It is generally known that, the fundamental requirement for making concrete
structures is to produce good quality concrete. Good quality concrete is produced by
carefully mixing cement, water, and fine and coarse aggregate and combining
admixtures as needed to obtain the optimum product in quality and economy for any
use. Good concrete, whether plain, reinforced or prestressed, should be strong enough
to carry superimposed loads during its anticipated life. Other essential properties
include impermeability, durability, minimum amount of shrinkage, and cracking.
The following factors contribute to the production of good quality concrete.
knowledge of the properties and fundamental characteristics of concrete making
materials and the principles of design,
reliable estimates of site conditions and costs,
quality of component materials,
a careful measurement of weigh-batching of cement, water and aggregate,
proper transport, placement and compaction of the concrete,
early and through curing, and
competent direction and supervision
Although good concrete costs little more than poor concrete, its
performance is vastly superior. The quality of good concrete is dependent mainly on the
quality of its constituent materials. It is a known fact that concrete making aggregates
constitute the lion share of the total volume of concrete. In addition, unlike water and
cement, which do not alter in any particular characteristic except in the quantity, in
which they are used, the aggregate component is infinitely variable in terms of shape
and grading. These shows the importance of the care that should be taken in
processing and supplying aggregates for concrete production.
For the aggregate producer, the concrete aggregates are end
products, while for the concrete manufacturer; the aggregates are raw materials to be
used for successful concrete production. With the aggregate production, the quality of
the aggregate products can be influenced, while raw material –gravel or rock, may have
characteristics, which cannot be modified by the production process. However, there is
also a limit, whether technical and/or economical, in the mix design modification after
which it is useful to select a more suitable aggregate product. In addition to quality, one
extremely important factor in concrete production is consistent supply of the coarse and
fine aggregates. In this regard, a coarse aggregate is produced by crushing basaltic
stone, and river sand is the major natural resource of fine aggregate in our country.
However, the intensive construction activity is resulting in a growing shortage and
price increase of the natural sand in the country. In addition, the aggregate and
concrete industries are presently facing a growing public awareness related to the
environmental influence of their activities. The environmental impact is attributed to the
non-renewable character of the natural resources, the environmental impact on
neighborhood, land use conflicts, high energy consumption needed for aggregate
production and the potential environmental or health impact of materials produced due
to leaching of heavy metals, radioactivity and to special mineral suspects to have
hazardous health effects. Therefore, due to the above-mentioned facts, looking for
viable alternatives to natural sand is a must. One possible alternative material that can
be used as a replacement for natural sand is the use of manufactured sand. Due to the
forecast shortfall in the supply of natural sands and the increased activity in the
construction sector, it is apparent that time will come, when manufactured sand may
play a significant role as an ingredient in concrete production
1.3 STEEL SLAG
The original scope of this research was to investigate the properties of
concrete with steel slag aggregates. The fresh and hardened properties of concrete
were tested with steel slag aggregates. The freeze-thaw resistance of concrete with
steel slag aggregates was studied and the expansion of the concrete specimens was
also examined. In addition to this research several tests were also included such as
compressive strength, split tensile strength and the flexural strength of concrete with
steel slag aggregates. For this research the percentage of the volume of natural
aggregates normally used in concrete was replaced by steel slag. This replacement was
done in 30% increments until all natural aggregates were replaced by the steel slag.
Thus replacing the natural aggregates in concrete applications with steel slag would
lead to considerable environmental benefits and would be economical.
In the experimental study different concrete mixes with different percentage
of natural and manufactured sands And Steel Slag were prepared and the respective
fresh and hardened properties of the resulting concrete mixes were determined and
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
“Criteria for the use of steel slag aggregates in concrete,”
E.Anastasion and Papayianni, Laboratory of Building Materials,
Aristotle University, Greece, Nov 2006.
The successful incorporation of steel slag as aggregates in construction
products requires the consideration of certain issues. Firstly, as steel slag is an
industrial by product until recently disposed in landfills, the question is whether it is
suitable for use in construction. Then the technical characteristics of the material are
examined, Due to its physiochemical properties, steel slag requires special care but can
also provide maximum value if used for specific applications mainly where it is
advantageous compared to traditional materials, but also where it is most economical
can give a higher added value to the product. Finally, there are a number of economy-
related parameters that allow for a new product to enter the construction market like
efficiency of a new product through demonstration projects. Through all the above
considerations and practical knowledge we look at the way steel slag aggregates enter
the construction market in Greece.
“The Effect of replacement of naturals aggregates by slag products
on the strength of concrete” L.Zeghichi, University of Msila, Algeria,
Asian Journal vol 7, pages 27-35, 2006.
The aggregates (sand and gravel) form the skeleton of the concrete, they
occupy approximately 75% of its volume, and intervene directly on the physical and
mechanical properties of concrete.
The aim objective of this experimental work consists of
-Substituting sand by granulated blast furnace slag.
-Substituting natural gravels by crystallized slag.
The experimental results obtained show that the partial substitution of
ordinary sand by slag gives better results compared with the ordinary with the ordinary
concrete, the total substitution of natural gravels by crystallized slag improves the
strength, but the full replacement of fine and coarse aggregates by slag products affect
negatively the strength of concrete.
“Performance evaluation of steel as natural aggregate replacement in
asphaltic concrete” thesis submitted by Teoh Cherh Yi from Malaysia
University, Nov 2008.
Steel slag is one of the industry wastes engineered in to road construction.
This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of steel slag aggregates as road
construction material and its performance compared to granite aggregates. The steel
slag aggregates were tested for its physical and mechanical properties. Two dense mix
designs incorporating penetration grade 80/100 bitumen and one porous mix design
incorporating penetration grade 60/70 bitumen were used to produce the specimens for
testing. The dense mix specimens are referred are referred to as 100% Steel Slaf
Dense Asphalt (SSDA) and 50% Steel Slag 50% Granite Dense Asphalt (SSGDA) while
the porous mix specimens are referred to as Steel Slag Porous Asphalt(SSPA). During
the first phase of the study, SSDA and SSGDA were tested for performance evaluation
through resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Marshall Stability and indirect tensile
strength), SSPA were also tested for abrasion loss and water permeability. In the
second phase of the study, the same tests as those carried out in the first phase were
carried out on aged specimens. Resistant against permanent deformation and low
temperature cracking improved after aging for both dense mixes and porous mixes.
Test results revealed that steel slag inhibits great potential as road construction
“Effect of used-foundry sand on the mechanical properties of
concrete” thesis submitted by Rafat Siddique, Geert de Schutter
,Albert Noumowe ,Department Of Civil Engineering, Thapar University,
Patiala, Punjab 147004, India, Dec 2007.
Used-foundry sand is a by-product of ferrous and nonferrous metal casting
industries. Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry.
When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry, it is removed from the foundry
and is termed used/spent foundry sand. In an effort to utilize used-foundry sand in large
volumes, research is being carried out for its possible large-scale utilization in making
concrete as partial replacement of fine aggregate.
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried
out to evaluate the mechanical properties of concrete mixtures in which fine aggregate
(regular sand) was partially replaced with used-foundry sand (UFS). Fine aggregate
was replaced with three percentages (10%, 20%, and 30%) of UFS by weight. Tests
were performed for the properties of fresh concrete. Compressive strength, splitting-
tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity were determined at 28, 56,
91, and 365 days. Test results indicated a marginal increase in the strength properties
of plain concrete by the inclusion of UFS as partial replacement of fine aggregate (sand)
and that can be effectively used in making good quality concrete and construction
Concrete Used-foundry sand, Compressive strength, Tensile properties, Elastic moduli
“Abrasion resistance and strength properties of concrete containing
waste foundry sand (WFS)” Gurpreet Singh, Rafat Siddique,Civil
engineering department, rimt (iet), mandi gobindgarh, Punjab,
india,Civil engineering department, thapar university, Patiala 147004,
India, June 2011.
The abrasion resistance and strength properties of concrete containing
waste foundry sand (WFS) were investigated. Sand (fine aggregate) was replaced
with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of WFS by mass. The water-to-cement ratio and
the workability of mixtures were maintained constant at 0.40 and 85 ± 5 mm,
respectively. Properties examined were compressive strength, splitting tensile
strength, modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance expressed as depth of wear.
Test results indicated that replacement of sand with WFS enhanced the 28-day
compressive strength by 8.3–17%, splitting tensile strength by 3.6–10.4% and
modulus of elasticity by 1.7–6.4% depending upon the WFS content, and showed
continuous improvement in mechanical properties up to the ages of 365 days.
Inclusion of WFS as sand replacement significantly improved the abrasion
resistance of concrete at all ages. Strong correlation exists between the abrasion
resistance and each of the mechanical properties investigated.
Utilization of waste foundry sand (WFS) as partial replacement of fine aggregate.
Fine aggregates replaced with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% WFS. Abrasion resistance
(depth of wear) and strength properties investigated. Relationship between abrasion
resistance and strength properties presented.
Abrasion resistance, Concrete, Strength properties, Waste foundry sand ,Wear
“Re-Usage Of Waste Foundry Sand In High-Strength Concrete” Yucel
Guney Asin Dursun Sari,Muhsin Yalcin, Satellite And Space Sciences
Research Center, Anadolu University, Ikieylul Campus, 26470
Eskisehir, Turkey,Civil Engineering Department, Atilim University,
Incek-Golbasi, 06836 Ankara, Turkey, June 2009.
In this study, the potential re-use of waste foundry sand in high-strength
concrete production was investigated. The natural fine sand is replaced with waste
foundry sand (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The findings from a series of test program has
shown reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and the elasticity modulus which
is directly related to waste foundry inclusion in concrete. Nevertheless the concrete with
10% waste foundry sand exhibits almost similar results to that of the control one. The
slump and the workability of the fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the waste
foundry sand ratio. Although the freezing and thawing significantly reduces the
mechanical and physical properties of the concrete. The obtained results satisfies the
acceptable limits set by the American Concrete Institute (ACI).
“Strength, durability, and micro-structural properties of concrete
made with used-foundry sand (UFS)” Rafat Siddique, Yogesh
Aggarwal, Paratibha Aggarwal, El-Hadj Kadri, Engineering
Department, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, India, Engineering
Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India,
This paper presents the design of concrete mixes made with used-foundry
(UFS) sand as partial replacement of fine aggregates. Various mechanical properties
are evaluated (compressive strength, and split-tensile strength). Durability of the
concrete regarding resistance to chloride penetration, and carbonation is also
evaluated. Test results indicate that industrial by-products can produce concrete with
sufficient strength and durability to replace normal concrete. Compressive strength, and
split-tensile strength, was determined at 28, 90 and 365 days along with carbonation
and rapid chloride penetration resistance at 90 and 365 days. Comparative strength
development of foundry sand mixes in relation to the control mix i.e. mix without foundry
sand was observed. The maximum carbonation depth in natural environment, for mixes
containing foundry sand never exceeded 2.5 mm at 90 days and 5 mm at 365 days. The
RCPT values, as per ASTM C 1202-97, were less than 750 coulombs at 90 days and
500 coulombs at 365 days which comes under very low category. Thereby, indicating
effective use of foundry sand as an alternate material, as partial replacement of fine
aggregates in concrete. Micro-structural investigations of control mix and mixes with
various percentages of foundry sand were also performed using XRD and SEM
techniques. The micro-structural investigations shed some light on the nature of
variation in strength at the different replacements of fine aggregates with foundry sand,
Investigation of the use of foundry sand as partial replacement of fine
aggregates. Replacement of fine aggregates in various percentages (0–60%).
Concrete properties such as mechanical and durability characteristics along with XRD
and SEM. Diversion of used foundry sand from land filling to manufacturing of concrete.
Concrete, Foundry sand, Strength properties, Durability properties,Microstructure
3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
3.1 METHODOLOGY OF THE PROJECT
COLLECTION OF MATERIALS
TO STUDY THE PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
CALCULATATION OF MIX DESIGN FOR M20 GRADE
CASTING OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS
CURING OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS
TO FIND THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS
TO COMPARISION OF RESULTS WITH CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE
For Making EF-EC, It Is essential to select proper ingredients, evaluation of
their properties and know how about the interaction of different for optimum usage. The
ingredients used for concrete for the project were the same as that for conventional
cement concrete, coarse and fine aggregate, m-sand, steel slag and water.
3.2 MATERIALS PROPERTIES
Ordinary Portland cement of 43 grades conforming to IS 8112-1989 was used. Tests
were carried out on various properties of cement and the results are shown in table
TABLE 3.2.a) PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
Physical properties Values of OPC used
Standard consistency 32.5%
Initial setting time 65 Minutes
Final setting time 235 Minutes
Specific gravity 3.15
Aggregates are those parts of the concrete that constitute the bulk of the
finished product. They comprise 60-80% of the concrete and have to be so graded and
that the entire mass of concrete acts as a relatively solid, homogenous, dense
combination, with the smaller sizes acting as an inert filler of the voids exist between the
largest particles. They are of two types
1. Fine aggregate, such as natural or manufactured sand
2. Coarse aggregate, such as gravel, crushed, or blast furnace slag, steel slag
3.2.3 Fine aggregate
Natural river sand was used as fine aggregate. The properties of sand were
determined by conducting tests IS: 2386(Part-I). The results are shown in table. The
results obtained from sieve analysis are furnished.
The particle size distribution (PSD) curve of manufactured sand is more often
than not tight and the particles are cubic, angular and their surface texture is rough.
Properties of aggregates from natural sand and gravel deposits (natural aggregates)
differ when compared to aggregates from crushed rock (crushed aggregates).To study
the properties of m-sand
TABLE 3.2.b) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES
1 Specific Gravity 2.55 2.22
2 Fineness Modulus 2.64 2.37
3.2.5 COARSE AGGREGATE (CA)
Properties of the coarse aggregate affect the final strength of the hardened
concrete and its resistance to disintegration, weathering and other destructive effects.
The mineral coarse aggregate must be clean of organic impurities and must bond well
with the cement gel.
The common types are:
1. Natural crushed stone
2. Natural gravel
3. Artificial coarse aggregate
4. Heavy weight (extra density) and nuclear- shielding aggregates.
3.2.6 STEEL SLAG
Steel slag is the residue of steel production process and composed of
silicates and oxides of unwanted in steel chemical composition. Fifty million tons per
year of LD slag were produced as a residue from basic oxygen process (BOP) in the
world. In order to use these slags in cement, its hydraulic properties should be known.
Chemical composition is one of the important parameters determining the hydraulic
properties of the slag. In general, it is assumed that the higher the alkalinity, the higher
the hydraulic properties. If alkalinity is> 1.8, it should be considered as cementitious
material. The properties of steel slag are shown in Table.
TABLE 3.2.c) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATES
1 Specific Gravity 2.83 2.00
2 Fineness Modulus 7.00 6.01
Portable water free from salts was used for casting and curing of concrete as
per IS : 456-2000 recommendations
3.3 MIX DESIGN
a) Characteristic Compressive strength = 20 N/mm2
b) Maximum size of aggregate =20mm
c) Degree of workability = 0.9(compaction factor)
D) Degree of quality control = Good
e) Type of exposure = Mild
TEST DATA OF MATERIALS
a) Specific gravity of cement =3.15
b) Specific gravity of coarse aggregate =2.83
c) Specific gravity of fine aggregate =2.55
d) Water absorption of coarse aggregate=0.5%
e) Water absorption of fine aggregate =1.0%
f) Free surface moisture for coarse aggregate= Nil
1. Target mean Strength of Concrete, fck = fck + 1.65S
2. Selection of Water - Cement ratio
The water – cement ratio required for the target mean strength of 26.6N/mm2
3. Selection of Water and Sand Content
For 20mm maximum size of aggregate and sand conforming to grading zone
The water content per m3
of concrete is 180kg and sand content as
percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35%
For change in value in water- cement ratio, compacting value, for sand
belonging to Zone II, following adjustment is required:
Table 3.3 Adjustment Of Values In Water Content And Sand Percentage For
Therefore, required sand content as percentage of total aggregate by
= 35 – 2 =33%
Required water content =186+5.58 = 191.6 1/m3
4. Determination of cement content:
w/c = 0.50
Water = 191.6 litre
Cement = 191.6
CHANGE IN CONDITION PER CENT ADJUMENT REQUIRED
water content sand in total aggregate
For decrease in water- cement
ratio by (0.6-0.5) that is 0.10
For increase in compacting factor
(0.9-0.8) that is 0.1 +3 0
For sand conforming to zone II of
table 4, IS :383-1970 0 0
Total +3 -2
5. Determination of coarse and fine aggregate contents:
V= (W+C/SC + (1/Pxfa/Sfa) x (1/1000)
For 20mm size of aggregate, entrapped air = 2%, V =(100-2) = 98% =0.98
0.98 = (180+383/3.15) + (1/0.315 x fa /2.55) x (1/1000)
fa = 535.61kg/m3
Ca = (1-P/P) x fa x (Sca/Sfa)
= ( 1-0.315/0.315) x 535.61 x (2.83/2.55)
Ca= 1292.63kg /m3
Mix ratio = Cement: FA: CA: W/C ratio
M20 = 383 : 535.61: 1292.63: 191.6
= 1 : 1.39 :3.3 : 0.5
M20 = 1 : 1.39 :3.3 and w/c =0.5
4. a TESTS ON CONCRETE ELEMENTS
4. a.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
According to Indian Standard specifications (IS: 516 – 1959), the compression
test on cylinders is conducted.
4.a.2 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is one of the most important mechanical
properties of concrete since it impacts the serviceability and the structural performance
of reinforced concrete structures. The closest approximation to the theoretical modulus
of elasticity derived from a truly elastic response is initial tangent modulus. But it is not
always easily determined from a compression method. In such a case chord modulus of
elasticity is being used. The current method to determine the chord modulus of elasticity
of concrete is Compressometer method. Cylindrical specimens of size 150 mm diameter
and 300 mm length are casted and cured. The load is applied continuously without
shock. Without interruption, applied loading and longitudinal strain at pre-designated
intervals are taken. The reading interval is fixed as 2kN to permit plotting stress-strain
curve if desired. Along the above set of readings, the following two readings are also
monitored and noted. These are
i) The applied load when the longitudinal strain is 50 x 10-6
ii) The longitudinal strain when the applied load is equal to 40 percent of the
Here, longitudinal strain is defined as the total longitudinal deformation divided by
the effective gauge length. The chord modulus of elasticity is obtained using the formula
E – Chord modulus of elasticity in M pa
S2 – Stress corresponding to 40% of ultimate load
S1 – Stress corresponding to a longitudinal strain of 50 x 10-6
C – Longitudinal strain produced by stress S2
4.a.3 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH
Direct measurement of tensile strength of concrete is difficult. One of the indirect
tension test methods is Split tension test. The Split tensile strength test is carried out on
the Compression testing machine. The casting and testing of the specimens are done
as per IS5816: 1999.
Split tensile strength=2P/Л bd
Where, P = Load applied to the specimen in N
b = Breadth of the specimen in mm
d = depth of the specimen in mm
4.a.4 MODULUS OF RUPTURE
The extreme fibre stress calculated at the failure of specimen is called Modulus
of rupture. It is also an indirect measure to predict the tensile strength of concrete.
Flexural strength test is conducted as per recommendations IS: 516 – 1959. For flexural
strength test, beams of size 10 x 10 x 50 cm are casted.
Flexural strength, fb = (Pxl)/(bxd2)
Where, P = Load applied to the specimen in N
l = length of the specimen in mm
b = Breadth of the specimen in mm
d = depth of the specimen in mm
4.a.5 SPECIMEN CASTING
Three numbers of specimens with and without proofing admixtures
were casted. The inside of the mould was oiled to prevent adhesion of concrete. First
aggregate and cement are well mixed and then water is added to have an uniform
mixture of concrete. All the specimens are filled with concrete and are well compacted.
The specimens are demoulded after one day and then placed in a curing tank for 28
days of curing. For 12 hours prior to the testing, the specimens are allowed to air dry in
4.a.6 TEST SET UP
Tests are carried out at room temperature and as per the Indian standards.
Structural properties are ascertained by conducting middle third loading test. The testing
arrangement is shown in Fig4.2. Two point bending was applied on reinforced concrete
beams of beam span 1.5 m through hydraulic jack of capacity 100kN. The specimens
are placed on a simply supported arrangement of 100 T Universal testing machine
(UTM). The beams are suitably instrumented for measuring mid-span deflection.
Fig.4.1 Loading Arrangement of Flexural Test
4. b RESULTS DISCUSSION
To find the optimum value of partially replacement of M-sand and steel slag for
compression test and split tensile test.
TABLE 5.2.1 TEST RESULT FOR CUBE (M-SAND) COMPRESSION STRENGTH IN
S.NO CUBE 3DAYS CC 7DAYS CC 28DAYS CC
1 5% M-SAND 11.32 18.82 14.5 22.8 22.1 28.43
2 10% M-SAND 14.68 18.82 20.5 22.8 23.6 28.43
3 20% M-SAND 19.32 18.82 24.6 22.8 28.7 28.43
4 25% M-SAND 17.86 18.82 21.6 22.8 24.3 28.43
5 30% M-SAND 13.3 18.82 16.7 22.8 21.3 28.43
Fig 5.2.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF
In this test result the optimum value obtain in 20% replacement of M-sand and
steel slag for compression strength and 25% of M-sand and 20% steel slag for split
4.b.1 COMPRESSION STRENGTH
TABLE 5.2.5 TEST RESULT FOR CUBE (20% of STEEL SLAG AND M-SAND)
COMPRESSION STRENGTH IN N/mm2
S.NO CUBE 3DAYS CC 7DAYS CC 28DAYS CC
16.82 18.82 20 22.8 28.66 28.43
Fig 5.2.5 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR 20% OF STEEL SLAG AND
M-SAND VS CC
3days 7days 28days
20% of steel slag and M-
4.b.2 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH
TABLE 5.2.6 TEST RESULT FOR CYLINDER (M-SAND AND STEEL SLAG) SPLIT
TENSILE STRENGTH IN N/mm2
S.NO CYLINDER 7DAYS CC 28DAYS CC
1 20% STEEL
1.6 1.5 2.21 2
Fig 5.2.6 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF 25% M-
SAND AND 20% STEEL SLAG
4.b.3 MODULUS OF RUPTURE
TABLE 5.2.7 MODULUS OF RUPTURE FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF20% M-
SAND AND 20% STEEL SLAG IN N/mm2
S.NO PRISM EF-EC at 28DAYS CC at 28DAYS
1 20% STEEL SLAG
Fig 5.2.7 MODULUS OF RUPTURE FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF 20%
M-SAND AND STEEL SLAG
4.b.4 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
TABLE 5.2.8 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF 25%
M-SAND AND 20% STEEL SLAG IN N/mm2
S.NO CYLINDER EF-EC at 28 DAYS CC at 28 DAYS
1 20% STEEL SLAG AND
25% M-SAND AND
20% STEEL SLAG IN
FIG 5.2.8 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF 25% M-
SAND AND 20% STEEL SLAG IN N/mm2
The compressive strength of Partial replacement of M-sand and steel slag is
similar to conventional concrete.
The split tensile strength of Partial replacement of M-sand and steel slag is
similar to conventional concrete.
The flexural strength of Partial replacement of M-sand and steel slag is similar
to conventional concrete.
The modulus of elasticity of Partial replacement of M-sand and steel slag is
similar to conventional concrete.
The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength,
Modulus of elasticity is greater strength than the conventional concrete and
also achieve concrete become a economical and eco-friendly.
To partial replacement of all ingredients in concrete like cement partial
replaced by GGBS, fine aggregate partial replaced by M-sand, coarse
aggregate partial replaced by steel slag, and portable water partial replaced
by treated water.
The long term behavior of concrete with steel slag and m-sand should be
studied and its compatibility with reinforcing steel should be analyzed in the
1. “Criteria for the use of steel slag aggregates in concrete,” E.Anastasion and
Papayianni, Laboratory of Building Materials, Aristotle University, Greece, Nov
2. “The Effect of replacement of naturals aggregates by slag products on the
strength of concrete” L.Zeghichi, University of Msila, Algeria, Asian Journal vol 7,
pages 27-35, 2006.
3. “Performance evaluation of steel as natural aggregate replacement in asphaltic
concrete” thesis submitted by Teoh Cherh Yi from Malaysia University, Nov
4. “Effect of used-foundry sand on the mechanical properties of concrete” thesis
submitted by Rafat Siddique, Geert de Schutter ,Albert Noumowe ,Department Of
Civil Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab 147004, India, Dec 2007.
5. “Abrasion resistance and strength properties of concrete containing waste
foundry sand (WFS)” Gurpreet Singh, Rafat Siddique,Civil engineering
department, rimt (iet), mandi gobindgarh, Punjab, india,Civil engineering
department, thapar university, Patiala 147004, India, June 2011.
6. “Re-Usage Of Waste Foundry Sand In High-Strength Concrete” Yucel Guney
Asin Dursun Sari,Muhsin Yalcin, Satellite And Space Sciences Research Center,
Anadolu University, Ikieylul Campus, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey,Civil Engineering
Department, Atilim University, Incek-Golbasi, 06836 Ankara, Turkey, June 2009.
7. “Strength, durability, and micro-structural properties of concrete made with used-
foundry sand (UFS)” Rafat Siddique, Yogesh Aggarwal, Paratibha Aggarwal, El-
Hadj Kadri, Engineering Department, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, India,
Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India,
8. Indian Standard Recommended Method Of Concrete Mix Design (IS 10262-
9. Methods of tests for strength of concrete IS: 516-1959, 15th
reprint august 1993,
Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
10.IS 10079- 1982,Indian standards, specification for cylinder, metal measures for
use in tests of aggregates in concrete, September 1982,Indian standards
institution, New Delhi.
11.IS 10080 – 1982, Indian Standards, specification for vibration machines,
September 1982, Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
12. IS 2386 (Part III) - 1963, Indian Standard methods of Test for aggregates for
concrete. VIII reprint March 1997, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.