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  1. 1. Structural basics in architecture
  2. 2. FOLDED SLAB ROOFS • A thin-walled building structure of the shell type • Movable form work can be employed. • Form work required is relatively simpler. • Design involves simpler calculations. • Folded plate consumes more material than shells.
  3. 3. Folded slab roof • Modern folded plate structures are typically made of cast in site or precast reinforced concrete, or steel plate. Prismatic: Rectangular plates. Pyramidal: Non- rectangular plates. Prismoidal: Triangular or trapezoidal plates
  4. 4. Folded plate hut-japan
  5. 5. Air force academy chapel u.s.a.
  6. 6. Stairs....
  7. 7. CONCEPT OF SHELLS • Thin shell structures are also called plate and shell structures. • They are Light weight constructions using shell elements.
  8. 8. Thin shells-types • Concrete shells- monolithic dome or stressed ribbon bridge or saddle roof. • Lattice shell structures(grid shell)-geodesic dome or hyperboloid structure. • Membrane structures- fabric structures, other tensile structures, cable domes, pneumatic structures.
  9. 9. Thin shells - examples • Concrete shell- Deitingen Service Station • Membrane structures- Birdair
  10. 10. Double curve shells • Curved surface shell structures can be used to create very useful, lightweight, rigid structural forms.
  11. 11. Double curve shells
  13. 13. Hyperbolic shells • Doubly curved surface- shape of a saddle. • It has a convex form along one axis and concave form on along the other. • Easy to construct using a series of straight structural members • Constructed using concrete. • The curvature reduces its tendency to buckle in compression and achieves stiffness.
  14. 14. Parabolic shells • Series of parabolas stung together. • The use of reinforcing steel in the upward curvature of the parabola allows for the tensile forces to flow into first the neutral sag, or catenary then the thrust of the forces flow into the compression on the downward parabola. • Both the axial parabolas are compressed and in tension.
  15. 15. Saddle dome in Calgary, Alberta
  16. 16. Lee valley velopark, Londan
  17. 17. Parabolic shells
  18. 18. PARABOLOID A paraboloid is a particular kind of three-dimensional surface. In the simplest case, it is the revolution of a parabola along its axis of symmetry. This kind of surface will open upwards in both sideways dimensions. A hyperbolic paraboloid will open upward in one dimension and downward in the other, resembling a saddle. Like in a two-dimensional parabola, scaling factors can be applied to the curvature of a paraboloid. y = x2 Examples : • TWA terminal,NYC Intl. Airport •Zeiss Planatarium,Germany • l'oceanogràfic,Spain The variants of Paraboloids are: •Elliptical paraboloid (silmilar to paraboloid) •Hyperbolic “
  19. 19. Hyperbolic: A saddle-shaped quadric surface whose sections by planes parallel to one coordinate plane are hyperbolas while those sections by planes parallel to the other two are parabolas if proper orientation of the coordinate axes is assumed In simple words, I is a combination of hyperbolae and parabola within a single entity. Examples: •Lee Valley Velo Park •House by James R. Mowry •Scotiabank Saddledome,Canada
  20. 20. The end