Grammar book2 s


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Grammar book2 s

  1. 1. Felipe
  2. 2. ToC <ul><li>Conditional Tense w/ irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>Present Perfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>Past Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>Subjunctive Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal “se” </li></ul><ul><li>Saber vs Conocer </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotros commands </li></ul><ul><li>DoP and IoP arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Sujunctive </li></ul><ul><li>Subjunctive Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Tan and Tanto </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conditional Tense w/ Irregulars <ul><li>The conditional tense is used to describe actions that would, could, should, or must have happened as well as the probablility of an action. </li></ul><ul><li>To form this tense one simply must add the endings to the infinitive- (ía, ías, ía, íamos, and ían) </li></ul><ul><li>The irregulares include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caber- Cabr -Decir- Dir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haber- Habr -Hacer- Har </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poder- Podr -Poner- Pondr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Querer- Querr -Saber- Sabr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salir- Saldr -Tener- Tendr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valer- Valdr -Venir- Vendr </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>The present perfect tense is uses an auxiliary verb to help describe recent actions. </li></ul><ul><li>To form this verb tense: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haber (to have) + participle (-ado and –ido) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The forms of Haber used are He Has Ha Hemos and Han. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Past Perfect <ul><li>This form of the verb is used to describe things that HAVE happened in the past and use the auxiliary verb haber in conjunction with the participle. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the same way as the present perfect tense with the same haber conjugations. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Perfect Irregulars <ul><li>These are some of the irregulars used with the perfect tense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrir- abierto -Cubrir- cubierto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decir- dicho -Escribir- escrito </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacer- hecho -Ir- ido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morir- muerto -Poner- puesto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolver- resuelto -Romper- roto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ver- visto -Volver- vuelto </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Subjunctive Perfect <ul><li>This is one form of the subjunctive which combines the function of the verb Haber. </li></ul><ul><li>These phrases are constructed by using the present subjunctive form of the verb Haber (Haya, Hayas, Haya, Hayamos, Hayan) and adding the participle. </li></ul><ul><li>Example- It's good that he studied - Es bueno que haya estudiado. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impersonal “se” <ul><li>The impersonal “se” is a grammatical function used to prevent giving a verb a specific subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of the “se” is always in the third person but can be used in any tense. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Saber vs. Concer <ul><li>Saber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To know… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facts, info, or how to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conocer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To know… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People, places, or literary works </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Formal Commands <ul><li>Affirmative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the verb’s yo form, drop the –o and add the opposite ending (ar -> e er/ir ->a) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the verb’s yo form, drop the –o and add the opposite ending (ar -> e er/ir ->a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add an “n” to the end of the command. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Informal Commands <ul><li>Affirmative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the verb in the tú form and drop the –s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the verb in the yo form, drop the yo, and add an –s. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Irregular Commands <ul><li>Usted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decir- diga hacer- haga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ir- vaya poner- ponga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salir- salga ser- sepa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tener- tenga venir- venga </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tú </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten ven </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Nosotros Commands <ul><li>To form the nosotros command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yo form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add ending “-mos” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mono verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object pronouns are at the end of the command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop “s” off the “-mos” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DoP and IoP placement <ul><li>Endings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DoP- lo, la, los, las </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IoP- me, te, se, nos, os </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ir + infinitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to end of infinitive or in front of conjugated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estar + ing verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to end of –ing verbs and add accent to maintain syllable stress. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative- add to end and add accents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative- add between “no” and the verb </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Subjunctive
  16. 16. Subjunctive Triggers <ul><li>Impersonal Expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Es bueno que... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es importante que... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es mejor que... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es malo que... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es Necessario que... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es urgente que... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuando </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despues de que </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hasta que </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luego que </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tan pronto como </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Tan and Tanto <ul><li>Tan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As… as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with adjectives and adverbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tanto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As much/many as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with nouns and verbs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives <ul><li>Singular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Este/esta= this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ese/esa= that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquel/aquella= that over there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estos/estas= these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esos/esas= those </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquellos/aquellas= those over there </li></ul></ul>