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The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and ePrints UK

The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and ePrints UK



A presentation at the AULIC Institutional Repositories Meeting, University of Bristol – 23 May 2005

A presentation at the AULIC Institutional Repositories Meeting, University of Bristol – 23 May 2005



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    The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and ePrints UK The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and ePrints UK Presentation Transcript

    • UKOLN is supported by: The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and ePrints UK AULIC Institutional Repositories Meeting University of Bristol – 23 May 2005 Andy Powell, UKOLN, University of Bath [email_address] www.bath.ac.uk A centre of expertise in digital information management www.ukoln.ac.uk
    • Contents
      • a brief history of OAI
      • 10 technical things you should know about the OAI-PMH
      • potential impact…
        • institutional context
        • the role of the library?
        • the researcher
      • ePrints UK project
    • OAI roots
      • the roots of OAI lie in the development of eprint archives…
        • arXiv, CogPrints, NACA (NASA), RePEc, NDLTD, NCSTRL
      • each offered Web interface for deposit of articles and for end-user searches
      • difficult for end-users to work across archives without having to learn multiple different interfaces
      • recognised need for single search interface to all archives
        • Universal Pre-print Service (UPS)
    • Searching vs. harvesting
      • two possible approaches to building a single search interface to multiple eprint archives…
        • cross-searching multiple archives based on protocol like Z39.50
        • harvesting metadata into one or more ‘central’ services – bulk move data to the user-interface
      • digital library experience in this area indicated that cross-searching not preferred approach
        • distributed searching of N nodes viable, but only for small values of N
    • Harvesting requirements
      • in order that harvesting approach can work there need to be agreements about…
        • transport protocols – HTTP vs. FTP vs. …
        • metadata formats – DC vs. MARC vs. …
        • quality assurance – mandatory elements, mechanisms for naming of people, subjects, etc., handling duplicated records, best-practice
        • intellectual property and usage rights – who can do what with the records
      • work in this area resulted in the “Santa Fe Convention”
    • Development of OAI-PMH
      • 2 year metamorphosis thru various names
        • Santa Fe Convention, OAI-PMH versions 1.0, 1.1…
        • OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting 2.0
      • development steered by international technical committee
      • simplicity and inter-version stability helped developer confidence
      • move from focus on eprints to more generic protocol
        • move from OAI-specific metadata schema to mandatory support for Dublin Core
    • Bluffer’s guide to OAI
      • OAI-PMH short for Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
      • a low-cost mechanism for harvesting metadata records
        • from ‘data providers’ to ‘service providers’
      • allows ‘service provider’ to say ‘give me some or all of your metadata records’
        • where ‘some’ is based on date-stamps, sets, metadata formats
      • eprint heritage but widely deployed
        • images, museum artefacts, learning objects, …
    • Bluffer’s guide to OAI
      • based on HTTP and XML
        • simple, Web-friendly, fast deployment
      • OAI-PMH is not a search protocol
        • but use can underpin search-based services based on Z39.50 or SRW or SOAP or…
      • OAI-PMH typically carries metadata
        • content (e.g. full-text or image) made available separately – typically at URL in metadata
      • mandates simple DC as record format
        • but extensible to any XML format – IEEE LOM, ONIX, MARC, METS, MPEG-21, etc.
    • Bluffer’s guide to OAI
      • metadata and ‘content’ often made freely available – but not a requirement
        • OAI-PMH can be used between closed groups
        • or, can make metadata available but restrict access to content in some way
      • underlying HTTP protocol provides
        • access control – e.g. HTTP BASIC
        • compression mechanisms (for improving performance of harvesters)
        • could, in theory, also provide encryption if required
    • Dublin Core
      • OAI-PMH mandates use of simple DC as lowest common denominator
      • agreed XML schema – ‘oai_dc’
        • simple DC – 15 metadata properties
        • all DC properties optional and repeatable
      http://dublincore.org/ Rights Identifier Publisher Coverage Format Description Relation Type Subject Language Date Creator Source Contributor Title
    • Impact on institutions…
      • OAI-PMH technology provides an open, relatively stable technical framework
        • allows institution to re-consider management of intellectual output
        • greater confidence in availability of external services (e.g. discovery, access, analysis)
      • the technical bit is easy
        • eprints.org software (Southampton), DSpace (MIT/HP), Fedora
      • but, technical solutions are always easy!
        • real problem is cultural change required to get academics to deposit
    • Impact on libraries…
      • library is natural choice as ‘managing agent’ for the institutional repository
        • quality control
        • metadata enhancement
        • preservation
      • but technical strengths of libraries quite variable, therefore technical collaboration within institution may be required
      • beginning to see some evidence of externally ‘hosted’ repository services being offered
    • Impact on researchers…
      • OAI-PMH technology provides a ‘disruptive’ technical framework that supports
        • new ways for individual researcher to disclose his/her research output
        • development of new kinds of ‘research’ discovery services
      • can use ‘personal’ OAI repository
      • but, need to
        • clarify roles of institutional, discipline and personal repositories
        • overcome FUD – IPR, peer-review, ability to ‘publish’, quality control, inertia
    • ePrints UK
      • RDN project funded by JISC under FAIR programme
      • now finished but ‘service’ still running
      • UK ‘service provider’
      • harvesting metadata from all UK eprint archives
      • single point of discovery to UK eprints
      • working with OCLC and University of Southampton to automatically enhance harvested metadata
    • ePrints UK eprint archive(s) ePrints UK OAI-PMH name authority subject classification citation analysis End-user
    • What did we learn?
      • impact of eprint archives still quite low
      • national coverage is potentially interesting to funders but not to end-users
      • automatically enhancing metadata is difficult, particularly w.r.t.
        • subject classification
        • name authority
      • approaches to metadata creation varied – no clear cataloguing guidelines
        • linkage to full-text from metadata record inconsistent
    • OAI and Google OAI gateway OAI gateway makes harvested metadata available to Google… eprint archive(s) HTTP OAI-PMH Examples… DSpace and Google OAIster and Yahoo
    • Current activities/issues
      • protocol now stable and few changes being discussed
      • some lightweight noises about re-implementing OAI-PMH using SOAP (Web services) but little enthusiasm for pushing these kinds of changes forward
      • some work on OAI-rights issues – formalising mechanisms for attaching IPR statements and/or licences to the records being exchanged using the protocol, e.g. Creative Commons
    • Creative Commons
      • CC is “ devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others to build upon and share ”
      • provides ‘standard’ licences for content
        • attribution
        • noncommercial
        • no derivative works
        • share alike
      • mechanisms for indicating licence on Web pages
    • Works vs. manifestations
      • implementers have tended to see ‘eprints’ as single-entity objects
      • some evidence that this is too simplistic
        • some repositories expose metadata about the ‘work’, others expose metadata about the ‘expressions’
      • need more consistency in our use the OAI-PMH to expose metadata about both ‘works’ and ‘manifestations’
      • complex objects encoded using METS or MPEG-21 DIDL (may include ‘objects’ as well as ‘metadata about objects’)
    • Questions…