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The First President


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The First President

  1. 1. The First President Essential Question: What decisions did Washington and the new Congress have to make about the new government? What challenges did Washington face during his presidency? TN Standard 8.35- Analyze the major events of George Washington's presidency, including Pinckney's Treaty, Jay's Treaty, Whiskey Rebellion, and precedents set in the Farewell Address.
  2. 2. Washington Takes Office The new Constitution called for a strong executive branch headed by a president Washington is elected w/ John Adams as his VP Washington knew his actions would set “precedents” Washington set the standard for the office of president
  3. 3. The Cabinet A group of advisors to the president Three department heads: Jefferson, Hamilton, and Knox The president was given the power to dismiss members without Senate’s approval
  4. 4. Checkpoint How was the presidency different under the new Constitution? Who were the members of Washington’s first cabinet?
  5. 5. Establishing the Court System Some members of Congress wanted a uniform court system Judiciary Act of 1789 States kept their own court system and laws but federal courts could reverse state court decisions John Jay was chosen as first chief justice of the Supreme Court
  6. 6. Checkpoint Why was the Judiciary Act of 1789 passed? Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
  7. 7. The New Economy Financial issues were handled by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) Federal and state governments owed lots of money to other countries AND U.S. citizens Hamilton’s job was to fix the nation’s economy
  8. 8. Hamilton’s Plan The government needed a way to borrow money The government had to prove that it would pay back money it owed He proposed that the federal government would take over and pay states’ wartime debts
  9. 9. Opposition to Hamilton’s Plan Government had issued bonds (notes promising repayment) during the Revolution Many bond owners sold their bonds for less Hamilton was wanting to pay off debts at the original value Southern states owed less Hamilton wanted the entire nation to repay debts as a whole Southern states did not like having to pay the debts of other states
  10. 10. Checkpoint Who was the Secretary of the Treasury under Washington? What did the government agree to pay for under Hamilton’s plan? Why did some states disagree with Hamilton’s economic plan?
  11. 11. Compromise and a Capital Hamilton made a deal with Southern states If they agreed to help pay off the debt, he would support relocating the nation’s capital to the South Congress set up a special district between Virginia and Maryland (Washington, D.C.)
  12. 12. The Fight for a National Bank Hamilton wanted a national bank to hold government money and pay debts It would create a single form of currency Thomas Jefferson and James Madison opposed because they believed it would help the wealthy
  13. 13. Tariffs and Taxes Hamilton proposed tariffs (taxes on imports) to raise money for the government and protect American industry The South had little industry and opposed tariffs Congress approved several taxes, including a tax on whiskey Hamilton’s ideas scared many into thinking that the government was being controlled by the wealthy
  14. 14. Checkpoint What compromise did Hamilton make with Southern states? What was created by Hamilton for the purpose of establishing a single currency and managing government finances? How did Hamilton raise money for the government?
  15. 15. Trouble in the New Nation Britain and France were pushing the U.S. to get involved in their conflicts Washington wanted to stay neutral Native Americans fought against American settlers moving west
  16. 16. The Whiskey Rebellion 1791- Congress taxed the manufacture and sale of whiskey Farmers in Western PA were enraged In July, 1794, they burned buildings and attacked tax collectors Leaders viewed this as a challenge to the new government Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion The message to the public
  17. 17. Washington Struggles to Stay Neutral The French were trying to lure the U.S. into conflict with Great Britain Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality Britain challenged this neutrality by capturing American ships that traded with the French (impressment)
  18. 18. Checkpoint Which rebellion occurred during Washington’s presidency? How did Washington feel about America’s role in international conflicts?
  19. 19. Jay’s Treaty Washington send John Jay to Britain to solve the issue The British agreed to withdraw from American soil Many Americans disagreed with the treaty but it was passed with a close vote in the Senate
  20. 20. Pinckney’s Treaty Jay’s Treaty worried the Spanish (they feared U.S. and Britain would work together against them) Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to settle issues with Spain. Gave Americans the right to travel the MS River and trade in New Orleans
  21. 21. Washington’s Farewell Address Washington decided not to seek a third term “observe good faith and justice toward all nations…” “…steer clear of permanent alliances” Warned against the threat of growing political parties.
  22. 22. Checkpoint Which treaty indicated that the British had to leave American soil? Which treaty opened the MS River for travel by the USA? According to his farewell address, what was Washington’s greatest fear?
  23. 23. Summarizer Create 5 multiple choice quiz questions over Washington’s presidency