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Fire Safety and Performance of Wood<br />In Multi-Residential and Commercial Buildings<br />
Learn more about wood at UTAS<br />Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood<br />Graduate Certificate in Timber (Proc...
Learning Objectives<br />After this presentation you should be able to:<br />Identify which Fire Hazard Properties apply i...
This Presentation<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial...
Fire Resistance in the BCA<br />
Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Clause C 1.10: Specification C1.10<br />Clause: C1.10: Specification C1.10a<br />M...
Clause C1.10<br />Class 1 or 10<br />No Clause C1.10<br />requirements<br />Class of Building?<br />Class 2-9 <br />Clause...
 Solid timber handrail or skirting?
 Timber- faced solid core door or fire door?
 Joinery, cupboard shelving etc.?
 Paints, varnishes, etc. or adhesives</li></ul>yes<br />No requirements<br />no<br />Covering - Floor, Wall  & Ceiling<br ...
Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10<br />Materials1?<br />All other materials, including timber<br />sarking<br /...
Specification C1.10 – Fire Hazard Properties of Timber<br />More species can be found on: www.woodsolutions.com.au<br />
Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Clause C1.10: Specification C1.10<br />Clause C1.10: Specification C1.10a<br />MRT...
Clause C1.10<br />Class 1 or 10<br />No Clause C1.10<br />requirements<br />Class of Building?<br />Class 2-9 <br />Clause...
 Solid timber handrail or skirting?
 Timber- faced solid core door or fire door?
 Joinery, cupboard shelving etc.?
 Paints, varnishes, etc. or adhesives</li></ul>yes<br />No requirements<br />no<br />Coverings - Floor, Wall & Ceiling<br ...
Specification C1.10a<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Sprinklered?<br />yes<br />no...
Specification C 1.10a: Floors -Fire Hazard Properties of Timber <br />More species can be found on: www.woodsolutions.com....
Specification C1.10a<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Sprinklered?<br />Sprinklered...
Specification C 1.10a: Walls / Ceiling Fire Hazard Properties of Timber <br />More species can be found on: www.woodsoluti...
Clause Specification C1.10a: Lifts<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Floor, Wall/Cei...
Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<...
MRTFC - Overview<br />– Multi<br />– Residential<br />– Timber <br />–Frame<br />–Construction<br />M<br />R<br />T<br />F...
MRTFC and Performance Requirements<br /><ul><li>MRTFC deals with:
Class 1 buildings (houses or dwellings attached side by side)
Class 2  buildings (flats and units above one another as well as side by side)
Class 3 buildings (residential parts of hotels, motels, accommodation for students, aged and disabled)
Class 9c buildings (buildings for the aged)
Performance criteria in these classes focuses on:
Fire resistance
Sound resistance
This presentation focuses on Fire Resistance</li></li></ul><li>SOU Concept<br /><ul><li>In Class 2 and 3 residential build...
A SOU is a part of a building that is occupied by one owner, lessee or other occupant
SOUs must be designed to restrict fire and sound from affecting adjoining SOUs</li></li></ul><li>Type of Construction <br ...
Measuring Fire Resistance Levels <br /><ul><li>The BCA requires protection to be provided at the boundaries between compar...
The walls, floors and ceilings bounding compartments are constructed to meet “Fire Resistance Levels” (FRLs) to prevent th...
FRLs are expressed in minutes as follows:</li></ul>	FRL: 	  60 /              60            /                60<br />     ...
Partition walls are the exact opposite: barriers but non-loadbearing so typically have a FRL of    -/30/30  or   -/60/60</...
A systems approach is used to meet needs which can be broken up into:
Wall framing systems
Floor/ceiling framing systems
Each system uses a number of common concepts to maintain continuity at intersections between elements and at penetrations,...
Fire resistant joints
Cavity barriers
Fire stops</li></li></ul><li>Double Stud Walls in More Detail<br /><ul><li>The system features two stud walls with a separ...
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Fire Safety and Performance of Wood

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This presentation demonstrates how the fire performance requirements in the Building Code of Australia (BCA) for Class 1a, Class 2, 3 & 9c as well as Class 5,6 9a & 9b buildings can be met. In this context, the presentation provides verified construction details that utilise the BCA's deemed-to-satisfy provisions.

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Transcript of "Fire Safety and Performance of Wood"

  1. 1. Fire Safety and Performance of Wood<br />In Multi-Residential and Commercial Buildings<br />
  2. 2. Learn more about wood at UTAS<br />Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood<br />Graduate Certificate in Timber (Processing & Building)<br />4 units, part time, online<br />Areas covered include:<br />Wood science<br />Design for durability and service for life<br />Timber as a renewable resource<br />Sustainable design and construction<br />Engineered wood products<br />International technologies and developments<br />Plus, selected topics of individual interest<br />More information: Associate Professor Greg Nolan <br />(03) 6324 4478 or enquiries@arch.utas.edu.auwww.csaw.utas.edu.au<br />
  3. 3. Learning Objectives<br />After this presentation you should be able to:<br />Identify which Fire Hazard Properties apply in various situations <br />Understand how to use timber in multi-residential and commercial buildings<br />Outline the effectiveness of timber members and timber connections during fire<br />For architects - AACA Competencies:<br />Design<br />Documentation<br />
  4. 4. This Presentation<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  5. 5. Fire Resistance in the BCA<br />
  6. 6. Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Clause C 1.10: Specification C1.10<br />Clause: C1.10: Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  7. 7. Clause C1.10<br />Class 1 or 10<br />No Clause C1.10<br />requirements<br />Class of Building?<br />Class 2-9 <br />Clause C1.10<br /><ul><li> Timber-framed window?
  8. 8. Solid timber handrail or skirting?
  9. 9. Timber- faced solid core door or fire door?
  10. 10. Joinery, cupboard shelving etc.?
  11. 11. Paints, varnishes, etc. or adhesives</li></ul>yes<br />No requirements<br />no<br />Covering - Floor, Wall & Ceiling<br />Other<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />
  12. 12. Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10<br />Materials1?<br />All other materials, including timber<br />sarking<br />Flammability Index <br />≤ 5<br />Spread-of-Flame Index <br />≤ 9<br />and<br />Smoke-Developed Index2<br />≤ 8<br />1 Additional requirements apply to fire isolated exits, public entertainment theaters, public halls etc. refer to BCA for details<br />2 Only for materials with a Spread-of-Flame Index > 5<br />
  13. 13. Specification C1.10 – Fire Hazard Properties of Timber<br />More species can be found on: www.woodsolutions.com.au<br />
  14. 14. Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Clause C1.10: Specification C1.10<br />Clause C1.10: Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  15. 15. Clause C1.10<br />Class 1 or 10<br />No Clause C1.10<br />requirements<br />Class of Building?<br />Class 2-9 <br />Clause C1.10<br /><ul><li> Timber-framed window?
  16. 16. Solid timber handrail or skirting?
  17. 17. Timber- faced solid core door or fire door?
  18. 18. Joinery, cupboard shelving etc.?
  19. 19. Paints, varnishes, etc. or adhesives</li></ul>yes<br />No requirements<br />no<br />Coverings - Floor, Wall & Ceiling<br />Other<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />
  20. 20. Specification C1.10a<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Sprinklered?<br />yes<br />no<br />Critical Radiant Flux <br />Critical Radiant Flux<br />and<br />Smoke Development Rate<br />≤ 750 percent minutes<br />
  21. 21. Specification C 1.10a: Floors -Fire Hazard Properties of Timber <br />More species can be found on: www.woodsolutions.com.au<br />
  22. 22. Specification C1.10a<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Sprinklered?<br />Sprinklered?<br />yes<br />no<br />yes<br />no<br />Group Number <br />Critical Radiant Flux <br />Critical Radiant Flux<br />and<br />Smoke Development Rate<br />≤ 750 percent minutes<br />Group Number <br />and <br />smoke growth rate index<br />or<br />average specific extinction area<br />< 250 m²/kg<br />
  23. 23. Specification C 1.10a: Walls / Ceiling Fire Hazard Properties of Timber <br />More species can be found on: www.woodsolutions.com.au<br />
  24. 24. Clause Specification C1.10a: Lifts<br />Specification C1.10a<br />Wall / Ceiling<br />Floor<br />Lift<br />Floor, Wall/Ceiling?<br />Sprinklered?<br />Sprinklered?<br />yes<br />no<br />yes<br />no<br />floor<br />wall/ceiling<br />Group Number <br />Critical Radiant Flux <br />Critical Radiant Flux<br />and<br />Smoke Development Rate<br />≤ 750 percent minutes<br />Group Number <br />and <br />smoke growth rate index<br />or<br />average specific extinction area<br />< 250 m²/kg<br />Critical Radiant Flux <br />≥ 2.2 kW/m²<br />Group Number<br />1 or 2<br />
  25. 25. Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  26. 26. MRTFC - Overview<br />– Multi<br />– Residential<br />– Timber <br />–Frame<br />–Construction<br />M<br />R<br />T<br />F<br />C<br />
  27. 27. MRTFC and Performance Requirements<br /><ul><li>MRTFC deals with:
  28. 28. Class 1 buildings (houses or dwellings attached side by side)
  29. 29. Class 2 buildings (flats and units above one another as well as side by side)
  30. 30. Class 3 buildings (residential parts of hotels, motels, accommodation for students, aged and disabled)
  31. 31. Class 9c buildings (buildings for the aged)
  32. 32. Performance criteria in these classes focuses on:
  33. 33. Fire resistance
  34. 34. Sound resistance
  35. 35. This presentation focuses on Fire Resistance</li></li></ul><li>SOU Concept<br /><ul><li>In Class 2 and 3 residential buildings there is extensive use of “Sole occupancy units” (SOUs)This separates buildings into manageable units and provides protection for “other property”:
  36. 36. A SOU is a part of a building that is occupied by one owner, lessee or other occupant
  37. 37. SOUs must be designed to restrict fire and sound from affecting adjoining SOUs</li></li></ul><li>Type of Construction <br />The extent of fire resistant construction required by the BCA depends on the Type of Construction:<br />Type A provides the highest level of passive protection e.g. structural elements must withstand burnout of the building contents<br />Type B provides lower passive protection e.g. less of the structure must be able to withstand burnout of the contents<br />Type C provides the lowest passive fire resistance e.g. only some elements have specified fire resistance intended to mainly restrict horizontal spread of fire to adjoining dwellings<br />
  38. 38. Measuring Fire Resistance Levels <br /><ul><li>The BCA requires protection to be provided at the boundaries between compartments or SOUs
  39. 39. The walls, floors and ceilings bounding compartments are constructed to meet “Fire Resistance Levels” (FRLs) to prevent the spread of fire
  40. 40. FRLs are expressed in minutes as follows:</li></ul> FRL: 60 / 60 / 60<br /> structure integrity insulation<br /><ul><li>Columns have a FRL of 60/-/- or 120/-/- etc. as they are not barriers
  41. 41. Partition walls are the exact opposite: barriers but non-loadbearing so typically have a FRL of -/30/30 or -/60/60</li></li></ul><li>General Framing Requirements<br /><ul><li>MRTFC details focuses on meeting the combined requirements of fire, sound and structural requirements for designated wall, floor and ceiling elements in Class 1, 2 and 3 buildings
  42. 42. A systems approach is used to meet needs which can be broken up into:
  43. 43. Wall framing systems
  44. 44. Floor/ceiling framing systems
  45. 45. Each system uses a number of common concepts to maintain continuity at intersections between elements and at penetrations, including:
  46. 46. Fire resistant joints
  47. 47. Cavity barriers
  48. 48. Fire stops</li></li></ul><li>Double Stud Walls in More Detail<br /><ul><li>The system features two stud walls with a separating cavity
  49. 49. Load bearing frames are typically made from 90x45 timber framing
  50. 50. The frames can be prefabricated as required
  51. 51. The system is easy to handle and erect onsite
  52. 52. Insulation is used extensively between studs or in the cavity
  53. 53. It must be non-combustible (BCA Requirement)
  54. 54. Fire grade plasterboard is built up in layers to meet fire requirements
  55. 55. Fibre cement sheet can be used in combination with plasterboard
  56. 56. Other cladding or linings can be used over these components</li></li></ul><li>Treatment of Roof and Eave Cavities<br />Depending on the type of construction, fire rated walls may need to continue through the roof and eaves cavities. In these areas:<br /><ul><li>walls must extend at least to the underside of the roof
  57. 57. walls may be single skin (not double) because sound resistance isn’t required in the roof or eaves areas</li></li></ul><li>Floor/Ceiling Systems<br /><ul><li>Floor/ceiling systems are required between sole occupancy units (SOUs)
  58. 58. These systems consist of floor coverings, platform flooring, floor joists, sound insulation, resiliently mounted ceiling battens and ceiling linings </li></li></ul><li>Summary of Floor/Ceiling System Components <br /><ul><li>Timber joists dictate the load and spanning capacity of the floor
  59. 59. Non-combustible sound insulation is placed within the joist depth
  60. 60. Resiliently mounted ceiling battens are fixed transversely to the joists to isolate sound from the structure above
  61. 61. Plasterboard is fixed to the sound resilient supports. A build up of layers is used to achieve sound and fire requirements (fire grade board required) </li></li></ul><li>Continuity of Systems<br /><ul><li>Care must be taken to ensure weak spots don’t occur at the interfaces between systems (e.g. intersections and penetrations)
  62. 62. Methods of doing this include:
  63. 63. Fire resistant joints
  64. 64. Cavity barriers
  65. 65. Fire stops at gaps and penetrations (caulking)</li></li></ul><li>Fire Resistant Floor Junctions<br /><ul><li>Fire resistant joints are used at intersections between floor/ceiling elements e.g. where one element has a lower FRL than the other
  66. 66. Some structural framing remains protected by the plasterboard and by the slow charring of the other framing at the junction.</li></li></ul><li>Fire Resistant Floor Junctions<br /><ul><li>Needed at intersections between wall/wall elements such as when one element has a lower FRL than the other
  67. 67. The joint is made by adding extra pieces of timber to the joint between the elements
  68. 68. The extra timber adds fire resistance because when it burns it forms an insulative char layer on the surface – this slows burning in the core of the timber and in doing so provides fire resistance for a period of time
  69. 69. In general, the more pieces of timber added to the joint, the longer the joint will last.
  70. 70. In some cases light gauge steel angles are also used to slow char at corners</li></li></ul><li>Cavity Barriers<br /><ul><li>Cavity barriers restrict the passage of flame, smoke and gasses in cavities that bypass wall/floor/ceiling intersections
  71. 71. Typical example: intersection between a wall separating SOUs and a non-fire rated external brick veneer wall
  72. 72. Cavity barriers can be made by:
  73. 73. timber battens
  74. 74. appropriate sheet linings
  75. 75. moisture repellent mineral wool
  76. 76. Light gauge steel profiles </li></ul>Cavity barrier using sheet lining<br />Example prior to brick veneer being laid<br />
  77. 77. Fire Rated Shafts<br />Use fire shafts to avoid services in fire/sound rated walls<br />
  78. 78. Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  79. 79. Unprotected Timber Exposed to Fire<br />
  80. 80. Protected Timber Exposed to Fire<br /><ul><li>Char can also occur within a wall or floor when protected by linings.
  81. 81. Experiments show it commences later and is at a slower rate
  82. 82. Distribution of char is different</li></li></ul><li>Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  83. 83. Connections<br /><ul><li>Connections usually limit the capacity of a timber element
  84. 84. AS1720.4-2006 – Fire Resistance and Structural Adequacy of timber members also provides guidance for the design of connections</li></li></ul><li>Connections and AS 1720.4<br /><ul><li>Unprotected metal fasteners may limit FRLs of unprotected timber
  85. 85. Protection of fixings is required and can be via:
  86. 86. surface protection or
  87. 87. embedding fixings under plugs
  88. 88. Other protection measures need test data to support their use</li></li></ul><li>Topics<br />Fire Hazard Properties<br />Specification C1.10<br />Specification C1.10a<br />MRTFC and Commercial Buildings<br />Overview<br />Timber properties during fire<br />Connection performance during fire<br />Calculation methods to predict timber capacity<br />
  89. 89. Charring Rate for Unprotected Timber <br />
  90. 90. Depth of Char for Unprotected Timber <br />
  91. 91. Examples of the Fire Resistance of Unprotected Solid Hardwood<br /><ul><li>Calculated based on load-bearing capacity of residual section
  92. 92. Depends on density / magnitude of applied load / timber grade / dimensions
  93. 93. FRLs for typical unprotected 3-sided exposed hardwood beams are shown opposite</li></li></ul><li>Narrow section timber directly exposed to fire has a low FRL in accordance with AS 1720.4<br />Large member sections can have significant FRLs however the connections are sometimes not protected or embedded to the same degree, hence limit the FRL to potentially a relatively low values<br />Protection may be needed for these connections<br />Interpretation of AS 1720.4 design rules<br />
  94. 94. Alternative Method<br />Protect the timber with plasterboard<br />
  95. 95. Timber can be effectively used in buildings that are exposed to fire<br />The key to the correct use of timber is detailing in accordance with relevant Australian standards and industry manuals (e.g. Timber Design Guides)<br />Conclusions<br />
  96. 96. More Information <br /><ul><li>WoodSolutions Technical Design Guides
  97. 97. Updates include details for columns in walls and improved junction details
  98. 98. Available by registering at www.woodsolutions.com.au </li></li></ul><li>Learn more about wood at UTAS<br />Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood<br />Graduate Certificate in Timber (Processing & Building)<br />4 units, part time, online<br />Areas covered include:<br />Wood science<br />Design for durability and service for life<br />Timber as a renewable resource<br />Sustainable design and construction<br />Engineered wood products<br />International technologies and developments<br />Plus, selected topics of individual interest<br />More information: Associate Professor Greg Nolan <br />(03) 6324 4478 or enquiries@arch.utas.edu.auwww.csaw.utas.edu.au<br />
  99. 99. More Information <br />
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