Sustainable design for a low carbon footprint by Fabiano Ximenes

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Sustainable design for a low carbon footprint

Fabiano Ximenes, NSW Department of Primary Industries

Carbon positive wood and wood products are enabling architects and designers to create buildings with low or zero (negative is possible!) carbon footprints.

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Sustainable design for a low carbon footprint by Fabiano Ximenes

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Sustainable Design for Low Carbon Footprint<br />Fabiano Ximenes<br />
  3. 3. Fabiano XimenesSustainable Design for Low Carbon Footprint<br />
  4. 4. Presentation Outline<br /><ul><li> Basic carbon science
  5. 5. Carbon in wood products
  6. 6. Greenhouse footprint of wood products
  7. 7. LCA of wood products in buildings</li></ul>Weighing 15-year old Radiata tree<br />
  8. 8. Photosynthesis process<br />To produce 0.65 g C – 1 MJ<br />Solar power required (high quality sites)<br />(www.butler.edu)<br />
  9. 9. Carbon Facts<br />Carbon makes up 50% of the tree dry weight<br />Younger forests sequester carbon at a higher rate<br />About 25% of the forest biomass is in roots and <br /> 20% in woody debris.<br />Carbon is released as tree components decay<br />Forests fires – contributor to GHG emissions<br />
  10. 10. Carbon Facts – cont.<br />World’s forests and soils store more than one trillion tonnes of carbon – twice as much as in the atmosphere<br />Plantations, commercial native forests and conservation forests cover 14% of Australia<br />Australian forests store 6.6 billion tonnes of carbon (excluding soil carbon)<br />In 2007: plantations and managed hardwood forests removed a net 18.9 million tonnes of carbon from the atmosphere<br />
  11. 11. Australia’s forest cover<br />Total Forested Area: 149.4 M ha<br />
  12. 12. Carbon Stocks in Native Vegetation<br />Tall Open Forest<br />Open Forest<br />1<br />2<br />900<br />Woodland<br />3<br />340<br />4<br />9<br />Distribution of vegetation types <br />in Australia<br />5<br />90<br />Open Woodland<br />Tonnes per hectare of carbon in above-ground biomass<br />45<br />6<br />Shrubland<br />15<br />Poster prepared by Kate Düttmer, 2003<br />Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting<br />Based at State Forests of NSW Research & Development Division<br />PO Box 100 Beecroft NSW 2119 AUSTRALIA<br />7<br />4<br />Grassland<br />0.5<br />Image sources: (1) Christopher Dean; (2) State Forests of NSW; <br />(3) State Forests of NSW; (4) Kelvin Montagu; (5) Kelvin Montagu; <br />(6) Ben Harms; (7) Silje Eikrem; (8) Stephen Roxburgh; (9) Modified from <br />Dr J.A. Carnahan’s ‘Natural Vegetation of Australia’ map, in <br />Australia: A Geography, ed. D.N. Jeans, Sydney University Press, 1977.<br />8<br />
  13. 13. Weighing messmate stem on trailer<br />
  14. 14. Wood products and Native Forests<br />Native forests managed for conservation: 23 M ha<br />Native forests managed for prodution: 9.4 M ha<br />Production from native forests (09/10): 2.5 M m3 of saw and veneer logs<br />In 2005: managed hardwood forests removed a net 11.9 million tonnes of carbon from the atmosphere<br />
  15. 15. Harvest Cycle – Radiata Pine Plantations<br />
  16. 16. Weighing 15-year old Radiata tree<br />
  17. 17. Life Cycle of Wood Products<br />
  18. 18. Wood – environmental benefits<br />Renewable resource<br />Carbon storage<br />Low energy-intensity in manufacture<br />Processing residues used to generate energy<br />Substitution benefits<br />
  19. 19. Consumption of wood in dwellings in Australia<br />Source: BIS Shrapnel; Sawn Timber in Australia 2008-2022 <br />
  20. 20. Wood products in houses<br /> Roof frames and trusses: 90% Softwood<br /> Wall frames: 75% Softwood; 9% Steel<br />Flooring: 78% Particleboard; 6% Hardwood <br /> Decking: 40% Hardwood, 45% Softwood <br />Window frames: 48% Aluminium; 27% Softwood; 12% Hardwood <br />
  21. 21. Wood products in houses<br /> Wood products in houses: from 0.2 m3/m2 in 1945 to 0.06 m3/m2 in 2008 (Kapambwe et al 2008):<br />- Loss of markets<br />- More open planning<br />- Better usage of timber members<br />Average service life of houses: 45 years<br />
  22. 22. Wood products in landfills<br />In 2006/07: 20.8 Mt of waste landfilled in Australia<br />Wood waste disposal: 2 Mt / year<br />
  23. 23. Decomposition in landfills<br /><ul><li>Modern landfills: large, deep, compaction, anaerobic
  24. 24. Decay of organics: 50:50 CO2 and CH4
  25. 25. Best-practice landfills: 75 - 90% CH4 recovery
  26. 26. Methane generation: 0-30 years</li></li></ul><li>Excavation at Lucas Heights<br />
  27. 27. Excavation at Sydney Park<br />
  28. 28. Excavation at Meadowbank<br />
  29. 29. Western Sydney (C&D)<br />
  30. 30. 46 years in landfill<br />
  31. 31. 44 years in landfill<br />
  32. 32. Plywood<br />MDF<br />Particleboard<br />Plywood<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Carbon loss from forest products in landfills:<br />field and experimental results<br />
  35. 35. Carbon Storage in Australia's Forest Plantations, Wood Products in Service and in Landfill<br />
  36. 36. Buildings and GHG Emissions<br />Construction, operation, maintenance and demolition of buildings: 40% of global GHG emissions<br />Building sector: 23% of Australia’s GHG emissions<br />GHG emissions from buildings: double by 2050 if energy usage is not addressed<br />Energy savings alone: 30% across the building sector by 2030 (IPCC)<br />
  37. 37. Greenhouse and energy footprint of wood production - NSW <br />
  38. 38. Greenhouse emissions from wood production in NSW in 2009 (t CO2-e) <br />
  39. 39. Long-term storage from wood production in NSW in 2009 (t CO2-e) <br />
  40. 40. GHG emissions and long-term storage <br />Net GHG Footprint: - 0.2 Mt CO2-e<br />
  41. 41. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)<br />“Internationally recognised scientific method of examining the total environmental burden associated with a product and its use. It embraces all the activities that go into making, transporting, using and disposing of that product.” <br />Inputs: raw material resources (petroleum, minerals, water, timber), <br />energy in the form of fossil fuels and electricity, etc...<br />Outputs: Air and water emissions (CO2, CO, nitrogen oxides, <br />hydrocarbons, chemicals), solid wastes, etc...<br />Impact categories: Global warming, biotic resources, land use,<br />human health, acidification, etc...<br />
  42. 42. Substitution effect<br />
  43. 43. Approach<br /><ul><li> Bill of quantities for popular house designs
  44. 44. Bill of quantities for alternative construction materials
  45. 45. LCA modelling (Simapro)
  46. 46. Greenhouse impact of building materials in houses</li></li></ul><li>
  47. 47. Assumptions<br />Site: The house is located in a flat area in Sydney. <br />Plumbing and electrical components are excluded<br />When wood strip floors are used, they are sanded and <br /> sealed. Concrete and particleboard floors are carpeted <br /> and the carpets are replaced every 15 years.<br />The house is repainted every 15 years.<br />The house has a service life of 50 years.<br />Decay of wood in landfills: 10%<br />
  48. 48. House designs<br />Villina – Two-storey<br />Affinity – One-storey<br />
  49. 49. Affinity<br />Affinity<br />
  50. 50. Villina<br />Villina<br />
  51. 51. Alternative materials<br />
  52. 52. Simapro<br />
  53. 53. Results – Sub-floor<br />
  54. 54. Results – Floor covering<br />
  55. 55. Results – Floor covering<br />
  56. 56. Results – Wall frames<br />
  57. 57. Results – Windows<br />
  58. 58. Results – Whole house<br />
  59. 59. Results – Operational energy<br />
  60. 60. Impact on Markets<br />If major shift to “maximised wood design” in NSW<br />Potential GHG emission savings due to substitution effect: 1 Mt CO2-e / year <br />
  61. 61. Summary<br />Carbon in forests and in harvested wood products: important component of the global carbon cycle<br />Carbon in HWP in service: significant potential to increase usage <br />Carbon in HWP: important role to play, physical storage and displacement benefits<br />Use of wood products in house design results in lower greenhouse footprint of house construction<br />
  62. 62. Inspiring Sustainable Designs<br />Questions?<br />Fabiano Ximenes<br />

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