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  1. 1. OAI & OAI-PMH<br />Albulena Bruncaj<br />LIS 882 <br />Metadata for Internet Resources<br />
  2. 2. What is OAI?<br />The Open Archives Initiative<br />OAI is a framework that deals with interoperability standards for digital resources<br />Traces its roots to the open access and institutional repository movements (e-prints)<br />It is “explicitly in transition”<br />Their goal is to define a “low-barrier” framework for cross-repository interoperability<br />
  3. 3. OAI-PMH – A Brief History<br />The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting<br />The framework provides a technical mechanism for harvesting metadata from repositories<br />Santa Fe meeting (1999)<br />Cross-searching multiple archives based on Z39.50 or harvesting metadata into one or more "central" services in a bulk move of data?<br />OAI-PMH 1.0/1.1 followed by OAI-PMH 2.0<br />
  4. 4. History (continued)<br />
  5. 5. OAI-PMH<br />
  6. 6. Why use OAI-PMH?<br />Easily and rapidly deployed because it is XML and HTTP based<br />Interoperability<br />Visibility<br />Can use a single search interface<br />
  7. 7. Who Participates?<br />Two classes:<br />Data Providers<br />Service Providers<br />1357 registered OAI-PMH repositories —<br />
  8. 8. Multiple data & service providers<br />
  9. 9. Aggregators<br />
  10. 10. Repositories<br />As defined by OAI-PMH, a repository is a network-accessible server that exposes metadata to harvesters<br />Three entities related to this accessible metadata:<br />Resource<br />Item<br />Record<br />
  11. 11. Records<br />header (mandatory)<br />identifier <br />Datestamp (YYYY-MM-DD)<br />setSpec elements<br />status attribute for deleted item<br />metadata (mandatory)<br />XML encoded metadata with root tag, namespaces<br />repositories must support Dublin Core, may support other formats <br />about (optional)<br />rights statements<br />provenance statements<br />
  12. 12. setSpec<br />Sets are optional<br />Enable a logical partitioning of repositories, but they are not necessarily hierarchical<br />Not necessarily exhaustive of content<br />Helps facilitate selective harvesting, however<br />Publication type<br />Document type<br />Content sets<br />
  13. 13. The Fun Part!<br />OAIster<br /><br />
  14. 14. Requests & Reponses<br />Both use HTTP<br />Request types (also called the “verbs”)<br />Identify<br />ListMetadataFormats<br />ListSets<br />ListIdentifiers<br />ListRecords<br />GetRecord<br />
  15. 15. Organizational Decisions<br />
  16. 16. DSpace<br />OAI-compliant<br />Free, out-of-the-box software that enables access to digital content<br />Examples:<br /><br /><br />
  17. 17. CONTENTdm<br />CONTENTdm is a software used for the management of digital collections<br />Widely used<br />Metadata in CONTENTdm can be harvested through OAI-PMH<br />Allows collection curators to extend basic Dublin Core schema to include locally defined fields<br />Example:<br /><br />
  18. 18. CONTENTdm – Tension <br />At minimum, simple Dublin Core is required<br />CONTENTdm offers an easy way to make their metadata (and thus, digital collections) available while simultaneously providing curators with the means to create local, non-standardized metadata<br />
  19. 19. Issues with OAI-PMH<br />Libraries face the challenge of creating metadata that both meets the requirements of local practices in granularity (e.g., putting certain content in fields not harvestable by others) and wanting to share their digital collections widely<br />Is there any solution? Or are we all left to figure out our library’s balance on our own?<br />
  20. 20. Questions?<br />
  21. 21. Bibliography<br />An overview of OAI OAI-PMH. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from<br />Han, M., Cho, C., Cole, T.W., and Jackson, A.S. “Metadata for special collections in CONTENTdm: How to improve interoperability of unique fields through OAI-PMH.” Journal of library metadata, 9(3/4), 213-238.<br />OAI. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from<br />"OAI-PMH online tutorial." Open Archives Forum. 12 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from<br />Zeng, M.L., and Qin, J. (2008). "Metadata repositories." In Metadata (224-232). New York: Neal-Schuman.<br />