis based on theory of elasticity or yield line theory. Methods based on yield line theory for shells are still the subject of research and experimentation and, therefore, for the present, it is recommended that they may be used along with model tests to check the load carrying capacity. The finite element method has become a practi- cal and popular method of analysis for all types of structures. Many common and important features of shell and folded plate structures that cannot be considered by classical methods can now be analyzed satisfactorily by the finite element method. For example : 4 b) 4 4 e) f) d h) 3 W ml d PI 9) r) Complex support or boundary conditions; Openings large enough to disturb global stress distribution; Irregular surface geometry; Highly variable or localized loads; Tapering folded plates or boxes or silo and bunker bottoms; Branching shells; Large deformations; Heavy and eccentric stiffners; Thermoelastic strains; Elastoplastic, viscoelastic behaviour; Material non-homogeneity; Irregular surface geometry; or any inelastic Sudden changes in curvature; Shells under dynamic wind action; and Possible effect of settlement. When one or more of these complexities occur in shell structures, it is advisable to use finite element method, at least for a final acceptance of the design. Even normal shell structures of spans larger than 30 m should be analyzed by finite element method if it is expected that there would be serious and significant structural participation in the shell be- haviour by the supporting units, such as, edge and intermediate beams, stiffners, and or intermediate traverses ( specially flexible traverses ) cable supports, columns, etc. For many shells, finite strip method ( FSM) ( a particular form of finite element method ) of analysis is easier to apply and also more economical to use than the finite element method. All types of prismatic folded plates and cylindrical shells can be IS : 2210 - 1988 handled by FSM since these shells can be discretized into long strip elements. Shells of revolution can also be efficiently analyzed by this method, after discretization of such shells into finite ring elements. Since FSM can be used even when the loads are not uniform, it may be advisable to use the method even for simple shells that are amenable to analysis by common classical methods. The common classical methods of analysis of shells are mentioned in the following clauses for use for the analysis of common types of shells that are without any of the complexities. 8.1 Cylindrical Shells 8.1.1 Analytical Methodr - The analytical methods consist of two parts, membrane analysis and edge disturbance analysis. 8.1.1.1 Membrane analysis - In the membrane analysis, the shell is regarded as a perfectly flexible membrane which is infinite in extent and is assumed to carry loads by means of forces in its plane only. This analysis gives the two normal stress resultants Nx and NY in the longitudinal and the transverse directions and the shear stress resultant Nxv. 8.1.1.2 Edge disturbance analysis - Shells, in practice, are always limited by finite boundaries where the boundary conditions demanded by the membrane theory are not obtained with the result that a pure membrane state would seldom exist. Edge disturbances emanate from the boundaries, altering the membrane state and causing bending stresses in the shell. These are accounted for bye, carrying out the edge disturbance analysis. Usually edge disturbance analysis is confined to disturbance emanating from straight edge as any disturbance emanating from curved edges is damped quite fast. Even in the case of disturbance from straight edges, the bending stresses would get damped out more rapidly in shells having chord width larger than the span and would seldom travel beyond the crown, with the result that the effect of the further edge may be ignored without appreciable error. The superposition of the membrane and the edge disturbance stresses gives the final stress pattern in the shell. 8.1.1.3 Tables for the analysis of circular cylin- drical shells - Simplifications in the analysis -of shells are possible by systematizing the calculations 4 making use of tables compiled for this purpose (see Appendix B ). 8.1.2 Applicability of the Methods of Analysis 8.1.2.1 Cylindrical shells with k ratio less than rr shall be analyzed using any of the accepted analytical methods (see Appendix B ). 9
  11. 11. IS : 2210- 1988 In such shells, if P exceeds 10 and K exceeds 0’15, the effect at any point on the shell of the dis- turbances emanating from the farther edge may be ignored, where P-8 12 -’ R" w’ R’ L- d’ and K = - L” P’ For shells with P less than 7 and K less than 0’12, the effect of the disturbances from both the edges shall be considered. Shells with P values between 7 and 10 and K between 0’12 and 0’15 are relatively infrequent. However, should such cases arise, the effects of both the edges shall be considered. 8.1.2.2 Cylindrical shells with L/R greater than or equal to n may be treated as beams of curved cross section spanning between the traverses and the analysis carried out using an approximate method known as the beam method (see Appendix B) which consists of the following two parts: a) The beam calculation which gives the longitudinal stress resultant N, and the shear stress resultant NXY,and b) The arch calculation which gives the transverse stress resultant NY and the transverse moment MY. 8.1.3 Continuous Cylindrical Shells 8.1.3.1 Analytical methods - In the analytical methods, the problem of continuous shells is solved in two stages. In the first, the shell is assumed to be ‘simply supported over one span and all the stress resultants worked out. In the second stage, correcg;ns for continuity are worked out and are superimposed on the values corresponding to the simply supported span. Long cylindrical shells can be analyzed by approximating the cylindrical profile by a folded plate shape and applying well known analysis methods for continuous folded plates (see Appendix B). 8.1.3.2 Beam method - Solution of continuous shell with -$ 2 ?r is simpler by the beam method. The bending moment factors are obtained by solving the corresponding continuous beam. Thereafter, analysis can be continued as in 8.1.2.2. 8.2 Donhly-Curved SheIIs 8.2.1 Membrane Analysis - In the membrane analysis, it is assumed that the shell carry loads by in-plane stress resultants and usually only deep doubly-curved shells behave like membranes. The governing equations for membrane analysis of doubly- curved are usually solved by using stress functions ( see Appendix C ). 8.2.2 Shallow Shells - Shells may be considered shallow if the rise to span ratio is less than or equal to l/5 and p2 and q’ may be ignored in all the ex- pressions. The shorter side shall be considered as the span for this purpose for shells of rectangular g*ound plan. A shell with a circular ground plan may beconsidered shallow if the rise does not exceed l/5 of the diameter. NATE- Based on the same consideration of ignoring p’. q’ and P q being very small, it is sometimes suggested that the shells may be treated as shallow if the surface is such that the values ofp and q do not exceed l/8 at any point on it. However, in normal cases, for practical purposes, higher values ofp and q up to half may be considered as shallow provided the span to rise ratio does not exceed 5. 8.2.3 Boundary Conditions for Doubly-Curved Shells - In general, in the membrane analysis of synclastic shells, only one boundary condition is admissible on each boundary. For an anticlastic shell, the boundary conditions have to be specified in a special manner as the characteristic lines of such surfaces play a significant role in the membrane theory. The type of boundary conditions that can be specified depend on whether or not the boundaries of the shell are characteristic lines. Further, a membrane state of stress can be maintained in a shell only if the boundaries are such that the reactions exerted by the boundary members on the shells correspond to stresses in the shell at the boundaries given by the membrane theory. It is seldom possible to provide boundary conditions which would lead to a pure membrane state of stress in the shell. In most practical cases, a resort to bending theory becomes necessary. 8.2.3.1 Only deep doubly-curved shells behave like membranes and it is only for such shells that a membrane analysis is generally adequate for design (see also 8.0). Bending analysis is necessary for all singly-curved shells and shallow doubly-curved shells. The governing equation for bending analysis of shallow shells are given in AppendixC. 8.2.4 Bending Theory of Doubly-Curved Shells - The governing equations for bending analysis of shallow doubly-curved shells are Appendix C. given in 8.2.5 Bending ?heory of Shells of Revolution, Symmetrically Loaded - In synclastic shells of revolution, such as, domes which are symmetrically loaded, a more or less membrane state of stress exists. The bending stresses are confined to a very narrow strip close to edge members and get rapidly damped out. The bending stresses in domes can be calculated with sufficient accuracy by approximate methods like Geckler’s approximation. 0.2.6 Funicular Shells - The shapes of these shells are so choosen that, under uniformly distributed vertical loads, in a membrane state of stress, they develop only pure compression unaccompanied by shear stresses. Thus theoretically no reinforcement will be necessary except in the edge members. Small precast funicular shells without any reinforcement except in edge beams are suitable for roofs and floors of residential, industrial, and institutional buildings (see IS : 6332’1984* ). For roofs of larger size, in situ construction may be resorted to; in such shells, provision of reinforcement is necessary to take care of the effects of shrinkage, temperature and bending. *Code of practice for construction of floors and roofs using precast doubly-curved shell units (fist revision ). 10
  12. 12. 8.4 Folded Plates - The structural action of folded plates may be thought of as consisting of two parts. the ‘slab action’ and the ‘plate action’. By the slab action, the loads are transmitted to the joints by the transverse bending of the slabs. The slabs, because of their large depth and relatively small thickness, offer considerable resistance to bending in their own planes and are flexible out of their planes. The loads are, therefore, carried to the end diaphragms by the longitudinal bending of the slabs in their own planes. This is known as ‘plate action’. The analysis of folded slabs is carried out in two stages. 83.1 Transverse Slabs Action Analysis - The transverse section of the slab, of unit length, is analyzed as a continuous beam on rigid supports. The joint loads obtained from this analysis are replaced by their components in the planes of the slabs and these are known as plate loads. 8.3.2 In Plane Plate Action Analysis - Under the action of ‘plate loads’ obtained above, each slab is assumed to bend independently between the dia- phragms, and the longitudinal stresses at the edges are calculated. Continuity demands that the longitudinal stresses at the common edges of the adjacent slabs be equal. The corrected stresses are obtained by introducing edge shear forces. 8.4 Expansion Joints - The expansion joint shall conform to provisions laid down in IS : 456-1978*. In the case of folded plates, it is recommended that the joint may be located in the ridge slab. In the cases of large spans where it is not feasible to pro- vide expansion joints, effects of shrinkage shall be taken care of in the design. 8.5 Openings in Shells - Openings in shells shall preferably be avoided in zones of critical stresses. Small openings of size not exceeding five times the thickness in shells may be treated in the same way as in the case of reinforced concrete structures. For larger openings, detailed analysis should be carried out to arrive at stresses due to the openings. 9. ELASTIC STABILITY 9.1 Permissible Stresses 9.1.1 Permissible stresses in steel reinforcement, and concrete for shells and folded plates shall be in accordance with the provisions given in 1s : 456-1978*. 9.2 Causes of Instability - Instability in a cylindri- cal shell may be caused by: a) local buckling in zones submitted to com- pressive stresses; b) flattening of shells, known as the ‘Brazier Effect’, which occurs particularly in shells without edge members; and *Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision ). 4 IS : 2210 - 1988 instability caused by the combined effect of bending and torsion in the shell as a whole. This occurs particularly in asymmetrical shells. 9.3 Buckling in Cylindrical Shells 9.3.1 The permissible buckling stress fatin cylind- rical shells shall be calculated as follows: f ac = 0’25 .fck where fck = fcr= a> b) 4 characteristic strength of concrete at 28 days; and critical buckling stress determined in accordance with ( a ), ( b ) and ( c ) below: Shells with P < 7 and K < O’I2 - In such shells, buckling is caused by excessive longitudinal compression near the crown of the shell and the critical buckling stress fcrshall be calculated as follows: fcr = 0.20% Shells with P > IO and K > 0’15 - In such shells, the transverse stresses tend to be critical from the point of view of buckling and the critical buckling stress fcrshall be determined as follows: 1) For shells with L < 2’3qdF fcr = EC [ 3’4 (+ )’ + 0’025 ( +) ] 2) For shells with L > 2’31/dy fcrzz EC .- -- 0’89 + J$ l- 1’18 d$ J where EC = modulus of elasticity of concrete, which may be taken as = 2 x 3fck; E, = modulus of elasticity of steel; d = thickness of the shell; and R = radius of curvature. Shells with P values between 7 and 10 and K between 0’12 and 0’15 are relatively infre- quent. For such shells, formulae given in (a) or (b) shall apply depending upon whether longitudinal or transverse stresses are critical from Considerations of elastic stability. The value of modulus of elasticity of concrete to be used in the above formulae for calculating the buckling stresses should be the value for long term modulus including the effect of creep also. 11
  13. 13. IS : 2210 - 1988 9.4 Buckling in Doubly-Carved Shells - For spherical shells, the permissible buckling load per unit area of surface, P,,,,, from considerations of elastic stability, is given by: where ECd and R are as defined in 3.1. For other types of doubly-curved shells, the permissible buckling load per unit area of surface, Ppermshall be calculated from the formula: P Ecda wm= “‘R,R, where R, and R, are principal radii of curvature at any point, and EC and d are as defined in 3.1. 9.5 Bwkhg in Folded Plates - The folded plate may be replaced by the corresponding cylindrical shell where possible and the appropriate formula used to check for elastic stability. 10. DESIGN OF TRAVERSES 10.1 Types of Traverses - Traverses may be solid diaphragms, arches, portal frames, trusses or bowstring girders. For shells with large chord widths, it is advantageous to have trusses in the form of arches, trusses or bowsting girder. 10.1.1 Traverses may be placed below or above the shells. Where a clear soffit is required, specially to facilitate the use of movable formwork, they may be in the form of upstand ribs. 10.1.2 The simplest diaphragms for folded plates are rectangular beams with depth equal to the height of the plate. The diaphragms are subject to the action of the plate loads on one-half of the span of the folded plate. 10.2 Load on Traverses - Traverses shall be design- ed to carry, in addition to their own weight, reactions transferred from the shell in the form of shear forces, and the loads directly acting on them. For preliminary trial designs, however, the total load on half the span of the structure may be considered as a uniformly distributed vertical load on the diaphragm. 10.3 Design - The shear forces transferred on to the end frames from the shell shall be resolved into vertical and horizontal components and the analysis made by the usual methods. Owing to the monoli- thic connection between the traverse and the shell, the latter participates in the bending action of the traverse. The effective width of a cylindrical shell that acts aL1lg with the traverse may he assumed as G’X! *./m to 0’76 1/a, on either side in the case of intermediate traverses and on one side in the case of end ones; the higher value being applicable to au infinitely rigid rib that can prevent the shell from rotating and the lower value to a flexible rib. Where solid diaphragm traverses are used, adequate reinforcement to distribute shrinkage cracking shall be provided throughout the area of the traverses. 10.3.1 In the design of tied arches, it may be necessary to determine the elastic extension of the tie member due to tension and the consequent effect on the horizontal thrust on the arch. 10.3.2 The bottom member of a bowstring girder, or the tie in the case of a tied arch, is usually subjected to heavy tension. Welding or the provision of threaded sleeve couplings (see 25.252 of IS : 456-1978* ) or laps may be used for joints in the reinforcement rods. Where lapping is done, the length of the overlap shall be as specified in the relevant clause of IS : 456-1978* and the composite tension shall be restricted to 0’1 fck, where&k is the characteristics cube strength of concrete at 28 days. Where the composite tension exceeds 0’1 fck,the entire length of the lap shall be bound by a helical binder of 6 mm’ diameter at a pitch not exceeding 75 mm. The joints in the bars shall always be staggered. Prestressing the tension member offers a simple and satisfactory solution. The detailing of inclined or vertical members of trusses or bowstring girders and suspenders of tied arches should be done with great care. The reinforcements in the tie of tied-arches shall be securely anchored at their ends. 10.4 The traverses may be hinged to the columns, except where the traverses and columns are designed as one unit, such as in a portal frame. Provision shall be made in the design of columns to allow for the expansion or contraction of traverses due to temperature changes. 11. DESIGN OF EDGE BEAMS 11.1 Edge beams stiffen the shell edges and act together with the shell in carrying the load of the supporting system. They can either be vertical or horizontal. Vertical beams are usually employed in long cylindrical shells wherein the cylindrical action is predominant. Horizontal beams are employed in short cylindrical shells where transverse arch action is predominant. It is preferable to completely isolate the structural system of the shell structure without adding any other structure to it. In most of the shell forms, edge beams form part of the shell structure itself. An analysis of the shell structure is carried out along with the edge beam. Analysis and design of edge beams should ensure compatibility of boundary conditions at the shell edge. Analysis should take into account the eccentricities, if any, between the central line of the shell and the edge beam. Analysis should also take into account the type of edge beam, interior or exterior, as well as supporting arrangement of the edge beam. ‘Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( third revision ). 12
  14. 14. IS:2210-1988 11.1.1 Thickness - A width of two to three times the thickness of the shell subject to a minimum of 15 cm is usually necessary for the edge beams. 11.1.2 Reinforcements - Edge beams carry most of the longitudinal tensile forces due to NX in the shell and hence main reinforcements have to be provided for carrying these forces, It may be necessary to provide many layers of reinforcement in the edge beam. Design of reinforcements should ensure that the stresses in the farthermost layer does not exceed the permissible stresses. Edge beams should also be designed for carrying its self-weight, live load on the part of the shell, wind load and horizontal forces due to earthquakes. 12. DESIGN OF REINFORCEMENT 12.1 Shells - The ideal arrangement would be to lay the reinforcement in the shell to follow the isostatics, that is, directions of the principal stresses. However, for practical purposes, one of the following methods may be used: One is the diagonal grid at 45” to the &is c+f the shell, and the other the rectangular grid in which the reinforcing bars run parallel to the edges of the shell. The rectangular grid needs additional reinforcement at 45’ near the supports to take up the tension due to shear. 12.1.1 In the design of the rectangular grid for cylindrical shells, the reinforcement shall usually be divided into the following three groups: a) Longitudinal reinforcement to take up the longitudinal stress Nx or Ny as the case may be, b) Shear reinforcement to take up the principal tension caused by shear Nxy, and c) Transverse reinforcement to resist NY and My. 12.1.2 Longitudinal reinforcement shall be pro- vided at the junction of the shell and the traverse to resist the longitudinal moment M, . Where MXis ignored in the analysis, nominal reinforcement shall be provided. 12.1.3 To ensure monolithic connection between the shell and the edge members, the shell reinforce- ment shall be adequately anchored into the edge members and traverses or vice versa by providing suitable bond bars from the edge members and traverses to lap with the shell reinforcement. 12.2 Folded Plates 12.2.1 Transverse Reinforcement - Transverse reinforcement shall follow the cross section of the folded plate and shall be designed to resist the trans- verse moment. 12.2.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement - Longitudinal reinforcement, in general. may be provided to take up the longitudinal tensile stresses, in individual slabs. 12.2.3 Diagonal reinforcement may be provided for shear. 12.2.4 The section of the plate at its junction with the traverse shall be checked for shear stress caused by edge shear forces. 12.2.5 Reinforcement bars shall preferably be placed, as closely as possible, so that the steel is well distributed in the body of the plate. Nominal reinforcement consisting of minimum 8 mm dia- meter bars may be provided in the compression zones at about 200 mm centre-to-centre. 12.3 General - The minimum reinforcement shall conform to the requirements of IS : 456-1978*. 12.3.1 Diameters of Reinforcement Bars - The following diameters of bars may be provided in the body of the shell. Larger diameters may be provided in the thickened portions, transverse and beams: a) Minimum diameter : 8 mm, and b) Maximum diameter : 4 of shell thickness or 16 mm whichever is smaller. 12.3.2 Spacing of Reinforcement - The maximum spacing of reinforcement in any direction in the body of the shell shall be limited to five times the thick- ness of the shell and the area of unreinforced panel shall in no case exceed 15 times the square of thickness. NOTE- These limitations do not apply to edge mem- bers which are governed by IS : 456-1978+. *Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete ( r/rid revision ). 13
  15. 15. APPENDIX A ( Clause 4.2 ) DETAILED CLASSIFICATION OF STRESSED SKIN SURFACES Stressed Skin Surfaces ? I Polded+Pla*es ! 1Doubly-Curved Non-developable 1 I b Singly-Curved Developable I I Gauss CuAature Zero Membrane Equation Parabolic I SyncLtic Gauss Curvature Positive Membrane Equation Elliptic Anticiastic Gauss Curvature Negative Membrane Equation Hyperbolic Other Special Types I I I I Sh&s Re%u- Transla- tion tion 4 + i + J j. Alternately Partly Syn- Miscellane- i Synclastic. & clastt;;d ous Types Ruled Antic/astrc Antielastic Surfaces I I .I i 1 i YFs %‘ls RskdRevo- Trans- faces lution lation 4 & I Cal? C&i;drical Conical and Examples Including North- rSW?sdrical light 8~ ;;;;;;“Y i 5 i J, Sl&lS Shells of of Revo- Trans- lution lation , + 4 Circular Domes, Parabo- loids, Ellip- soids of Revolution, etc Elliptic $‘6’so- Circular Yoyd;bo- F”;iaTu-Shells Hyperbo- loids of Re- I volution of One Sheet, Hyperbolic Paraboloids, Conoids f-gf$@ Hywr- bolic $ev$ition Esbo- Sheet
  16. 16. El. IS : 2210 - 1988 APPENDIX B ( Clauses 8.1.1.3, 8.1.2.1, 8.1.2.2 and 8.1.3.1 ) TABLES AND THE METHODS OF- ANALYSIS OF CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATES TABLES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELLS El.1 Tables given in the ASCE Manual of Engineering Practice No. 31 entitled ‘Design of Cylindrical Concrete Shell Roofs’ are based on a rigorous analytical method and are accurate enough for design of shells of all proportions. However, as values corresponding only to two ratios of R/d are given, interpolation involved for ratios does not give accurate results. A subsequent publication by the Portland Cement Association, Chicago, entitled ‘Coefficients for Design of Cylindrical Concrete Shell Roofs’, gives the coefficients for 4 values of R/d making interpolation easier. _ B-l.2 Tables given in ‘Circular Cylindrical Shells’ by Rudiger and Urban ( Published by E.G. Teubner Verlagsgesellachaft, Leipzig, 1955 ) are based on the Donnel-Barman-Jenkins Method. These are parfi- cularly accurate for shells with* <a. B-2. BEAM METHOD B-2.1 This method,.due to Lundgren, consists of two parts. In the first, known as the ‘beam calculation’, the shell is treated as a beam of curved cross section spanning between the traverses and the longitudinal stress Tx and the shear stress S are determined. In the second, known as the ‘arch calculation’, a unit length of the shell is treated as an arch subject to the action of applied loads and specific shear which is defined as the rate of change of shear or F. This calculation yields the transverse stress T ‘and the transverse moment My. For a detailed treatment, referenoe may be made to ‘Cylindrical Shells’ Vol I, by H. Lundgren published by the Danish Technical Press, the Institution of Danish Civil Engineers, Copenhagen, 1949. APPENDIX C ( Clauses 8.2.1, 8.2.3.1 and 8.2.4 ) GOVERNING EQUATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF DOUBLY-CURVED SHELLS C-l. MEMBRANE ANALYSIS Equilibrium Equations C-l.1 Real and Projected Forces ml Stress Resultant - For membrane analysis of doubly- curved shells, it is usual to deal with projected stress resultants Nxp, NY,,and NxYp instead of real stress resultants Nx, NY and Nxy. The real and projected stress resultants are related as follows: Nx =Nx,&$ NY=NYP Jl+qa I+pz and NW=NWp Similarly, the real forces WX, WYand WZcm shell per unit area on its surface with x, y and z-directions are replaced by the fictitious forces x, y and z and the relationships between them are as follows: The three equations of equilibrium can now be written using the projected stress resultants and fictitious forces as follows: _ + a&,aNx, ax ay+x -0 aNyp+aNxyp+y ,=o a, a, and r Nxp+2s Nxvp-i-tNyp = px i- qY-Z Analysis Using Stress Function Analysis of the equations of equilibrium is simplified by using a stress function + which reduces the three equations to one. The stress function @ is related to the projected stress resultants as follows: x = Wx dl+p*+qa wy 2/l +p+qsY = and 2 = w, 41 +p’+q2 aw NYP =3 - I YBY - a20 and Nxvp = - ax.ay 15 (4)
  17. 17. IS : 2210- 1988 On introducing the stress function, the third where equilibrium equation reduce to the following: F = stress function which gives in-plane stresses, r[$]--2s[g]+t[g] = when bending is also considered; w = deflection along z-axis; pX+qY--z+rJxdx+tJ ~dy (5) D = flexural rigidity = EcdJ/12(1-Y*); The homogeneous part of the partial differential equation given above will be of the elliptic, parabola or hyperbolic type depending upon whether sa-rt= 0 which is also the test for classifying shells as synclastic, developable or anticlastic. 2 = vertical load per unit area of shell surface, assumed positive in the positive direction of Z-axis; Y = Poisson ratio; and r,s,t = curvature as defined in 3.1. C-2. BENDItiG ANALYSIS The equations given above are based on the co-ordinate system in Fig. 9. C-2.1 Bending analysis is necessary for shallow doubly-curved shells. For sha]]ow shells under Bending Stress Resultants vertical loading, this would involve the solution, of two partial simultaneous equations given below: From the values of F and w satisfying equations a) for shells of variable curvature: (6) or (7), the stress resultants may be obtained from the following relations: ~&F+($t$-2sa’+=- -l axay aY aY w=o, TX + and DVaw _ _&&.-2s ax ax e ?; ay)F-_z=(Ja2 +a a Ty -e, b) For shells of constant curvature, that is, for shells for which r, s and t are constant, above equations simplify to: Et V4F +[t $$ - 2sazy+$$ 1= 0c !(7) “ax”a2w13 -z= 0 Mxy = -0(1-v) s FIG. 9 SIGN CONVENTIONFOR STRESSFBAND MOMENTSIN A SHELLELEMENT 16
  18. 18. Bmrma of IBdiu St8mdard8 BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Stan&r& Act, 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director ( Publications ), BIS. Revbiom of Idian Standards Indian Standards are reviewed periodically and revised, when necessary and amendments, if any, are issued from time to time. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition. Comments. on this Indian Standard may be sent to BIS giving the following reference: Dot : No. BDC 38 (3329) Amendments Ismed Since Publication Amtnd No. Date of Issue : Text Affected BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Headquarters : Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002 Telephones : 331 01 31, 331 13 75 Telegrams : Manaksanstha. ( Common to all Offices ) Regional Offices,: Telephone Central : Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg NEW DELHI 110002 I 311 01 31 331 13 75 Eastern : l/14 C. I. T. Scheme VII M, V. I. P. Road,.Maniktola CALCUTTA 700054 37 86 62 Northern : SC0 445-446, Sector 35-C, CHANDIGARH 160036 53 38 43 Southern : C. I. T. Campus, IV Cross Road, MADRAS 600113 235 02 16 Western : Manakalaya, E9 MIDC, Marol, Andheri ( East ) BOMBAY 400093 6 32 92 95 Branches : AHMGDABAD, BANGALORE, BHOPAL, BHUBANESHWAR, COIMBATORE, PARIDABAD. GHAZIABAD, GUWAHATI, HYDERABAD, JAIPUR, KANPUR, PATNA, SRlNAGAR. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. Printed at Dee Kay Printers. New Delhi. India

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