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Grammar book for spanish


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Grammar book for spanish

  1. 1. Grammar Book AMELIA OLTON
  2. 2. Table of Contents1.Nationalities2.Stem Changers3.Para4.Indirect Object Pronouns5. Pronoun Placement6.Gustar7. Affirmative and Negative8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tu commands/ irregular/ pronoun placement11. Negative tu command/irregular/pronoun placement12.Sequencing events
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Jugar U>UE Juego Jugamos Juegas Jugaís Juega JueganPensar E>IEPienso PensamosPiensas PensaísPiensa Piensan Pedir e>I Pido PedamosDormir O>UE Pides PedaísDuermo Dormimos Pide PiedenDuermes DormaísDuerme Duerman
  5. 5. ParaCommon uses of Para: Para is often confused with Por which is a rarely interchanged word for for. Where Para is used: To mean "in order to": When used in this way, it is followed by an infinitive. To indicate purpose or need With estar to mean : “to be ready to” To mean "no later than" or "by”
  6. 6. Indirect Object PronounsMe NosTe OsLe Les Indirect Object Placement 1. Before the conjugated verb 2.Attached to an infinitive 3.Attached to a gerund Example:Mi madre te compró un libro. (My mother bought you a book.)
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement 1.Attach the pronoun to the infinitive 2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command. 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb.
  8. 8. GustarSingularMe (Gusta) Nos (Gusta)Te (Gusta) Os (Gusta)Le(Gusta) Les (Gusta) Plural Me (Gustas) Nos (Gustas) Te (Gustas) Os (Gustas) Le (Gustas) Les (Gustas) -Even if attached to more than one infinitive, it will remain singular.
  9. 9. Affirmatives and Negatives Algo – something Nada-Nothing Alguien -Someone Nadie- No one *Algún/Alguno - *Ningun/ some Ninguno- None, Siempre -always Not any También- tampoco Nunca- Never *Alguno must Tampoco- match the gender Neither, either of the noun they Ningun must also replace or modify. match the gender of the noun they replace or
  10. 10. Superlatives Isímo Isímos/Isímos Isímas Added to adjectives and adverbs, Equivalent to extremely or veryPlaced before an Adjective or verbAn adjective that is ending in –n or –r are formed by adding cisímo
  11. 11. Reflexives Reflexive verbs are something that one does to themselves such as brushing ones teeth or hair. Ex: Pepa se lava el pelo.- Pepa washes her hair- Ex: Me levantó- I wash my self- Reflexive pronouns are used with or without reflexive verbs. When there is no reflexive pronoun, the person doing the act
  12. 12. Affirmative tú commands/irregulars/pronoun placement Affirmative Commands Give instructions or commands to someone by using Affirmative tu commands of regular verbs Caminar/ Camina/ Camina en el parque! Placement When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command Cruza el parque > Cruzalo! Infinitive Tu command Decir Di Irregular Commands Hacer haz Primero haz los quehaceres Ir VeFirst do the chores Poner Pon Salir Sal Tener Ten Venir Ven
  13. 13. Negative tú commands/ irregular/ pronoun placement Taking you form of the present tense, dropping the o and adding the appropriate ending. Infinitive Yo form Negative tu command Hablar Hablo !No Hables! Volver Vuelvo No vuelvesIrregular Placement:Infinitive: DAR Command: No le des mi Pronouns precede the verbdireccion a nadie in negative commandsInfinitive: Estar Command: No estés triste
  14. 14. Sequencing events Used to show what events are in what specific order. Primero- First Entonces- after luego/después- then/after Antes de/ después de- before that/ after that Por la mañana/ tarde/ Noche- In/ during the- no specific time given) Los lunes etc.- on Monday, or any other day