GrammarBookAugusto Melnick
Table of Contents1.    Nationalities2.    Stem Changers3.    Para4.    Object Pronoun Placement5.    IOP’s6.    Gustar7.  ...
Stem Changers          Dormir: to sleep          Yoduermo             Nosotros/as dormimos          Túduermes            V...
Para Para   means for or in order to. Ex: Ella comprafrutas PARA cena. Ex: Yonecesitounataza PARA  beberbebidas.
Object Pronoun Placement1.   Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2.   Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3.   Attach...
IOP’s Indirect object pronouns are used to avoid  repetition and answer “whom” or what.”                  Me   Nos The I...
Gustar Gustar-  to like When conjugating gustar, CONJUGATE  BACKWARDS. If the object is singular: me/te/le/nos/lesgusta...
Affirmative/Negative WordsAffirmative              NegativeAlgo (something)         Nada (nothing)Alguien (someone)       ...
Superlatives Add    –isimo, -isimos, -isima, or -isimas at the end of  an adjective. Equivalent of “extremely”. If the a...
Reflexives Inreflexive form, the subject is also the object. The  person does and receives the action. The  subject, verb...
Affirmative Tú Commands An  affirmative command is commanding someone  to do something. To conjugate, simply put the ver...
Negative Tú CommandsA   negative command is telling someone NOT to do  something. To conjugate, first put verb in the “y...
Sequencing Events First:       primero Then: entonces Later: luego Finally: por fin Before: antes de After: después ...
Preterite Perfected    action in the past tense.   -ar verbs   -é                      -amos   -aste                   -a...
Trigger Words   English            Spanish   One day            Undia   Once               Unavez   Yesterday          Aye...
-car, -gar, -zar In the “yo” form preterite, -car > -qué, -gar > -gué, &  -zar> -cé. Tocar. Yotoqué. Jugar. Yojugué. C...
Deber + infinitive                        Yodebo           Nosotrosdebemos Deber-   should       Túdebes                 ...
Modal Verbs Thesecond verb is never conjugated in a modal verb combination. You wouldn’t say “yopuedonado”, you would say...
Present Progressive Conjugated   form of estar + “ing” -ar>  -ando             Hablar>hablando -er/-ir> -iendo         ...
Adverbs For adjectives ending in –o or –a, add –mente to  the feminine form. Ex: lento > lentamente For adjectives endin...
Spanish grammar book
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Spanish grammar book

  1. 1. GrammarBookAugusto Melnick
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem Changers3. Para4. Object Pronoun Placement5. IOP’s6. Gustar7. Affirmative/Negative Words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative Tú Commands/Irregulars/Pronoun Placement11. Negative Tú Commands/Irregulars/Pronoun Placement12. Sequencing Events13. Preterite14. Trigger Words15. -Car, -Gar, -Zar16. Deber + Infinitive17. Modal Verbs18. Present Progressive19. Adverbs
  3. 3. Stem Changers Dormir: to sleep Yoduermo Nosotros/as dormimos Túduermes Vosotros/as dormís El/Ella/Ud. duerme Ellos/Ellas/Udsduermen Pensar: to think Yopienso Nosotros/as pensamos Túpiensas Vosotros/as pensáis El/Ella/Ud. piensa Ellos/Ellas/Udspiensan Servir: to serve Yosirvo Nosotros/as servimos Túsirves Vosotros/as servís El/Ella/Ud. sirve Ellos/Ellas/Udssirven Peder: to be able to Yopuedo Nosotros/as pedemos Túpuedes Vosotros/as pedéis El/Ella/Ud. puede Ellos/Ellas/Udspueden
  4. 4. Para Para means for or in order to. Ex: Ella comprafrutas PARA cena. Ex: Yonecesitounataza PARA beberbebidas.
  5. 5. Object Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  6. 6. IOP’s Indirect object pronouns are used to avoid repetition and answer “whom” or what.” Me Nos The IOP’s are: Te Os Le Les They replace or accompany indirect objects.
  7. 7. Gustar Gustar- to like When conjugating gustar, CONJUGATE BACKWARDS. If the object is singular: me/te/le/nos/lesgusta. If the object is plural: me/te/le/nos/lesgustan.
  8. 8. Affirmative/Negative WordsAffirmative NegativeAlgo (something) Nada (nothing)Alguien (someone) Nadie (no one)Algún/alguno(a) (some) Ningún/ninguno(a) (none)Siempre (always) Nunca (never)También (also) Tampoco (neither)
  9. 9. Superlatives Add –isimo, -isimos, -isima, or -isimas at the end of an adjective. Equivalent of “extremely”. If the adjective ends in c>qu, g>gu, z>c. If it ends in –n or –r, add –cisimo/a at the end.
  10. 10. Reflexives Inreflexive form, the subject is also the object. The person does and receives the action. The subject, verb, and pronoun are all in the same form. Ex: levantarse Yo me levanto Nosotrosnoslevantamos Tutelevantas El/Ella/Ud. se levanta Ellos/as/Uds. se levantan Reflexives have 4 different positions: in front of a conjugated verb, attached to a gerund, attached to an infinitive, or attached to an affirmative command.
  11. 11. Affirmative Tú Commands An affirmative command is commanding someone to do something. To conjugate, simply put the verb in the el/ella/Ud. form. Ex: caminar- to walk. ¡Camina! Irregulars: di-decir, haz-hacer, ve-ir, pon-poner, sal- salir, sé-ser, ten-tener, ven-venir
  12. 12. Negative Tú CommandsA negative command is telling someone NOT to do something. To conjugate, first put verb in the “yo” form. Then, drop the –o. If the verb ends in –ar, put an –es at the end. If the verb ends in –er or –ir, put an –as at the end. Ex: Don’t speak! ¡No hables! Irregulars: no des-dar (doy in yo form), no estés- estar (estoy), no vayas-ir (voy), no seas-ser (soy)
  13. 13. Sequencing Events First: primero Then: entonces Later: luego Finally: por fin Before: antes de After: después de In/during the..: por la.. On monday, tuesday..: los lunes, martes, etc.
  14. 14. Preterite Perfected action in the past tense. -ar verbs -é -amos -aste -asteis -ó -aron -er/-ir verbs -í -imos -iste -isteis -ió -ieron
  15. 15. Trigger Words English Spanish One day Undia Once Unavez Yesterday Ayer At night A noche A year ago Hace un año Already Ya Last month El mespasado Before yesterday Ante ayer For an hour Porunahora Finally Por fin At eight A lasocho February 5th El cinco de febrero Twice Dosveces
  16. 16. -car, -gar, -zar In the “yo” form preterite, -car > -qué, -gar > -gué, & -zar> -cé. Tocar. Yotoqué. Jugar. Yojugué. Comenzar: Yocomencé.
  17. 17. Deber + infinitive Yodebo Nosotrosdebemos Deber- should Túdebes El/Ella/Ud. debe Ellos/as/Uds. deben Deber is always followed by an infinitive. Ex: I should go. Yodeboir.
  18. 18. Modal Verbs Thesecond verb is never conjugated in a modal verb combination. You wouldn’t say “yopuedonado”, you would say “yopuedonadar.”
  19. 19. Present Progressive Conjugated form of estar + “ing” -ar> -ando Hablar>hablando -er/-ir> -iendo Escribir>escribiendo 3 vowels > -yendo Leer >leyendo
  20. 20. Adverbs For adjectives ending in –o or –a, add –mente to the feminine form. Ex: lento > lentamente For adjectives ending in –e, -l, or –z, simply add – mente to the end. Ex: feliz>felizmente.
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