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Physical & Cognitive Development in Infancy

Physical & Cognitive Development in Infancy

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  • 1. CHAPTER 3 Physical & Cognitive Development In Infancy
  • 2. Principles of Physical Growth
    • Cephalocaudal Principle
    • Growth patterns are from the head down
    • Proximodistal Principle
    • Development proceeds from the center of the body outward
    • Principle of Hierarchical Integration
    • Simple skills develop separately & independently but later are integrated into more complex skills
    • Principle of Independence of Systems
    • Different body systems grow at different rates
  • 3. Brazelton Assessment Scale
    • Used to determine infants’ neurological & behavioral responses to their environment
    • 27 Categories of responses that measure:
    • Interactions with others
    • Motor behavior
    • Physiological control
    • Response to stress
  • 4. The Reflexes
    • Reflex Stimulation Response Developmental Pattern
    • Blinking Flash of light, puff Closes both eyes Permanent
    • of air
    • Babinski Stroke sole of foot Fans out toes, Disappears after 9 months to 1 twists foot year
    • Grasping Touch palms of hands Grasps tightly Weakens after 3 months,
    • disappears after 1 year
    • Moro (Startle) Sudden stimulation Startles, arches back, Disappears after 3 – 4 months
    • (e.g. loud noise or throws head back,
    • being dropped) flings out arms & legs
    • then rapidly closes
    • Rooting Cheek stroked or Turns head, opens Disappears after 3 – 4 months
    • side of mouth mouth, begins
    • touched sucking
    • Sucking Object touches Sucks automatically Disappears after 3 – 4 months
    • mouth
    • Swimming Put face down in Makes swimming Disappears after 6 – 7 months
    • in water movements
    • Stepping Lower feet onto Moves feet as if to Disappears after 3 – 4 months
    • flat surface walk
  • 5. Physical Development
    • Growth of the Body
    • Average height & normal height are not the same thing
    • Nutrition & Growth
    • Typical 2-month-old has 40% of body’s energy devoted to growth
    • Must consume large number of calories relative to body weight
    • Approx. 50 calories per pound
    • Adult needs 15 – 20 calories per pound
  • 6. Developing Nervous System
    • Neuron
    • Dendrites, Cell Body, Axon, Terminal Buttons, Synapse, Neurotransmitters
    • Brain
    • Hemispheres, Corpus Callosum, Frontal Cortex
  • 7. The Developing Brain & Nervous System
    • The Neuron
    • Basic component of the Nervous System
    • Number
    • Between 100 & 200 Billion at birth
    • Growth rate: 250,000 per minute
    • Synaptic pruning
    • Myelin
    • Fatty tissue covering the axon
    • Associated with critical periods
  • 8. Emerging Brain Structures
    • Neural Plate
    • Flat structure that develops in the zygote about 3 weeks after conception
    • At 4 weeks it folds to form neural tube that becomes brain & spinal cord
    • Myelin
    • Fatty wrap around axon that speeds up neural transmission
    • Begins at about 4 months
    • Synaptic Pruning
    • Synapses begin disappearing
    • Language Processing
    • Cortex in left hemisphere specializes in language processing early in life, probably by birth
  • 9. Brain Development
    • Plasticity
    • The Degree that the brain is modified by experience
    • Sensitive Period
    • A time in development when the organism is susceptible to environmental influences in relating to some particular facet of development
    • Influence on the Environment
    • Greater stimulation produces greater growth
  • 10. Neural Plasticity
    • Extent to Which the Brain is Organized is Flexible
    • The brain like office building with rooms designed to be used to meet different needs of the company
    • Neurons are created and begin migrating throughout cortex
    • Biochemical paths pull them
    • A neuron can end up anywhere
    • There are no specific genetic instructions
    • Brain construction similar in everyone
    • Experience changes specifics
  • 11. Rhythms of Living
    • Sleep & Wakefulness
    • Sleeps 16 – 18 hours per day
    • Sleep is in fits & starts
    • REM Sleep
    • Brain waves are different than adults
    • REM sleep in infants is not associated with dreaming
  • 12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    • Disorder where a seemingly healthy infant dies in its sleep
    • Affects 1 in 1000 infants in the U.S.
    • No apparent cause
    • Leading cause of death in children one year
    • At risk children: Boys, African-American, low-birthweight, low Apgar scorers, mothers who smoked, certain brain defects, & abused children
    • All races, socio-economic levels, & those with no health problems victims
  • 13. Nutrition & Motor Development
    • Malnutrition
    • Having an improper amount & balance of nutrients
    • Has negative results
    • Slower growth rate
    • Lower IQ
    • Kwashiorkor
    • Marasmus
    • Obesity
    • Weight greater than 20% above the average for a given height
  • 14. Physical Development
    • Breast Feeding insures proper nourishment
    • Advantages to breast feeding:
    • 1. immune advantages from mother’s antibodies
    • 2. less prone to diarrhea & constipation
    • 3. make transition to solid foods more easily
    • 4. breast milk can’t be contaminated
    • 5. formula-fed infants more prone to allergies
    • Malnutrition
    • 1 in 3 Children Worldwide Under Age 5 Malnourished
    • about 20% U.S. children get inadequate iron, & 10% go to bed hungry
    • Malnourished develop slower than peers
    • Especially damaging during infancy
    • Lower IQ, more easily distracted, shorter attention span, inattentive, tire more easily
  • 15. Early Motor Skills
    • Motor Skills
    • Coordinated Movements of Muscles & Limbs
    • Locomote: Moving about in the world
    • Fine motor skills: Grasping, holding, & manipulating objects
    • Locomotion: The Dynamic Systems Theory
    • Motor development involves many distinct skills that are organized & reorganized over time to meet the demands of specific tasks
    • Posture & Balance are fundamental to walking
    • Growth of legs & muscles are important to maintain upright posture
    • Stepping
    • Transfer of weight from one foot to another
    • Component skills must be mastered
    • Perceptual Factors
    • Need to judge whether surface is suitable for movement
    • Coordinating Skills
    • Differentiation: Mastery of component skills
    • Integration: Combining them in the proper sequence into a coherent, working whole
    • Learning to walk demands orchestration of many specific skills
  • 16. Fine Motor Skills
    • Reaching & Grasping
    • 4 Months Can Reach for Objects
    • requires hand-eye & individual finger coordination
    • 6 Months Coordinates Both Hands
    • 1 Year Can Generally Feed Self
    • Handedness
    • 90% Worldwide Right Handed
    • Young babies have no preference
    • 13 months handedness
    • Genetics Major Role in Handedness
  • 17. Perception
    • Sight
    • Eye, optic nerve, occipital area of brain relatively well-developed at birth
    • Visual acuity
    • Smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably; clarity of vision
    • Newborns respond to light & can track moving objects with the eyes
    • Color
    • Cones
    • Neurons specialized in the eye for color
    • Perceive few colors
    • Newborns can differentiate blue from gray & red from green, not yellow from green or yellow from red
    • Depth
    • Visual Cliff
    • At 1 ½ months placing on deep side of cliff heart rate decelerates
    • Deceleration occurs when something interesting occurs
    • Notices difference between sides of cliff
    • Retinal disparity: Difference between left & right eye images
    • Used to judge depth cues
    • Infants use visual cues and sound to judge depth
  • 18. Perception
    • Process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, & organizes sensory information
    • Smell & Taste
    • Infants respond positively to pleasant smells
    • Infants have highly developed sense of taste
    • Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
    • Touch & Pain
    • Nervous system can transmit pain
    • Behavior in response to pain-provoking stimuli suggests they experience pain
    • Hearing
    • Hearing is best in range of human speech
    • By 4½ months can recognize own name
    • Infants can distinguish different pitches
  • 19. Development of the Senses
    • Visual Perception
    • Neonate can see only about 1 foot
    • Minutes after birth shows preferences for certain stimuli
    • Within a few hours prefers mother’s face
    • Auditory Perception
    • Able to hear prior to birth
    • Prefers mother’s voice
    • Smell & Taste
    • Strong sense of smell & taste
    • Pain & Touch
    • Painful stimuli produce physical & emotional responses
  • 20. The Senses in General
    • An Infant sees only about 1 foot but can perceive depth.
    • It sees shapes and prefers novel images.
    • It recognizes faces and prefers attractive faces over those not attractive.
    • An Infant is able to hear from at least the 6 th month in utero.
    • It can identify its mother’s voice as well as its own voice.
    • It recognizes the sound of another infant/child who is in distress.
  • 21. Piaget’s Theories
    • Basic Principles of Cognitive Development
    • Assimilation: when new experiences are incorporated into existing schemes; e.g. grasping one thing extends to others
    • Accommodation: when schemes are modified based on experience; learns some things are too heavy to lift
    • Equilibration & Stages of Cognitive Development: recognition of schemes to return to a state of balance
    • Assimilation & accommodation usually in balance
    • Schemes sometimes need to be adjusted to new experiences
    • When balance is upset, disequilibrium occurs and there is a
    • need to change
  • 22. Information Processing
    • Attention
    • Process that determines which sensory information receives additional cognitive processing
    • Orienting response : fixation on a stimulus & changes in heart rate & brain activity
    • Habituation : diminished response to a stimulus as it becomes familiar
    • Learning
    • Classical conditioning : a neutral stimulus produces a response that was originally produced by another stimulus
    • Infants learn that a stimulus is a signal for what will happen next
    • Infants form expectations about what will happen in their environment
    • Operant conditioning : focus is on relation between consequences of behavior & the likelihood the behavior will occur
    • Imitation: watching others to see how they behave
  • 23. Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor Thinking
    • Sensorymotor Stage: birth – 2 years
    • Birth - 1 month
    • Exercises reflexes
    • 1 - 4 months
    • Primary circular reactions: Accidentally produces pleasing event involving body & try to recreate it
    • 4 – 8 months
    • Secondary circular reactions:
    • New actions repeated with objects
    • 8 – 12 months intentional behaviors engaged in
    • 12 – 18 months
    • Tertiary circular reactions:
    • Repeats old schemes with new objects trying to understand why different objects give different outcomes
    • 18 – 24 months
    • Symbolic usage crowning achievement of sensorymotor stage
  • 24. Language
    • Road to Speech
    • Perceiving speech:
    • Babies can distinguish speech sounds
    • Can hear the entire range of phonemes in all languages
    • By 8th month can recognize sound patterns that are heard repeatedly
    • Can recognize stressed syllables & sounds in native language
    • Infant-directed speech (motherese) helps infants perceive the sounds fundamental to their language
    • Steps to Speech
    • Earliest sounds:
    • Cooing
    • Vowel-like sounds (o-o-o-o or a-h-h-h)
    • Babbling
    • Speechlike sounds that have no meaning (dah or bah)
  • 25. First Words +
    • Language That’s Understood
    • First words have a structure borrowed from advanced babbling
    • Generally consists of vowel pairs repeated
    • Mama or dada
    • Referential style
    • Vocabularies that are dominated by words that are names of objects, persons, or actions
    • Expressive style
    • Vocabularies that include some names but also many social phrases used like single words (“Go away,” “What’d you want?” & “I want it”)
  • 26. First Words +
    • Fast Mapping of Words
    • Child’s ability to connect new words to referents so rapidly that he cannot consider all possible meanings for the new word
    • Joint attention
    • Parents label objects & children rely on adults’ behavior to interpret the words they hear
    • Labeling
    • Rules children use to learn new words with unfamiliar word in the presence of objects already known and some not known, unfamiliar word refers to objects not known
    • A name refers to the whole object & to all objects of the same type
    • If an object already has a name & another name, the new name denotes a subcategory of the original name
    • Given many similar category members, a word applied consistently to only one of them is a proper noun