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Ethnic Conflict


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Examines ethnic conflict around the world.

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Ethnic Conflict

  1. 1. Ethnic Conflict<br />September 21, 2010<br />PS 212<br />
  2. 2. Globalization and Ethnic Conflict<br />Globalization allows problems from one area to spill over into another area.<br />Can weaken ethnic identities (exposed to different ideas, behavior, material goods.<br />Economic globalization can give ethnic groups with an education advantage over another group. <br />
  3. 3. Ethnic Conflict and End of Cold War<br />Increased attentions since end of Cold War<br />Many conflicts developed independently of the East-West rivalry but were held in check by superpowers<br />Extremely difficult to contain to one country<br />Ethnic diversity does not automatically result in violence or conflict.<br />
  4. 4. Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity<br />Ethnicity, tribalism, and nationalism often used interchangeably.<br />Tribalism (outdated term).<br />Preferred term for groups is Ethnic Group (How to determine?)<br />Identity: conception of the self ; social attributes of particular individuals shaped by many social, cultural, economic and political factors<br />Ethnic pluralism<br />
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  6. 6. Causes of Ethnic Conflict<br />Ancient Hatreds?<br />Rarely about just ethnicity<br />Political undertones<br />Stereotypes: US vs THEM<br />Competition for resources<br />Modernization?<br />Weak political institutions<br />Democratization<br />Proliferation of automatic weapons<br />
  7. 7. Costs of Ethnic Conflict<br />Poor get poorer<br />Thousands or Millions of Deaths<br />Land Mines (1 death every 22 minutes)<br />Economic Costs<br />Cannot Democratize<br />Refugees and spillover effect<br />Environmental Destruction<br />Worsened Drug Problems<br />
  8. 8. Ethnic Conflicts in Africa<br />Continent most<br /> consumed by <br />ethnic conflict. <br />
  9. 9. Ethnic Conflict in Africa<br />Nigeria<br />Why so much violence?<br />Biafra<br />Islamic Law<br />Liberia<br />Americo-Liberians<br />Cycle of Violence<br />The Sudan<br />What’s the Problem?<br />What’s being done?<br />Rwanda<br />Tutsi vs. Hutus<br />European Influence<br />Turn around fair play?<br />
  10. 10. Ethnic Conflicts in Asia<br />India<br />Religious differences<br />Partition: Ali Jinnah <br />(Muslim League/Pakistan)<br />Jawaharlal Nehru (Secular India)<br />Sikhs and Golden Temple<br />Assassination of Indira Gandhi<br />Murders and Rapes of Christians<br />
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  12. 12. China<br />China<br />The Xinjiang Province<br /> and the Uighur Separatists<br />Uighurs are Muslim, territory<br />became part of China in 1949<br />Han-93% of Population<br />Tibet<br />Suppression of Religion.<br />Migration of Han Chinese<br />Loss of Culture<br />1 million deaths<br />
  13. 13. Sri Lanka<br />Sri Lanka<br />Complex society<br />Colonial influence<br />Sinhala govt. declared Sinhala <br />the language and Buddhism the religion.<br />Denied Tamils jobs & Education<br />1983 Targeting of Tamils<br />Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga <br />peace deal (fell through)<br />EU listed LTTE as terrorist org. in 2006<br />May 2009 End of Civil War<br />
  14. 14. Resolving Ethnic Conflicts<br />Most groups have needs met as country develops economically<br />Democratic societies offer groups a chance to form coalitions<br />Disparities brought about by economic growth may fuel ethnic conflicts. <br />Redraw borders?<br />Power-Sharing arrangements<br />Federalism. <br />