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Grammar book for spanish


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Grammar book for spanish

  1. 1. Grammar Book AMELIA OLTON
  2. 2. Table of Contents1.Nationalities2.Stem Changers3.Para4.Indirect Object Pronouns5. Pronoun Placement6.Gustar7. Affirmative and Negative8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tu commands/ irregular/ pronoun placement11. Negative tu command/irregular/pronoun placement12.Sequencing events
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Jugar U>UE Juego Jugamos Juegas Jugaís Juega JueganPensar E>IEPienso PensamosPiensas PensaísPiensa Piensan Pedir e>I Pido PedamosDormir O>UE Pides PedaísDuermo Dormimos Pide PiedenDuermes DormaísDuerme Duerman
  5. 5. ParaCommon uses of Para: Para is often confused with Por which is a rarely interchanged word for for. Where Para is used: To mean "in order to": When used in this way, it is followed by an infinitive. To indicate purpose or need With estar to mean : “to be ready to” To mean "no later than" or "by”
  6. 6. Indirect Object PronounsMe NosTe OsLe Les Indirect Object Placement 1. Before the conjugated verb 2.Attached to an infinitive 3.Attached to a gerund *The Pronouns Le and Les sometimes refer to different indirect objects. To clarify the difference, they are accompanied by a noun, name, or pronoun . Example:Mi madre te compró un libro. (My mother bought you a book.)
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement 1.Attach the pronoun to the infinitive 2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command. 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb.
  8. 8. GustarSingularMe (Gusta) Nos (Gusta)Te (Gusta) Os (Gusta)Le(Gusta) Les (Gusta) -Even if attached to more than one infinitive, it will remain singular. You often need to read the sentence backwards: Me gusta el gato. The cat is liked by me. *The form of gustar matches the noun, not the speaker. Plural Me (Gustas) Nos (Gustas) Te (Gustas) Os (Gustas) Le (Gustas) Les (Gustas)
  9. 9. Affirmatives and Negatives Algo – something Nada-Nothing Nadie- No one Alguien -Someone *Ningun/ Ninguno- None, *Algún/Alguno -some Not any Nunca- Never Siempre -always Tampoco- Neither, either También- tampoco Ningun must also match the *Alguno must match gender of the noun they replace or modify. the gender of the noun they replace or modify. A double negative is required in spanish when no preceeds the verb, except if the negative word comes before a verb, a second verb is not needed.
  10. 10. Superlatives Isímo Isímos/Isímos Isímas Added to adjectives and adverbs, Equivalent to extremely or very and is placed before an Adjective or verb .An adjective that is ending in –n or –r are formed by adding cisímoAdjectives that end in C,G or Z change spelling to que, gu, and c. -Feliz- Felizcisimo
  11. 11. Reflexives Reflexive verbs are something that one does to themselves such as Position of reflexives : brushing ones teeth or hair. Ex: Pepa se lava el pelo. 1.. In front of conjugated verb 2. Attached to infinitive- Pepa washes her hair 3. Attached to Gerund- Ex: Me levantó 4. Attached to infinitive command.- I wash my self- Reflexive pronouns are used with or without reflexive verbs. When there is no reflexive pronoun, the person doing the act
  12. 12. Affirmative tú commands/irregulars/pronoun placement Affirmative Commands Give instructions or commands to someone by using Affirmative tu commands of regular verbs Caminar/ Camina/ ¡Camina en el parque! Placement :When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command Cruza el parque > ¡Cruzalo! Infinitive Tu command Decir Di Irregular Commands Hacer haz Primero haz los quehaceres Ir VeFirst do the chores Poner Pon Salir Sal Tener Ten Venir Ven
  13. 13. Negative tú commands/ irregular/ pronoun placement  Formed by: Taking you form of the present tense, dropping the o and adding the appropriate ending. Infinitive Yo form Negative tu command Hablar Hablo No Hables! Volver Vuelvo No vuelves VenirIrregular (Yo Form) Placement:Infinitive: Dar (doy) Command: No le desmi direccion a nadie- Dont give my adress to anyone. Pronouns precede the verb in negative commandsInfinitive: Estar Command: No estés triste-don’t be sad
  14. 14. How to form Tú commands 1. Affirmatives : Drop the –s 2. Put in Yo form, cange vowel, add-s 3. Affirmative irregulars: Di , Haz, Ven, Pon, Sal, Se, Ten, Ven Irregular Commands: Tener No Tengas Venir No Vengas Dar/ Decir No des/ digas Ir No vayas Ser No seas Hacer No Hagas Saber/ Salir No sepas/ salgas
  15. 15. Sequencing events Used to show what events are in what specific order. Primero- First Entonces- after luego/después-/ Por Fin then/after / Finally Antes de/ después de- before that/ after that Por la mañana/ tarde/ Noche- In/ during the-( no specific time given) Los lunes etc.- on Monday, or any other day