Spanish 3 Grammatical Concepts Nicholas Arce
Table of Contents <ul><li>1- Title </li></ul><ul><li>2- Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>3- Preterite Tense </li></ul><...
Preterite <ul><li>This verb form is used for completed actions in the past. Such as you ate yesterday, comiste ayer, or I ...
Triggers <ul><li>Every verb tense has words which will help you identify which tense to use. For the preterite tense... </...
Car, Gar, Zar <ul><li>Most (if not all) verb forms have irregulars. The preterite has quite a few...the first being the ca...
Spock! <ul><li>Irregular conjugations for each grouping. No accents! </li></ul>Hacer Dar Ir Ser Ver Dar/Ver -i,-imos,-iste...
Snake....Snakey <ul><li>Only the bottom of the chart....(3 rd  person) has an irregular conjugation where the vowel change...
Cucurachas! <ul><li>These verbs all have the same endings:  e, imos, iste, o, ieron. </li></ul><ul><li>Anduve, anduvimos, ...
Imperfect <ul><li>Used to describe past actions that don't have a specific beginning or ending. They have an imperfect tim...
Triggers <ul><li>Denotes the imperfect tense!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>A veces </li></ul><ul><li>A menudo </li></ul><ul><li>De...
Imperfect Irregulars <ul><li>Ir </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>ibas </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>íbamo...
Preterite v s. Imperfect <ul><li>We have two ways we could possibly express past actions, with the preterite and imperfect...
Ser v s.   Estar <ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>D- descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>O- occupations </li></ul><ul><li>C- chara...
Verbs like Gustar <ul><li>Some verbs work like gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronoun + gusta/an + noun </li></ul><ul><...
Comparatives and Superlatives <ul><li>Comparatives  </li></ul><ul><li>Mas ____ que ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Menos ____ que _...
Future Tense <ul><li>All verbs end the same way! Infintive + ending </li></ul><ul><li>Habl ar é miercoles. </li></ul>é emo...
Triggers <ul><li>When you see these, you know the event will be happening sometime in the future! </li></ul><ul><li>M aña ...
Irregulars! <ul><li>Same endings, but the stem changes! </li></ul><ul><li>Caber  cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner  pondr </li>...
Transition Words <ul><li>These words will spice up your sentences and provide you with ways of saying more things. </li></...
Por <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>By means of </li></ul>Passing through PORtal General, not specific PORtugal How long POR...
Para <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>In order to </li></ul>For whom something is done Suprise PARAtay Destination PARAguay T...
Grammar Book Sem. 2 Nicholas Arce
Table of Contents 24,25 Conditional + irregulars -Perfect Tenses 26 Present 27 Present perfect irregulars 28 Past 29 Subju...
Conditional <ul><li>Used to express probability, wonder, conjecture,  or possibility </li></ul><ul><li>*when would is used...
Irregulars <ul><li>Caber  Cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner  Pondr </li></ul><ul><li>Decir  Dir </li></ul><ul><li>Haber  Habr <...
Presente Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect is a compound tense formed with the verb haber and the past participle of the...
Irregulars! Abrir - abierto Cubrir - cubierto Decir - dicho Escribir - escrito Hacer - hecho Morir - murto Pooner - puesto...
Past Perfect <ul><li>había habías había habíamos  +  Verb  =  Past perfect habíais habían </li></ul><ul><li>Used when you ...
Subjunctive Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctiv...
Tanto y Tan <ul><li>Tan… como (as…as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto… como (as much/as many… as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tan is used wi...
Impersonal Se <ul><li>Se vende fruta en el mercado </li></ul><ul><li>Se habla Ingles </li></ul><ul><li>Se hizo mucho </li>...
Saber v Conocer <ul><li>Conocer is used for knowledge of people, places, or literary works. </li></ul><ul><li>¿ Conoces el...
Informal Commands <ul><li>+ Conjugate to the usted form </li></ul><ul><li>- Drop ending add opposite ending and 's' </li><...
Formal Commands + Yo form, opposite ending - Yo form opposite ending --Dop/Iop --Irreg *if plural, just add 'n' + Hablen, ...
Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Simply add the opposite ending of the nosotros conjugation... </li></ul><ul><li>Hablamos-> Hable...
Subjunctive <ul><li>Represents attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical, will, influence, emotion, or doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Irregulars <ul><li>Car, Gar, Zar- formed same way as always </li></ul><ul><li>Conducir, decir, oir- conduzca, diga, oiga <...
Trigger Phrases <ul><li>Impersonal expressions-  es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, etc. Express an order, a nee...
Demonstrative Adjectives este  (this)  esta ese  (that)  esa aquel  (that over there)  aquella estos  (these)  estas esos ...
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Spanish 3 Grammar Notebook sem 1 and 2

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Spanish 3 Grammar Notebook sem 1 and 2

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Grammatical Concepts Nicholas Arce
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>1- Title </li></ul><ul><li>2- Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>3- Preterite Tense </li></ul><ul><li>4- Preterite Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>5- Car, Gar, Zar </li></ul><ul><li>6- Spock </li></ul><ul><li>7- Snake, Snakey </li></ul><ul><li>8- Cucuracha </li></ul><ul><li>9- Imperfect Tense </li></ul><ul><li>10- Imperfect Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>11- Irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>12-Preterite vs. Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>13- Ser vs. Estar </li></ul><ul><li>14- Verbs like Gustar </li></ul><ul><li>15- Comparatives and Superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>16- Future Tense </li></ul><ul><li>17- Future Triggers </li></ul><ul><li>18- Future Irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>19- Transition Words </li></ul><ul><li>20- Por </li></ul><ul><li>21- Para </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preterite <ul><li>This verb form is used for completed actions in the past. Such as you ate yesterday, comiste ayer, or I swam at 8, Na d é a las ocho. They have a definitive start and end. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Verb Forms </li></ul><ul><li>-Ar </li></ul><ul><li>-Er/Ir </li></ul>é amos aste - ó aron í imos iste - i ó ieron
  4. 4. Triggers <ul><li>Every verb tense has words which will help you identify which tense to use. For the preterite tense... </li></ul><ul><li>Ante ayer </li></ul><ul><li>El dia anterior </li></ul><ul><li>El jueves pasado </li></ul><ul><li>El otro dia </li></ul><ul><li>UN! vez </li></ul><ul><li>All these will help you identify the perterite tense </li></ul>
  5. 5. Car, Gar, Zar <ul><li>Most (if not all) verb forms have irregulars. The preterite has quite a few...the first being the car, gar, and zar verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>For these verbs, take off the ending of the infintive, and for the YO form with verbs en ding in car, gar, or zar, use the endings qu é, gué, and cé respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>buscar---busqu é </li></ul><ul><li>llegar---llegué </li></ul><ul><li>empezar---empecé </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spock! <ul><li>Irregular conjugations for each grouping. No accents! </li></ul>Hacer Dar Ir Ser Ver Dar/Ver -i,-imos,-iste,-io,-ieron Hacer hice, hicimos, hiciste, hizo, hicieron Ir/Ser fui, fuimos, fuiste, fue, fueron
  7. 7. Snake....Snakey <ul><li>Only the bottom of the chart....(3 rd person) has an irregular conjugation where the vowel changes to a y. </li></ul><ul><li>Leer </li></ul><ul><li>le y ó </li></ul><ul><li>leyeron </li></ul><ul><li>Oir </li></ul><ul><li>oy ó </li></ul><ul><li>oyeron </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cucurachas! <ul><li>These verbs all have the same endings: e, imos, iste, o, ieron. </li></ul><ul><li>Anduve, anduvimos, anduviste, anduvo, anduvieron </li></ul><ul><li>andar anduv- </li></ul><ul><li>estar estuv- </li></ul><ul><li>tener tuv- </li></ul><ul><li>caber cup- </li></ul><ul><li>haber hub- </li></ul><ul><li>poder pud- </li></ul><ul><li>poner pus- </li></ul><ul><li>saber sup- </li></ul><ul><li>hacer hic- </li></ul><ul><li>querer quis- </li></ul><ul><li>venir vin- </li></ul><ul><li>*decir dij- </li></ul><ul><li>*producir produj- </li></ul><ul><li>*traer traj- </li></ul>***** for those, the 3 rd person plural drops the 'I' in the conjugation. For example. Trajeron instead of trajieron....
  9. 9. Imperfect <ul><li>Used to describe past actions that don't have a specific beginning or ending. They have an imperfect time. They describe habitual past actions, or uncompleted actions. Also vague refrences would use the imperfect.... cuando ERA niño... </li></ul><ul><li>The endings are.... </li></ul><ul><li>-Ar </li></ul><ul><li>-Er/Ir </li></ul>aba ab á mos abas - aba aban ía íamos ías - ía ían
  10. 10. Triggers <ul><li>Denotes the imperfect tense!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>A veces </li></ul><ul><li>A menudo </li></ul><ul><li>De vez en cuando </li></ul><ul><li>Mientras </li></ul><ul><li>Muchas veces </li></ul><ul><li>Los lunes </li></ul><ul><li>Cada dia </li></ul><ul><li>Frequentemente </li></ul><ul><li>siempre </li></ul>
  11. 11. Imperfect Irregulars <ul><li>Ir </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>ibas </li></ul><ul><li>iba </li></ul><ul><li>íbamos </li></ul><ul><li>iban </li></ul><ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>era </li></ul><ul><li>eras </li></ul><ul><li>era </li></ul><ul><li>éramos </li></ul><ul><li>eran </li></ul>Ver veía veías veía veíamos veían Only 3, enough said?
  12. 12. Preterite v s. Imperfect <ul><li>We have two ways we could possibly express past actions, with the preterite and imperfect tenses. So, which one should we use? Well, the preterite, as I said before, is like a snapshot, a definite time. Imperfect is like a movie, it keeps moving. </li></ul><ul><li>If that isn't confusing enough, they can both be used in the same sentence. But luckily, the imperfect shows the background information such as time, weather, and location, while the preterite shows the specific events. </li></ul>Nadaste a las dies (Pret.) Nadaba de vez en cuando (imp.) Cuando dorm ía, mi perro comió una hamburguesa con queso.
  13. 13. Ser v s. Estar <ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>D- descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>O- occupations </li></ul><ul><li>C- characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>T- time </li></ul><ul><li>O- origin </li></ul><ul><li>R- relationships </li></ul><ul><li>P- possesion </li></ul><ul><li>E- events </li></ul><ul><li>D- dates </li></ul><ul><li>Estar </li></ul><ul><li>H- health </li></ul><ul><li>E- emotions </li></ul><ul><li>L- location </li></ul><ul><li>P- physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>ING- for verbs in English ending in -ing you need estar + verb + ando/iendo </li></ul>
  14. 14. Verbs like Gustar <ul><li>Some verbs work like gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronoun + gusta/an + noun </li></ul><ul><li>me encantan los zapatos </li></ul><ul><li>me fascina comer </li></ul><ul><li>no me importa </li></ul><ul><li>aburrir, faltar, importar, interesar, molestar, quedar, caer, doler, disgustar, preocupar, sorprender, apetecer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comparatives and Superlatives <ul><li>Comparatives </li></ul><ul><li>Mas ____ que ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Menos ____ que ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Nuestra casa es mas grande que su casa </li></ul><ul><li>Superlatives </li></ul><ul><li>el mas ___ de ____ </li></ul><ul><li>el menos ___ de ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Nuestra casa es el mas grande de todos en el mundo </li></ul><ul><li>*Irregular adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Bueno- mejor </li></ul><ul><li>Malo- peor </li></ul><ul><li>Viejo- mayor </li></ul><ul><li>Joven- menor </li></ul><ul><li>*Numbers! </li></ul><ul><li>Mas de or menos de </li></ul><ul><li>*OTRO! </li></ul><ul><li>Tan___ como </li></ul><ul><li>as ___ as </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto ___como </li></ul><ul><li>as much/many as </li></ul>
  16. 16. Future Tense <ul><li>All verbs end the same way! Infintive + ending </li></ul><ul><li>Habl ar é miercoles. </li></ul>é emos ás - á án
  17. 17. Triggers <ul><li>When you see these, you know the event will be happening sometime in the future! </li></ul><ul><li>M aña na </li></ul><ul><li>El lunes </li></ul><ul><li>Despues de m añana </li></ul><ul><li>El proximo dia </li></ul>
  18. 18. Irregulars! <ul><li>Same endings, but the stem changes! </li></ul><ul><li>Caber cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner pondr </li></ul><ul><li>Decir dir </li></ul><ul><li>Haber habr </li></ul><ul><li>Salir saldr </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer har </li></ul><ul><li>Poder podr </li></ul><ul><li>Tener tendr </li></ul><ul><li>Querer querr </li></ul><ul><li>Valer valdr </li></ul><ul><li>Sabe sabr </li></ul><ul><li>Venir vendr </li></ul>
  19. 19. Transition Words <ul><li>These words will spice up your sentences and provide you with ways of saying more things. </li></ul><ul><li>Aunque- even though </li></ul><ul><li>Mientras- while </li></ul><ul><li>A pasar de- in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>Por lo tanto- therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Sin embargo/no obstante- nevertheless </li></ul>
  20. 20. Por <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>By means of </li></ul>Passing through PORtal General, not specific PORtugal How long PORever The cause of something PORpuse An exhange imPORt/exPORt Doing something in place of someone I am POR, pay for me By means of moving transPORtation
  21. 21. Para <ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>In order to </li></ul>For whom something is done Suprise PARAtay Destination PARAguay The purpose for whom something is done PARAsites Opinions PARAdon me, but... Contrast and compare comPARAson deadline PARAmedic
  22. 22. Grammar Book Sem. 2 Nicholas Arce
  23. 23. Table of Contents 24,25 Conditional + irregulars -Perfect Tenses 26 Present 27 Present perfect irregulars 28 Past 29 Subjunctive perfect 30 Tanto y Tan 31 Impersonal ‘se’ 32 Saber vs. Conocer -Los Mandatos 33 Informal 34 Formal 35 Nosotros commands 36,37 Subjunctive + irregulars 38 Trigger phrases 39 Demonstrative Adjectives
  24. 24. Conditional <ul><li>Used to express probability, wonder, conjecture, or possibility </li></ul><ul><li>*when would is used-imperfect is used </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive + = Conditional </li></ul><ul><li>It has the same irregulars as the future tense </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to make polite requests – Me gustaría….. </li></ul>ía íamos ías íais ía ían
  25. 25. Irregulars <ul><li>Caber Cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner Pondr </li></ul><ul><li>Decir Dir </li></ul><ul><li>Haber Habr </li></ul><ul><li>Salir Saldr </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer Har </li></ul><ul><li>Poder Podr </li></ul><ul><li>Tener Tendr </li></ul><ul><li>Querer Querr </li></ul><ul><li>Valer Valdr </li></ul><ul><li>Saber Sabr </li></ul><ul><li>Venir Vendr </li></ul>
  26. 26. Presente Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect is a compound tense formed with the verb haber and the past participle of the other verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AR- ado </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ER- ido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IR- ido </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True in past and still is true in present. </li></ul><ul><li>Action was completed recently </li></ul><ul><li>To tell what you have done or have not done. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Irregulars! Abrir - abierto Cubrir - cubierto Decir - dicho Escribir - escrito Hacer - hecho Morir - murto Pooner - puesto Resolver - resuelto Romper - roto Ver - visto Volver - vuelto Ir - ido
  28. 28. Past Perfect <ul><li>había habías había habíamos + Verb = Past perfect habíais habían </li></ul><ul><li>Used when you have or had done something in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Drop (er, ir) + ido </li></ul><ul><li>Drop (ar) + ado </li></ul>
  29. 29. Subjunctive Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive, and normally is used to indicate the action as completed with verbs in the present or future tense. </li></ul><ul><li>You use the present subjunctive conjugation of the verb haber + your past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Haya </li></ul><ul><li>Hayas </li></ul><ul><li>Haya </li></ul><ul><li>Hayamos + Participle </li></ul><ul><li>Hayan </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tanto y Tan <ul><li>Tan… como (as…as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto… como (as much/as many… as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto is used with nouns and verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Conduzco tan despacio como puedo. </li></ul><ul><li>El tiene tanto miedo como yo. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Impersonal Se <ul><li>Se vende fruta en el mercado </li></ul><ul><li>Se habla Ingles </li></ul><ul><li>Se hizo mucho </li></ul><ul><li>Use 'se' to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>When using 'se' the verb is always in the 3 rd person. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in ALL tenses. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Saber v Conocer <ul><li>Conocer is used for knowledge of people, places, or literary works. </li></ul><ul><li>¿ Conoces el libro All Quiet on the Western Front ? </li></ul><ul><li>Saber is used when you need to state factual information. </li></ul><ul><li>Ella sabe que 2 + 2 = 4 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Informal Commands <ul><li>+ Conjugate to the usted form </li></ul><ul><li>- Drop ending add opposite ending and 's' </li></ul><ul><li>--Dop/Iop </li></ul><ul><li>--Irreg </li></ul><ul><li>+ Habla, Come, Escribe </li></ul><ul><li>- No Hables, No Comas, No Escribas </li></ul><ul><li>-- Hablalo, No lo hables </li></ul><ul><li>--Di has ve s é sal ten ven pon * add infinitive to end: d í lo, ponla </li></ul>
  34. 34. Formal Commands + Yo form, opposite ending - Yo form opposite ending --Dop/Iop --Irreg *if plural, just add 'n' + Hablen, compre, escriba - No Hable, No compren, No escriba – Hablelo, No la compren – D é, esté, vaya, sea,sepa, tenga, venga, ponga
  35. 35. Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Simply add the opposite ending of the nosotros conjugation... </li></ul><ul><li>Hablamos-> Hablemos </li></ul><ul><li>Mono Verbs- When making the verb reflexive for nos you drop the s Hablemo s nos->Hablemonos </li></ul>
  36. 36. Subjunctive <ul><li>Represents attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical, will, influence, emotion, or doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in ‘yo’ form, change to opposite ending </li></ul><ul><li>Que- connector to subjunctive </li></ul><ul><li>When no change in subject from clause to clause, use infinitive! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Irregulars <ul><li>Car, Gar, Zar- formed same way as always </li></ul><ul><li>Conducir, decir, oir- conduzca, diga, oiga </li></ul><ul><li>Dar-> dé, des, den, demos </li></ul><ul><li>Hay-> haya, hayas, hayan, hayamos </li></ul>
  38. 38. Trigger Phrases <ul><li>Impersonal expressions- es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, etc. Express an order, a need, a piece of advice, or a desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of emotion- alegrarse de que, esperar que, sentir que, temer que, etc. Shows fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, joy, pity </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions of time- use the subjunctive after them after the subordinate clause is habitual or in the past. Asi que, caundo, despues de que, en cuanto, hasta que, luego que, tan pronto como. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Demonstrative Adjectives este (this) esta ese (that) esa aquel (that over there) aquella estos (these) estas esos (those) esas aquellos (those over there) aquellas *when used as a pronoun, add an accent, est é

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