Lecture two globalization sept 2


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The good, the bad, the ugly and the history of globalization and its effects on the modern and developing world

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Lecture two globalization sept 2

  1. 1. Globalization, Politics, Government and Culture<br />Thursday September 2nd<br />
  2. 2. What is Globalization?<br />The integration of markets, politics, <br />values and <br />environmental <br />concerns <br />across borders<br />
  3. 3. Or As Critics Would Say….<br />MacDonaldization<br />Capitalism’s Global <br />Conquest<br />
  4. 4. Or as supporters would say<br /><ul><li> A world of free trade and unlimited prosperity
  5. 5. A world linked by Internet
  6. 6. A world of universal culture</li></li></ul><li>Our everyday lives are inundated with the result of globalization<br />Isolationism is no longer a viable option. <br />No country has all the raw materials it consumes<br />
  7. 7. Interwoven World<br />Food<br />Mineral & Natural Resources<br />Science & Tech<br />Economically<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. As nature shaped the physical earth, globalization shaped human civilization…<br />In fact, globalization began before the ‘globe’ even existed<br />The earliest surviving terrestrial globe was made in 1492 by a Dutch geographer Martin Behain…but Humans have been exploring for much longer<br />
  10. 10. In fact, Globalization is as old as human history<br />First group of humans left Africa 100,000 years ago arriving in the Mediterranean<br />50,000 years ago a second group arrived in Asia<br />
  11. 11. Forces behind this globalization were<br />Better life<br />Faith<br />Adventure<br />
  12. 12. So how is globalization different today?<br />The forces that are driving globalization today are not fundamentally different from the past. It is people seeking to enrich their lives, companies and businesses trying to expand their profit and believers trying to win converts. <br />But this is happening with:<br />High Speed<br />Bigger Volume<br />Global actors<br />Global rules<br />Awareness<br />
  13. 13. Collapsing distance<br />Steam engine<br />Steam ship<br />Airplane<br />
  14. 14. Collapsing Time<br />Telegraph<br />Telephone<br />Radio<br />Television<br />
  15. 15. First wave of conscious Globalization 1870-1914:<br />Colonial globalizers played a leading role in commercializing agriculture in new land and setting up industries and businesses.<br />Sixty million migrated from Europe to North America and Australia to work on newly available land. Many millions from India and China moved to Southeast Asia and other colonial domains<br />
  16. 16. Globalization in Retreat<br />Against the backdrop of bitter national strife, world wars and revolutions, immigration doors shut and a rising protectionism chocked off trade.<br /> Between 1929 and 1933 U.S. imports fell by 30 percent and exports fell by almost 40 percent. Immigration to the United States declined from 15 million during 1870–1914 to 6 million between 1914 and 1950.<br />
  17. 17. Second wave of Globalization 1945-1980<br />Led by Western multinationals<br />Global ratios of exports to output returned to 1918 levels by 1970 and have since risen from 12 to 17 per cent. <br />Developed countries grew wealthy but their persistent trade barriers to developing countries and the latter’s poor investment climates and anti-trade policies combined to keep them poor.<br />
  18. 18. Third wave of Globalization 1980-2000<br />A combination of higher capital flow from the developed countries and reform in the developing countries of Asia made the region the centre of growth. Between 1965 and 1995 the real incomes per head of the Asian newly industrialized economies rose seven times, while their share in world trade increased more than fourfold. <br />Opening of China in the early eighties and India in the nineties strengthened trade and investment flows.<br />
  19. 19. Cultural Interdependence?<br />Or Cultural Colonialism? <br />
  20. 20. Migration of dreams: The impact on the poor of television programs emanating from wealthier societies<br />Relative Deprivation: The gap between what a person gets and what that person thinks he/she should get<br />
  21. 21. Globalization Pros and Cons<br />Pros<br />Access to products of different countries<br />Influx of Information<br />Cheaper Products<br />Increased wealth and opportunities in countries<br />Cons<br />Homogenization of Culture<br />Environmental Degradation<br />Sweat Shops and Child Labor<br />Loss of Domestic Jobs<br />