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Growth & Devt

Discuses the need to study growth and development, stages of development, principles of growth and development, patterns of growth and development and various factors affecting it

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Growth & Devt

  1. 1. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Nirmala Roberts Paediatric Nursing
  2. 2. Why study Growth & Development? <ul><li>Know what to expect of a particular child at any age </li></ul><ul><li>Assess child in terms of norms </li></ul><ul><li>Guide in terms of more mature forms of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Understand behavioural patterns of adults who care for children </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose malnutrition, infections & other diseases affecting G & D </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize potential problems and strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Assist parents to achieve optimum G & D </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for comprehensive care of the child </li></ul><ul><li>Work with children effectively in health & disease </li></ul>
  3. 3. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The sum of numerous changes that take place during the life time of an individual. A dynamic process with inter related dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth – Increase in size or weight of a whole or any of its parts (quantitative) = Physical maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Development – Emergence/ expansion of individual capacities through growth, maturation and learning (qualitative) = Functional maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Maturation – Increase in competence and adaptability…to function at a higher level </li></ul>
  4. 4. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… <ul><li>Prenatal – Conception to birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germinal : Conception – 2 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic : 2 – 8 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal : 8 – 40 weeks (birth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infancy –Birth to 12 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neonatal : Birth to 28 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy : 29 days to 12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Rapid growth rate & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total dependence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Rapid motor, cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and social devt. ‘Trust ’) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. …STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… <ul><li>Early childhood – 1 – 6 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toddler : 1 – 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschooler : 3 – 6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>– School age 6 – 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Later childhood -11 – 19 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepubertal : 10 – 13 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence : 13 – 18 yearrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>((Intense activity, discovery, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical & personality devt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Autonomy’, ‘Initiative ’) </li></ul></ul>- Physical, mental & social devt, peer relationships, skill competencies and self concept. ‘Industry’ <ul><ul><li>(Rapid maturation and change, redefining of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self concept. ‘Identity ’) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT (PATTERNS…TRENDS..) <ul><li>Basic rule – Every child is unique </li></ul><ul><li>- Growth is continuous, orderly & progressive </li></ul><ul><li>- Growth is universal and basic to all </li></ul><ul><li>Directional trend – Cephalocaudal, proximodistal, general to specific </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential trend </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental pace </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive periods </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal tendency & terminal points </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Secular trends </li></ul>
  7. 7. PATTERNS OF GROWTH General 120 140 160 180 200 100 80 60 40 4 8 12 20 18 0 20 Lymphoid Neural Genital Growth % Age in years
  8. 8. Child Development & interaction between various factors Play & activity Illnesses Nutrition Heredity Socio economic Environment Seasons/ O2 conc Socio-psychologic Neuro endocrine
  9. 9. Thanx

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