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  1. 1. 9.4 The Second President
  2. 2. Guiding Questions……….. <ul><li>How did John Adams handle the conflict with France? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Federalist party split? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Guiding Questions……….. <ul><li>How did the Alien and Sedition acts raise the issue of the rights of states? </li></ul><ul><li>What role did Congress play in the election of 1800? </li></ul>
  4. 4. John Adams Conflict with France
  5. 5. John Adam & France <ul><li>France objected to Jay’s Treaty. The French said it favored Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>French ships began to seize American ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams sent diplomats to Paris to discuss the rights of neutral nations. </li></ul>
  6. 7. John Adams & France <ul><li>The French foreign minister sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal. The agents asked for a $250,000 bribe and a $10 million loan to France before they would talk. </li></ul>
  7. 9. John Adams & France <ul><li>Adams told Congress. Because he called the French agents X, Y, and Z, the incident became known as the XYZ Affair. </li></ul>
  8. 10. XYZ AFFAIR
  9. 11. John Adams & France <ul><li>The country would not pay the bribe, but Adams refused to ask Congress to declare war on France. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, Adams strengthened the navy by building frigates, fast-sailing ships with many guns. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Federalist Party Splits
  11. 14. Federalists Party Split <ul><li>Hamilton and his Federalist supporters wanted a war with France. </li></ul><ul><li>War with France would weaken the Republican party. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Federalist Party Split <ul><li>War would force the United States to build up its military forces. This would increase federal power. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Federalist Party Split <ul><li>Adams and his Federalist supporters wanted to avoid war with France. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams wanted to keep the country out of European affairs. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Federalist Party Split <ul><li>He sent American diplomats to France. The new French leader agreed to stop seizing American ships. </li></ul>
  15. 19. The Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>During the crisis with France, Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition acts. </li></ul>
  16. 21. Alien Act <ul><li>The President could expel any alien thought to be dangerous to the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of years immigrants had to wait to become citizens was raised from 5 to 14. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Sedition Act <ul><li>Sedition means stirring up rebellion against a government. Under this law, citizens could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officials. </li></ul>
  18. 23. What about freedom of speech??
  19. 24. The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights <ul><li>Republicans opposed the Alien and Sedition acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson argued that states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a law passed by the federal government. </li></ul>
  20. 25. The Alien and Sedition Acts and States’ Rights <ul><li>Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions supporting Jefferson’s view. </li></ul>
  21. 26. Kentucky and Virginia resolutions <ul><li>These resolutions claimed that each state “has an equal right to judge for itself” whether a law is constitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>If a state decides a law is unconstitutional, the state can nullify that law within its borders. </li></ul>
  22. 27. Kentucky and Virginia resolutions <ul><li>These resolutions raised the issue of states’ rights. Does the federal government have only those powers listed in the Constitution? If so, the states possess all other powers. </li></ul>
  23. 29. Congress and the Election of 1800 <ul><li>Republicans backed Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President. Federalists supported John Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans won the popular vote. </li></ul>
  24. 30. Congress and the Election of 1800 <ul><li>In the electoral college, Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes. </li></ul><ul><li>The election went to the House of Representatives to decide. </li></ul>
  25. 31. Congress and the Election of 1800 <ul><li>After four days and 36 votes, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President. </li></ul>
  26. 32. <ul><li>Federalists angered the Republicans when they passed the Alien and Sedition acts, which said that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) American diplomats could not pay bribes to foreign agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) foreigners could never become citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) under certain circumstances, citizens could rebel against the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) citizens could be jailed for criticizing the government or its officials. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>The issue of states’ rights raises questions about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) whether the federal government should have a strong military force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the President’s power to expel aliens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) whether Kentucky and Virginia had the right to pass resolutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) which powers belong to the federal government and which belong to the states. </li></ul></ul>