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    9.4 9.4 Presentation Transcript

    • 9.4 The Second President
    • Guiding Questions………..
      • How did John Adams handle the conflict with France?
      • Why did the Federalist party split?
    • Guiding Questions………..
      • How did the Alien and Sedition acts raise the issue of the rights of states?
      • What role did Congress play in the election of 1800?
    • John Adams Conflict with France
    • John Adam & France
      • France objected to Jay’s Treaty. The French said it favored Britain.
      • French ships began to seize American ships.
      • Adams sent diplomats to Paris to discuss the rights of neutral nations.
    • John Adams & France
      • The French foreign minister sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal. The agents asked for a $250,000 bribe and a $10 million loan to France before they would talk.
    • John Adams & France
      • Adams told Congress. Because he called the French agents X, Y, and Z, the incident became known as the XYZ Affair.
    • John Adams & France
      • The country would not pay the bribe, but Adams refused to ask Congress to declare war on France.
      • Instead, Adams strengthened the navy by building frigates, fast-sailing ships with many guns.
    • Federalist Party Splits
    • Federalists Party Split
      • Hamilton and his Federalist supporters wanted a war with France.
      • War with France would weaken the Republican party.
    • Federalist Party Split
      • War would force the United States to build up its military forces. This would increase federal power.
    • Federalist Party Split
      • Adams and his Federalist supporters wanted to avoid war with France.
      • Adams wanted to keep the country out of European affairs.
    • Federalist Party Split
      • He sent American diplomats to France. The new French leader agreed to stop seizing American ships.
    • The Alien and Sedition Acts
      • During the crisis with France, Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition acts.
    • Alien Act
      • The President could expel any alien thought to be dangerous to the country.
      • The number of years immigrants had to wait to become citizens was raised from 5 to 14.
    • Sedition Act
      • Sedition means stirring up rebellion against a government. Under this law, citizens could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officials.
    • What about freedom of speech??
    • The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights
      • Republicans opposed the Alien and Sedition acts.
      • Jefferson argued that states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a law passed by the federal government.
    • The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights
      • Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions supporting Jefferson’s view.
    • Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
      • These resolutions claimed that each state “has an equal right to judge for itself” whether a law is constitutional.
      • If a state decides a law is unconstitutional, the state can nullify that law within its borders.
    • Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
      • These resolutions raised the issue of states’ rights. Does the federal government have only those powers listed in the Constitution? If so, the states possess all other powers.
    • Congress and the Election of 1800
      • Republicans backed Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President. Federalists supported John Adams.
      • Republicans won the popular vote.
    • Congress and the Election of 1800
      • In the electoral college, Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes.
      • The election went to the House of Representatives to decide.
    • Congress and the Election of 1800
      • After four days and 36 votes, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
      • Federalists angered the Republicans when they passed the Alien and Sedition acts, which said that
        • a) American diplomats could not pay bribes to foreign agents.
        • b) foreigners could never become citizens.
        • c) under certain circumstances, citizens could rebel against the government.
        • d) citizens could be jailed for criticizing the government or its officials.
      • The issue of states’ rights raises questions about
        • a) whether the federal government should have a strong military force.
        • b) the President’s power to expel aliens.
        • c) whether Kentucky and Virginia had the right to pass resolutions.
        • d) which powers belong to the federal government and which belong to the states.