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Religion and politics

Examines the role religion plays in politics throughout the world,

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Religion and politics

  1. 1. Religion and Politics<br />September 16, 2010<br />
  3. 3. Religion<br />Source of Peace, nonviolence, humanitarianism violence, wars and hatred…Divisive and Inclusive<br />Revival of Religious Fervor in last quarter century (Fundamentalism)<br />Fundamentalism has generally conservative values they wish incorporated into political life (issues on Gender Roles, Nationalism, GLBT Rights, Abortion, etc).<br />Righteousness of their own beliefs<br />
  4. 4. Islam<br />Common misconception that Muslim=Arab<br />Largest Muslim Population in Indonesia<br />Fastest Growing Religion in the World (and US)<br />Product of 7th century Arabian Peninsula<br />Produced Advanced civilization with major contributions to human development & progress.<br />Muhammad (570-632 A.D)considered messenger of Islam<br />
  5. 5. Facts about Islam<br />Quran is the holy book, which recognizes the Jewish and Christian holy books and prophets.<br />Previously Pagan community inhabited Arabian Peninsula.<br />Islam means peace through the submission to God.<br />Muslim means anyone or anything that submits itself to the will of God.<br />
  6. 6. Misconceptions about Islam<br />Women Have No Rights<br />Preaches Terrorism<br />Hates Everyone but Muslims<br />Polygamy is widespread<br />Muslims worship Muhammad<br />Cannot adapt to Western societies<br />
  7. 7. 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Shahada (Profession of Faith)<br />First step of being Muslim, <br />can be said in private & still <br />counts<br />
  8. 8. 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Salat (Prayer)<br />5 times a day (sunrise, midday, <br />mid-afternoon, sunset and darkness). <br />Muslims must perform act of ablution before prayer (wudu).<br />Obligatory on every Muslim who have reached the age of puberty, with the exception being those who are mentally ill, too physically ill for it to be possible, menstruating<br />
  9. 9. 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Zakat (tithing)<br />Voluntary obligation for every Muslim to help those in need. Generally done through direct gifts to poor or through charity<br />
  10. 10. 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Sawm (fasting during Ramadan)<br />Required for every Muslim who is not sick, pregnant or a child<br />During fast, Muslim does not eat, drink, smoke, or have sex from sunrise to sunset. <br />Date varies each year since based on lunar calendar. <br />Fast generally broken with a Date(fruit) <br />
  11. 11. 5 Pillars of Islam<br />Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)<br />Required once in a lifetime if financially and physically able.<br />Also recommended to visit holy mosques in Medina and Jerusalem<br />
  12. 12. Islam and Politics<br />No political theory in Islam and no distinction between secular and religious. <br />Muslims are considered Ummah based on religion, not kinship, language, race or nationality<br />A strict Muslim community has 4 main features<br />The sole head of the community is God<br />Gods’ teachings as revealed in the Quran are the law<br />Constitution of community are eternal and unchangeable<br />Purpose of the community of state is to uphold the faith. <br />
  13. 13. Islam and Politics<br />Paradox of Muslim nations<br />Women not voting in Saudi Arabia, and until recently Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain.<br />Women President and Prime Ministers in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey and Indonesia. <br />Many Islamic countries still struggle to balance role between religion and politics<br />
  14. 14. Different types of Islamic States<br />Muslim- Has Muslim majority but secular govt. (Turkey)<br />Islamic States- Muslim majority. Govt uses Islam for guidance in political affairs (Egypt).<br />Islamist- State depends on Islamic law or Sharia for governance (Saudi Arabia and Iran)<br />
  15. 15. Hinduism<br />Oldest religion. Dates back to <br />3000 BC<br />Extremely diverse and complicated beliefs and practices. <br />600 million followers<br />No founding figure<br />3 largest religion in world by # of adherents. <br />
  16. 16. Basic Beliefs<br />Karma<br />Samsara<br />Four Permissible Goals in life<br />Karma<br />Artha<br />Dharma<br />Moksha<br />
  17. 17. Misconceptions about Hinduism<br />Worship Cows<br />All are vegetarians<br />They have thousands of gods<br />All Indians are Hindu<br />When Indians are talking about Aryans they mean Nazis.<br />Swastiks<br />
  18. 18. Caste System<br />Integral Part of Hinduism abolished since 1947<br />Brahmin (Highest, Priesthood)<br />Ksatriya (Aristocratic nobility, warriors, knights)<br />Vaisya (Peasants, Merchants, and Professionals)<br />Shudra (non-aryans, slaves, servants)<br />Untouchables (Dalit)<br />
  19. 19. Hinduism and Indian Politics<br />Post-Independence India clashed over Caste system<br />Gandhi combined Hindu principles and nationalist ideals in the struggle for liberation<br />Gandhi accepted principle of caste system but did not like limitations on outcastes and attempted to integrate Dalits (Harijans) into India’s society. <br />Gandhi’s peaceful resistance still lead to massive bloodshed in partition of India/Pakistan<br />Current Hindu Nationalist party opposes rights to Muslims and non-Hindus<br />
  20. 20. Buddhism<br />Born in India<br />Siddharta Gautama left the riches after seeing poverty and sought enlightenment and meaning of life.<br />Achieved enlightenment after 49 days of mediation and revealed the 4 noble truths<br />
  21. 21. 4 Noble Truths<br />Life is suffering<br />Suffering is caused by ignorance<br />Sorrow ends when a person is enlightened<br />Enlightenment is achieved by discipline and moral conduct<br />
  22. 22. Noble Eightfold Path<br />
  23. 23. Buddhism and Politics<br />Strongly contributed to conceptualization of nonviolent action for social justice<br />Two nobel prizes went to Buddhist activists (Dalai Lama and San SuuKyi.<br />Buddhist revival in China<br />Activist Buddhism in Sri Lanka<br />
  24. 24. Sri Lanka<br />80% Buddhist<br />After Independence government declared Sinhala national language and provided support for Buddhist institutions<br />Angered Tamil/Hindu minority<br />Civil War from the 1970’s- 2008<br />SarvodayaShramadana movement<br />
  25. 25. Christianity in Africa, Asia and Latin America<br />Largely spread by missionaries<br />Liberation Theology- rise of the “people power” (Gustavo Gutierrez)<br />Oppression against native populations in Latin America early on.<br />Catholic Church often associated with repressive regimes. <br />Aristide in Haiti<br />
  26. 26. Who Will Speak For Islam?<br />Main Points?<br />