Digital Libraries


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An old presentation by me on Digital Libraries created around 2004

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Digital Libraries

  1. 1. Digital Libraries Jack Eapen [email_address]
  2. 2. A Brief Overview <ul><li>DL- Some Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits& Limitations of DL </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Technologies& Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Tools Available </li></ul><ul><li>A Model DL for India </li></ul><ul><li>Planning a DL Project </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges in DL Environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. DL- Some Definitions <ul><li>In simple terms, a digital library is a collection of information that is stored and accessed electronically. Terms such as &quot;electronic library&quot; and &quot;virtual library“ are often used synonymously. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The generic name for federated structures that provide humans both intellectual and physical access to the huge and growing worldwide networks of information encoded in multimedia digital formats.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>---The University of Michigan Digital Library </li></ul>
  4. 4. DL- Some Definitions <ul><li>Sun Microsystems defines a digital library as the electronic extension of functions users typically perform and the resources they access in a traditional library </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Library Federation (DLF) crafted the following definition: Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. DL vs TL
  6. 6. Benefits of DL <ul><li>DL brings the library to the user </li></ul><ul><li>Improved access - Searching and browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be shared more easily </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to keep information current </li></ul><ul><li>Information is always available </li></ul>
  7. 7. Benefits of DL <ul><li>New forms of information become possible </li></ul><ul><li>Wider access </li></ul><ul><li>Allow collaboration and exchange of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>DLs may save money </li></ul><ul><li>Improved preservation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Limitations of DL <ul><li>Technological obsolescence Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of content refreshing </li></ul><ul><li>Rights management </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-operability </li></ul><ul><li>Network bandwidth </li></ul>
  9. 9. Functional Components of DL
  10. 10. Architecture of a DL
  11. 11. Digital Objects
  12. 12. Digital Objects <ul><li>Type of Digital Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  13. 13. File Formats for DO <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>ASCI I </li></ul><ul><li>Native Application Format </li></ul><ul><li>HTML/XML </li></ul><ul><li>PDF </li></ul>
  14. 14. File Formats for DO <ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>BMP </li></ul><ul><li>JPEG </li></ul><ul><li>PNG </li></ul><ul><li>GIF </li></ul><ul><li>TIFF </li></ul>
  15. 15. File Formats for DO <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><li>MIDI </li></ul><ul><li>WAV </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul><ul><li>RAM/RA </li></ul>
  16. 16. File Formats for DO <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>AVI </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Time (mov/qt) </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG/MPG </li></ul>
  17. 17. Emerging Technologies & Standards
  18. 18. Uniform Resource Names <ul><li>Any form of Uniform Resource Name (URN) has three properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location independence -- not tied to a particular computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence -- long-term validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global uniqueness </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Uniform Resource Names <ul><li>Handle System by CNRI </li></ul><ul><li>DOIs by DOI Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>PURL by OCLC </li></ul>
  20. 20. Resolution of URNs PURL Server PURL URL DNS Server Resource Server Client Browser
  21. 21. Resolution of Handles
  22. 22. Unicode <ul><li>Unicode Standard is a character coding system designed to support the worldwide interchange, processing, and display of the written texts of the diverse languages </li></ul><ul><li>Unicode provides a unique number for every character </li></ul><ul><li>Unicode enables a single software product or a single website to be targeted across multiple platforms, languages and countries without re-engineering </li></ul>
  23. 23. Metadata <ul><li>Metadata contains information about objects (files, images, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>A metadata record consists of a set of attributes or elements necessary to describe a particular resource </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata allows search engines to find and classify resources </li></ul>
  24. 24. Types of Metadata <ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Resource discovery and identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: Title, abstract, author, URL, keyword, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative& Rights management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: help manage a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: Who created and when, who can access, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content format, rights information, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Document structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: chapter, section, paragraph </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) <ul><li>International standard for describing network </li></ul><ul><li>digital resources , conceived in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 15 elements, each repeatable, none </li></ul><ul><li>mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Has reached standard status – W3C, NISO, ISO </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used in several projects around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Being refined further </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dublin Core Metadata Element Sets <ul><li>Resource Type </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Relation </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Rights Management </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Author/Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Subject/ Keywords </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Other Contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul>
  27. 27. Key Features of DC <ul><li>Small and simple element set </li></ul><ul><li>Non-specialists can create metadata records </li></ul><ul><li>Enable effective search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly understood semantics </li></ul><ul><li>DC element set in several languages </li></ul><ul><li>Extensibility </li></ul><ul><li>DC record can be embedded in the resource itself (e.g. “Meta” tag of HTML) </li></ul><ul><li>DC elements may be contained in a record separate from the source </li></ul>
  28. 28. Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting <ul><li>OAI-PMH is a lightweight harvesting protocol for sharing metadata between services </li></ul><ul><li>The OAI-PMH gives a simple technical option for data providers to make their metadata available to services, based on the open standards HTTP and XML </li></ul><ul><li>world-wide consolidation of scholarly archives </li></ul><ul><li>free access to the archives (at least: metadata) </li></ul><ul><li>consistent interfaces for archives and service provider </li></ul><ul><li>low barrier protocol / effortless implementation (e.g., because based on HTTP, XML, DC) </li></ul>
  29. 29. OAI-PMH Basic Functioning
  30. 30. Tools Available
  31. 31. D Space <ul><li>Developed by MIT Libraries and HP </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Repository model </li></ul><ul><li>Support for a Variety of Digital Formats and Content Types </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source Software </li></ul>
  32. 32. D Space <ul><ul><li>      UNIX-like OS- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      Java 1.3 or later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      JavaBeans Activation Framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      Java Servlet 2.3 and JSP 1.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Java Servlet Container/Application Server (eg. Tomcat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      Apache 1.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      Ant 1.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      PostgreSQL 7.3+ </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Greenstone <ul><li>Developed by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato </li></ul><ul><li>Runs on various platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Highly customizable </li></ul><ul><li>Collections can be exported to CD ROMs </li></ul><ul><li>Requires Apache and Perl </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul>
  34. 34. Eprints <ul><li>Developed at the University of Southampton </li></ul><ul><li>Creates online archives of the research output of an academic institution </li></ul><ul><li>Supports variety of document formats </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted papers go through a moderation process (if administrators desire) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires LAMP architecture </li></ul>
  35. 35. A Model Digital Library <ul><li>Perpetual repository of human knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Preserves national heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Protects national wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Enable learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease information gap </li></ul><ul><li>Develop model tools and practices </li></ul>
  36. 36. Planning a DL Project <ul><li>Define need, purpose and user community </li></ul><ul><li>Select and analyze source material </li></ul><ul><li>Determine digital library collection requirements and features </li></ul><ul><li>Plan approach to digitization and collection release </li></ul><ul><li>Determine resource requirements for project implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare implementation steps and timeline </li></ul>
  37. 37. Challenges in DL Environment <ul><li>Develop improved technology for digitizing analog materials </li></ul><ul><li>Design search and retrieval tools that compensate for abbreviated or incomplete cataloging or descriptive information. </li></ul><ul><li>Design tools that facilitate the enhancement of cataloging or descriptive information by incorporating the contributions of users. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish protocols and standards to facilitate the assembly of distributed digital libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>Address legal concerns associated with access, copying, and dissemination of physical and digital materials </li></ul>
  38. 38. Challenges in DL Environment <ul><li>Integrate access to both digital and physical materials </li></ul><ul><li>Develop approaches that can present heterogeneous resources in a coherent way </li></ul><ul><li>Make the digital library useful to different communities of users and for different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more efficient and more flexible tools for transforming digital content to suit the needs of end-users. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop economic models for the support of the Digital Library </li></ul>
  39. 40. Questions?