Terrorism

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Explores the different types of terrorism, goals, motivations and statistics.

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Terrorism

  1. 1. Terrorism<br />
  2. 2. What is Terrorism?<br />No accepted definition.<br />Dictionary: the use of force or threats to demoralize, intimidate and subjugate, especially as a political weapon<br />Civilians as victims only? innocent civilians in Israel and US do not exist-Bin Laden)<br />Tactic<br />Goals vary by group<br />
  3. 3. Types of Terrorism<br />Domestic<br />International<br />Religious/Apocalyptic, Political, Social, Environmental, leftist/fundamentalist<br />
  4. 4. Types of Political Terrorism<br />National Separatist: cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial separation from the larger group, often with demands for independence or autonomy<br />
  5. 5. Religious/ Apocalyptic Terrorism<br />Killing in the Name of God; Often political undertones. <br />Al-Qaeda?<br />Abortion Clinic Bombers<br />Suicide Bombers?<br />AumShinrikyo<br />
  6. 6. Environmental Terrorism<br />Earth Liberation Front: acts of terrorism, violence or sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, or animal rights. <br />Common Tactic: Arson, Robbery, Tree Spiking, bombing<br />Recent example: Discovery Channel Hostage taking<br />More common in developed world<br />
  7. 7. Leftist Terrorism<br />Maoists in Nepal, East India.<br />Marxists (Shining Path)<br />Techniques generally include: kidnapping, bombing, guerilla warfare<br />
  8. 8. Perpetrators of Terror<br />Lone Wolf vs. Sophisticated Group<br />
  9. 9. Why?<br />Varies substantially depending on group and region<br />Suggested Theories:<br />Poverty<br />Regime Type<br />Inequality<br />Revenge<br />Lack of Education<br />Religiously Motivated<br />Anger<br />
  10. 10. Poverty and lack of education?<br />In international terrorism perpetrators and leaders generally very educated and from a privileged background: 9/11 Hijackers, London Bombers, ‘Underwear bomber’.<br />Domestic Terrorism: Often poor and uneducated; no other path<br />
  11. 11. Sex and Money?<br />Lures young men with raging hormones<br />Promise of Houri’s<br />Palestinian/Pakistani groups recruit poor children, offer money and heaven. <br />
  12. 12. Revenge<br />In interviews with Palestinian ‘failed suicide bombers’, almost all reported being upset that family members had been killed or incarcerated by Israeli’s. <br />
  13. 13. Regime Type<br />Positive correlation between democracy and terrorism<br />Why?<br />Open media<br />Opportunity<br />Civil Liberties<br />Persecution/Rule by Iron Fist in Authoritarian Regimes<br />
  14. 14. Goals<br />Fear (most Groups i.e Greek Anarchists, ELF/ALF, )<br />Media Coverage (Almost all groups)<br />Martyrdom (National Hero)<br />As many deaths as possible (new phenomena; Al Qaeda, Shining Path, Tamil Tigers)<br />
  15. 15. Total number of Terrorist Attacks<br />87,710 Total Attacks<br />44,715(0 victims)<br />32,140 (1-10 victims)<br />3,613 (11-50 victims)<br />288 (51-100 victims)<br />112 (101+ victims)<br />
  16. 16. Regions with Most Attacks<br />South America (17266)<br />Middle East/North Africa (15346)<br />Western Europe (14474)<br />South Asia (13072)<br />Central America (10539)<br />Sub-Saharan Africa (5825)<br />Southeast Asia (4938)<br />
  17. 17. States with most attacks (1970-2007)<br />Colombia (7004)<br />Peru (6082)<br />El Salvador (5347)<br />India (5178)<br />Ireland (3975)<br />Spain (3224)<br />Pakistan (3209)<br />Turkey (2776)<br />Sri Lanka (2498)<br />
  18. 18. States with Deadliest Attacks (Over 100 killed in a single attack)<br />Nicaragua (12) <br />El Salvador (10)<br />Burundi (7)<br />Sri Lanka (6)<br />Rwanda (6)<br />Russia (4)<br />Nepal (4)<br />Angola (4)<br />Ethiopia (3)<br />
  19. 19. Pape: Strategic Logic of Terrorism<br />Main points: <br />World leader in suicide terrorism is LTTE<br />180 suicide terrorist attacks from 1980-2001<br />Why? Because it works; no internment<br />Most common goal: withdrawal of military forces in land; independence<br />

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