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Human psychological development


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Behavioral Dentistry
Second Year

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Human psychological development

  1. 1. Human Psychological Development
  2. 2. Nature vs. Nurture • Genotype: • Refers to characteristics that are determined by information coded on the genes • Phenotype: • Refers to a person’s observable and measurable characteristics, • Often the result of an interaction between genetics and the environment
  3. 3. Reaction Range • Refers to each person’s genetic endowment sets a range (upper and lower boundaries) for development of a particular trait • Then, environment factors determine where the person will end up within that range • It is believed that the reaction range is larger for those with high genetic endowment than those with low genetic endowment For instance, • The range is broader for highly intelligent children than for those with below average intelligence • Psychosexual Development
  4. 4. Critical and Sensitive Periods Critical period: • Refers to a limited time span during which a person (or other organism) is biologically prepared to acquire certain behaviors but requires the presence of appropriate environmental stimuli for development to actually occur • For instance, • Newly-hatched geese will imprint on (become attached to and follow) the first moving object – usually the mother goose that they see during the first 15 hours of life • If nothing moves during this critical period, imprinting will not occur
  5. 5. Learning by Imprinting • As an animal matures, it recognizes and socially bonds with others of its species through a process known as imprinting
  6. 6. Konrad Lorenz, 1935 zoologist, ethologist, ornithologist
  7. 7. Sensitive Period • Used for human instead of critical period • Reflects the fact that though there are optimal time for certain capacities to develop, those capacities can develop, to some degree at an earlier or later time Maturation • Related to genetically-determined pattern of development. For example, • preprogrammed sequences of behaviors, • Such as learning to walk: - pulling oneself to a standing position, - walk while holding on furniture, - standing alone, - walking without assistance • Little or no impact on environmental involvement
  8. 8. Canalization • Refers to some characteristics which seem relatively resistant to environmental forces, such as sensorimotor development, which is highly canalized • Intelligence and personality are traits that are less canalized
  9. 9. Secular Trends • Refers to differences in the timing of physical changes that are found in children belonging to different cohorts • For example, secular trend in the onset of menarche • Over the past century, the onset decreased by about 4 months every decade from age17 in mid-1800s to age 12 or 13 in recent years • This is as a result of better diet, advancements in medical care, and other factors • Secular trends provide evidence of environmental impact on development
  10. 10. Cognitive development (Piaget) Piaget • A biologist and viewed cognitive development as a special case of biological growth • Body has physical structures that enable it to adapt to the environment • Also, the mind builds mental structures that permit it to progressively increase its fit to the environment
  11. 11. Adaptation and Equilibrium Adaptation (piaget’s key concept) • Involves building cognitive schemas – are organized thinking about world, through interaction with environment • Adaptation consists of two complementary processes 1. Assimilation • The child incorporates and interprets new information in terms of his or her existing schemas For example, • A child who sees a zebra at the zoo and calls it a horse is assimilating the zebra into his horse schema
  12. 12. 2. Accommodation • Child’s schemas are modified to take into account newly understood properties of objects • If the child calls a zebra “a horse with stripes” and eventually learns that the name for animal is “zebra”, he has noticed that zebras differ in some ways from horses and has revised his cognitive schema accordingly Equilibrium • Describes assimilation and accommodation as complementary and how they work together
  13. 13. Equilibrium: • Refers to continuous movement between: 1) Cognitive equilibrium; • A state in which we use existing schemas to interpret reality (assimilate) AND 2) Cognitive disequilibrium; • A state in which we notice that information doesn’t fit into our current schemas – • Disequilibrium accommodate or modify our current schemas so that we can understand new information – move back to the state of equilibrium • Equilibration takes place continuously throughout development, even at higher levels of cognitive maturity
  14. 14. Stages of Development According to Piaget: • Cognitive development proceeds sequentially in four stages • Each new stage builds upon the earlier one • Stages are invariant; they emerge in a fixed order for all children and there is no skipping of stages
  15. 15. 1. Sensorimotor stage • Birth to 2 years • Child learns about objects through: - sensory information (e.g., how objects look, feel, sound, and taste) and - motor activity (e.g., grasping, hitting) Achievement of this stage: • Object permanence, • objects continue to exist even when they are not visible • Deferred imitation; refers to the ability to imitate an observed act at a later point in time • Symbolic thought, which allows child to use words, activities, and mental images to stand for objects • Symbolic thoughts is the representation of reality through the use of abstract concepts such as words, gestures, and numbers.
  16. 16. 2. Preoperational Stage • 2 to 7 years • Increase in symbolic thought • strides in language • substitute pretend play (objects are used stand for something different – • For example, a block becomes a truck – playing daddy mammy Limitations of Preoperational thought: Egocentricism: • Children’s inability to understand that others do not experience the world in the same way they do Egocentricism underlies: a) magical thinking: - erroneous belief that one has control over objects or events; b) animism: - belief that objects have thoughts, feelings, and other lifelike qualities
  17. 17. • In preoperational stage, • children are unable to conserve or understand that the underlying property of an object may not change even when its physical appearance changes • For example, when water from a tall glass is poured into a short, wide glass • Child thinks there is a less water in the short glass Causes of inability to converse: Centration: • tendency to focus on one detail of a situation to the neglect of other important features, Irreversibility: • inability to understand that actions can be reversed
  18. 18. 3. Concrete Operational Stage • 7 to 12 years • Characterized by development of reversibility and decentration • Child is able to converse or understand • Conservation develops sequentially • First comes the conservation of: - number, - then length, - liquid, - mass, - area, - weight, and - Volume • Piaget called sequential conservation “horizontal decalage”
  19. 19. • Horizontal decalage • Refers to sequential mastery of concepts within a single stage of development • Transivity: - ability to mentally sort objects; • For example; - cards of different colors - WCST • Hierarchical classification: • The ability to sort objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences among the groups
  20. 20. 4. Formal Operational Stage • 12 onward • Child thinks logically and processes abstract, hypothetical information very well • For example, apple and orange (abstract response) • Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: - Ability to arrive at and test alternative explanations for observed events • Propositional thought: - Ability to evaluate the logical validity of verbal assertions without making inference to real-world circumstances
  21. 21. Adolescents at this stage: • With their new powers of abstract reasoning, spend time constructing: - grand religious, - ethical, - Political and theories - philosophical • these theories are unsophisticated and naïve • Prone to operational egocentricism or a rigid insistence that world can become a better place through implementation of their idealistic schemas • Imaginary Audience: - belief that others are as concerned with and critical of the their behavior as themselves • Personal Fable: - Belief that he or she is unique and indestructible - For example, I won’t get in an accident if I drive at 180km an hour)
  22. 22. Critique • Underestimating cognitive abilities of children, especially in preoperational stage (2 -7 yrs) • Children as young as age two can recognize that other people see things from a different perspective • children as young as three or four can be taught to conserve • Only about one-half of the adult population reaches formal operational stage ( 12 onward) • Many adults use formal operational thought only in their areas of expertise and experience
  23. 23. Erik ERIKSON'S DEVELOPMENT STAGES • Accepted Freud’s ideas as basically correct • Development functions by epigenetic principle • Emphasizes psychosocial and culture factors in personality development • Personality development is continuous vs. only 5 stages in Freud Infant ( 0 – 1 ½ years) 1. Trust vs. Mistrust Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment Toddler ( 1 ½ - 3 or 4 years) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Works to master physical environment while maintaining self-esteem Preschooler ( 4 – 5 or 6 yrs) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt Begins to initiate, not imitate, activities; develops conscience and sexual identity School-Age Child (6 – 12 yrs) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills
  24. 24. ERIKSON'S DEVELOPMENT STAGES (cont..) Adolescent (puberty – 18 to 20 years) 5. Identity vs. Role (identity) Confusion Tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image under role model and peer pressure Young Adult (20 – 30 yrs) 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Learns to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent or partner Middle-Age Adult (30 – 60 yrs) 7. Generativity vs Stagnation Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests Older Adult ( 60 and over) 8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and preparation for death – approaches death without fear is called “Wisdom”
  25. 25. • Lev Vygotsky was born in Russia in 1896. • He died at the young age of 37 from tuberculosis. • Due to his early death, most of his theories were left undeveloped. • His work in the last 10 years of his life has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development?
  26. 26. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Vygotsky • Described cognition as depending on the social, cultural, and historical context • Cognitive development is directly related to social interactions Learning occurs on two levels: 1) between the child and another person 2) within the child For example: • when working with a child on a task, an adult might say “no, don’t do it that way” • Subsequently, child may use the same statement to guide his or her own behavior Zone of proximal development: • Refers to the gap between what a child can do alone and what he or she can accomplish with help from parents or more competent peers
  27. 27. Memory in Childhood • Newborns have some degree of recognition memory • At age 2 to 3 months, can recall some information when provided with cues • By 2 years of age, can recall events that occurred several months ago Infantile amnesia: • When adults are asked about their earliest memories, cannot recall anything occurred before age 3. • Memory increases at preschool years and shows substantial gain at age 7
  28. 28. Factors help to increase memory: 1. Increased short-term memory capacity (working memory) 1. Consistent use of rehearsal and other memory strategies 3. Increased knowledge about things that are to be remembered 4. The development of metamemory, or knowledge about one’s own memory processes
  29. 29. Parenting and Personality Development • Parenting behavior has a strong impact on children’s personality development Dimension of parenting: Warmth versus Hostility • Warm parents are affectionate, put the child’s needs first, enthusiastic about child’s activities, empathetic and sensitive • Hostile parents quick to criticize, rarely shows affection, and overly rejecting • Children come from warm families are more securely attached in the first two years of life, have high self-esteem and IQs, and are more empathetic and altruistic (‫)غيرى‬
  30. 30. Restrictiveness versus Permissiveness • Restrictive parents • Highly controlling, demanding, expecting unwavering obedience to their rules. • Child tends to be obedient, timid, and having difficulty establishing close relationships • Permissive parents • Have few rules, make few demands, and let children make their own decisions • Children are relatively thoughtless toward other, moderately independent • Optimal parenting is one that falls in the middle of the restrictive-permissive continuum
  31. 31. Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents: - Controlling, - demanding, - expecting children to accept their demands in an unquestioning manner - Respond with punitive manner when child is disobedient - Children are often insecure, timid, unhappy, dependent, lacking motivation Permissive Parents: - Nurturant and accepting but fail to assert their authority - Children go to bed when they feel like it, and watch as much TV as they want, etc - Children have difficulty controlling their impulses, ignore rules and regulations, not very involved in academic and work activities
  32. 32. Authoritative parents: - Set high standards for their children and expect children to comply with their rules - Gain control by explaining rules to their children and seeking children’s input into family decisions - Parents are warm and nurturant • Children have best outcomes: - independent, - achievement-oriented, - friendly, and - self-confident
  33. 33. Uninvolved Parents: - Parents are undemanding, - indifferent, - rejecting, - display little commitment to being parents, - keep their children at a distance • Children are noncompliant, demanding, lack self-control, prone to antisocial behavior • Characteristics of parents: - Weak parental supervision, - lack of reasonable rules, - lax or erratic discipline, - Parent-child relationship is characterized by hostility, indifference, apathy, • Predictive of delinquency in adolescence
  34. 34. Aggression and Parenting Factors • Highly aggressive children come from homes where the parents are rejecting and lacking of warmth • Parents either very permissive or indifferent toward their child’s aggressiveness • Rely on power assertive discipline as a means of control • Aggression associated with an insecure/resistant attachment pattern