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Tall Wood Building Enclosure Designs That Work

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Presentation given at the Woodworks National Symposium on Tall Wood Buildings in Chicago in November 2014. Presentation covers building enclosure design considerations for tall (high-rise) wood buildings and a case study of the wood innovation design centre.

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Tall Wood Building Enclosure Designs That Work

  1. 1. Building Enclosure Assemblies that Work for Taller Wood Buildings GRAHAM FINCH, MASC, P.ENG - PRINCIPAL, BUILDING SCIENCE RESEARCH SPECIALIST RDH BUILDING ENGINEERING LTD., VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA
  2. 2. Outline  Building Enclosure Design Fundamentals  Building Enclosure Design Guidance  Some Lessons Learned from Larger & Taller Buildings  Case Study – Wood Innovation Design Centre
  3. 3. The Building Enclosure Image Credit: MGA - Wood Innovation Design Centre Structure
  4. 4. The Building Enclosure
  5. 5. Building Enclosure Design Fundamentals  Primary function: Separate exterior & interior environments  Manage environmental loads: outdoor/indoor climates & differences between  Aesthetics & function  Protect the structure & be durable  Accommodate building movement & structural loads: initial, seasonal, & long term  Control heat, air, and moisture  Control fire and sound  Key passive design element in an energy efficient building
  6. 6. Building Enclosure Assemblies & Details
  7. 7. Steel Concrete Wood How does the Structural System Influence Building Enclosure Design?
  8. 8. What is Unique about Larger Wood Buildings?  Greater use of engineered heavier timber components (panels, beams, columns)  CLT, LSL, PSL, LVL, Glulam etc.  Alternate structural systems (post/beam, engineered panels, infill components)  Unique connections, interfaces & details  Longer & heightened exposure to rain and weathering during construction  Codes dictate certain thermal insulation, fire performance & acoustic properties  Is not the same as stick built <6 storey wood-frame, but is also different from high-rise steel or concrete structures
  9. 9. North American Energy Codes & Wood Buildings IECC2012 Climate Zone Above Grade Walls: Wood Min. Eff. R-value Roofs: Sloped, Flat Min. Eff. R-value 7 19.6 47.6, 35.7 6 19.6 47.6, 31.3 5 & 4C 15.6 47.6, 25.6 4 A/B 15.6 37.0, 25.6 3 15.6 37.0, 20.8 2 15.6 37.0, 20.8 1 15.6 37.0, 20.8 ClimateZone Some state by state & municipal differences depending on year of energy code adoption. Based on Maximum Effective Assembly U-value Tables. Residential Building R-values similar or in some cases slightly higher
  10. 10. Building Enclosure Design Guidance  1999/2001 Wood Frame Envelopes in the Coastal Climate of British Columbia - Best Practice Guide (CMHC)  Emphasis on moisture control in Pacific Northwest  2011 Building Enclosure Design Guide – Wood-frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (HPO)  Emphasis on best practices, moisture and new energy codes  Currently being updated
  11. 11. Cross Laminated Timber Handbooks  Canadian & USA handbooks published by FPInnovations  Provides design guidance for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) buildings in all North American climate zones  Building enclosure chapter focuses on durability and energy efficiency
  12. 12. Highly Insulated Wood-frame Guide  2013 Guide for Designing Energy- Efficient Wood-Frame Building Enclosures (FP Innovations)  Focus on highly insulated wood- frame assemblies to meet current and upcoming energy codes  Strategies, assemblies & many building enclosure details provided for passive design and “green” buildings  Sequential detailing for windows and other complicated details
  13. 13. Tall Wood Building Guide  2014 Tall Wood Buildings Guide (FPInnovations) – high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings  Building enclosure chapter #6 focuses on design fundamentals for durable and energy efficient high- rise mass timber buildings  Moisture management & control  Heat flow & thermal bridging  Condensation control  Air flow control & air barrier systems  Noise & Fire control  Assemblies & Details  Claddings, Roofing  Wood Durability
  14. 14. Wall Design for Taller Wood Buildings  Key Considerations: Durability, Airtightness & Thermal Efficiency  Strategies:  Exterior or split-insulated wood walls  Thermally efficient cladding attachments through exterior insulation  Non-combustible & moisture tolerant cavity insulation  Non-combustible rainscreen claddings Screws through insulation over split insulated wall Various clip & rail systems through exterior insulation
  15. 15. Wall Design for Taller Wood Buildings  Taller 4 storey stick frame & heavy timber panel buildings = less room for stud frame insulation  Challenges to meeting prescriptive R-value requirements without exterior insulation in walls
  16. 16. Getting to Higher Effective R-values Baseline 2x6 w/ R-22 batts = R-16 effective Exterior Insulation: R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints: cladding attachment, wall thickness • Good durability Deep/Double Stud: R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints wall thickness • Fair durability Split Insulation: R-20 to R-40+ effective • Constraints: cladding attachment • Good durability with proper design New vs Retrofit Considerations
  17. 17. Cladding Attachment Options Thermally Efficient Clip & Rail Systems
  18. 18. Cladding Attachment Options Screws through Exterior Insulation
  19. 19. Thermal Efficient Masonry over CLT
  20. 20. Wall Design for Taller Wood Buildings Curtainwall systems  Strategies (continued)  Robust air-tight, water resistant & breathable wall membrane (AB/WRB)  Membrane compatibility with glazing, roofing, and other assembly materials  Simple integration with glazing systems & other penetrations  Watch details at interfaces with mass timber structure SIPs Pre-fabricated Wall Panels
  21. 21. Air Barriers for Taller Wood Buildings  Air Barrier Systems need to:  Be Continuous  Be Durable  Resist Structural Loads – Sufficient Stiffness & Strength for Full Wind  Be Airtight  Not negatively affect durability or vapor diffusion drying ability  Traditional loose sheet applied house-wrap products are challenging for larger wood buildings  Adhered/liquid applied membranes preferred
  22. 22. Air Barriers for Taller Wood Buildings Sealed gypsum sheathing – sealant filler at joints Loose sheet applied membrane – taped joints & strapping Liquid applied membrane over wood sheathing – sealants at joints Sealed plywood sheathing – sealant/membrane at joints Liquid applied over gypsum sheathing – sealant at joints Self-adhered vapor permeable membrane over sheathing Plywood sheathing with taped joints (good tape)
  23. 23.  CLT panel structural connections interfere with air-barrier membrane installation/sequencing and sharp parts can damage materials (applied before or after)  Consideration for both building enclosure & smoke/fire separation Air Barrier Challenges – Mass Timber Walls
  24. 24.  Structural protrusions add to air- barrier complexity  Better to pre-strip air barrier membrane prior to attachment of panels instead of wrapping around them  Construction sequencing of this will be a challenge with trades Air Barrier Challenges – Mass Timber Walls
  25. 25. Air Barrier Challenges – CLT Panel Gaps
  26. 26. Air Barrier Challenges – CLT Interfaces Air is able to bypass many common CLT interfaces at gaps in lumber which open up as wood shrinks Requires attention for building enclosure & smoke/fire separation to stop this bypass leakage
  27. 27.  CLT panels can be air-tight as a material, but not easily as a system  Recommend use of vapor permeable self-adhered sheet air barrier membranes on exterior of panels (exterior air-barrier approach)  Use of loose-applied sheets (House- wraps) generally not recommended – very difficult to make airtight, perforating attachment, billowing, flanking airflow behind membrane Air Barriers for CLT Panel Assemblies
  28. 28. Air Barrier/WRB Material Selection Vapor permeable self-adhered sheets Liquids Liquids
  29. 29. Other Solutions to Some Challenges  Need for higher grade CLT Panels with higher quality lumber & moisture control without edge checking in-service Photos courtesy AHC Derix
  30. 30. Considerations & Detailing for Wood Movement  Wood shrinks as it dries and swells when it gets damp (both liquid water & humidity fluctuations)  Mass timber assemblies introduce unique details & shrinkage can often be greater than anticipated (more wood to shrink)  Building height & differential movement between assemblies/floors  Manufacturing of CLT/Glulam ~12-14% MC for adhesives to bond  Watch in-service wetting/high RH, drying in service (low RH) and seasonal fluctuations in RH
  31. 31. Wood Moisture Content vs Relative Humidity Initial MC Site/Construction In-Service (Low) In-Service (High) Wood shrinkage is 0.20% to 0.25% in dimension per 1% change in MC
  32. 32. Materials for Taller Wood Buildings  Watch use of vapor impermeable materials over wood that is wet or could get wet  Self adhered membranes  Foam plastic insulations  Vapor diffusion wetting & drying ability for assemblies & details should always be assessed – ensure balance
  33. 33. Materials for Taller Wood Buildings  Many new synthetic self- adhered sheet & liquid applied membranes in the market (moisture & air control layers)  Not all created equal – each have strengths & weaknesses  Need to match compatible sealants, tapes, & membranes with each  Choice will depend on substrate, field conditions & tie-in details etc.
  34. 34. Roof Design for Larger Wood Buildings  Key Considerations: Keep dry, allow to dry, robustness of assemblies, sloping strategy  Strategies:  Protect wood roof from getting wet during construction  Design assembly with redundancy for in-service drying  Slope structure where possible  Insulation on top - conventional or protected membrane assemblies  Question the need for heavy timber panels up here? Conventional roof with tapered insulation over wood joists Protected membrane roof over vented & tapered structure over CLT
  35. 35. Lessons Learned from Construction of Larger Wood Roofs  Don’t use organic (paper) faced insulation in contact with damp wood  Drying of a wetted roof by natural means through more than one layer of plywood can be very slow
  36. 36. Lessons Learned from Construction of Larger Wood Roofs  Nail laminated timber roofs get really wet when rained on and are very hard to dry out in-service  Careful with selection of temporary waterproofing membranes – assume it will be exposed roofing for a while. Need for water- tight laps/details
  37. 37. Lessons Learned from Construction of Larger Wood Roofs  Protect large wood roofs from rain – but not too late  Mechanical drying of wetted roofs is slow & causes costly construction delays
  38. 38. Lessons Learned from Construction of Larger Wood Roofs  Design for the inevitable to keep roofing and project on schedule  Design roof assemblies for redundancy and in- service drying where possible
  39. 39. Lessons Learned from Construction of Larger Wood Roofs  Care with porous wood panels as horizontal surfaces and roofing substrates  Assume that the wood will get damp/stained during construction and site sanding and finishing will be necessary
  40. 40. Industry Lessons - Wetting of Exposed CLT 5 ply CLT – ½ Untreated & ½ Treated with water repellant End grain is very absorptive Splits, checks & joints that allow water past top layer can be problematic Erect & roof as fast as possible to protect from rain to avoid delays Water repellants can help reduce uptake into wood
  41. 41. Case Study: Wood Innovation Design Centre – Tall Wood Building Enclosure
  42. 42.  Located in Prince George, BC @ UNBC Campus - North America’s Tallest Wood Building  6 ‘tall’ storeys (equivalent to 8 storey, 98’ tall)  CLT shear walls, glulam columns with glulam beams and staggered CLT floor & roof structure  Thermal performance design targets (effective R-values)  R-40 roof  R-25 walls  R-5 wood curtainwall glazing  Pre-fabricated design for curtain wall & infill walls Wood Innovation Design Center Michael Green Architecture (MGA) – Contractor: PCL Construction
  43. 43. WIDC – Structure & Enclosure Systems Design & Architectural Renders: Michael Green Architecture (MGA)
  44. 44. Building Enclosure Under Construction
  45. 45. Wood Veneer Curtainwall/Windows  Aluminum veneer curtainwall framing over LVL mullions  Installed as individual window units, ground bearing  Stick built/site glazed with triple glazed IGUs, argon filled, dual low-e coatings (U-0.15)  R-5 (U-0.20) overall thermal performance (vs. ~R-3.5 for aluminum system)
  46. 46. Wood Veneer Curtainwall/Windows
  47. 47. WIDC Infill Wall Assembly Design  Designed for prefab light- frame wall assemblies between curtainwall units  Target R-25 effective R-value  Structurally Insulated Panels (SIPs) proved cost effective, fast & easy to install  Robust silicone WRB/AB membrane on exterior surface (applied in factory) ties nicely into curtainwall assembly  Sealed joints
  48. 48. Curtainwall to SIPs Interface Aluminum Curtainwall Veneer Framing Silicone Applied Liquid AB/WRB Interior Air Seal at Joints Silicone Transition Strip AB/WRB attached with silicone to curtainwall and wall membrane LVL Framing Backup SIPs Charred fire-treated cedar cladding attached to plywood backup & cleat system over drained & ventilated rainscreen cavity
  49. 49. Liquid Applied Wall AB/WRB
  50. 50. Charred Fire-Treated Cedar Panelized Cladding John Boys, Nicola Log-works
  51. 51. Conventional Roof Assembly R-40+ Conventional Roof Assembly – 2 ply SBS, 4” Stonewool, 4” Polyiso, Protection board, Tapered EPS (0-8”), Torch applied Air/Vapor Barrier(Temporary Roof), ¾” Plywood, Ventilated Space (To Indoors), CLT Roof Panel Structure (Intermittent) Construction Photos by PCL/MGA/RDH
  52. 52. Conventional Roof Assembly Construction Photos by PCL/MGA/RDH
  53. 53. Conventional Roof Assembly Construction Photos by PCL/MGA/RDH
  54. 54. Summary – Onward & Upward  Key Building Enclosure Considerations: Assemblies & Details  Design to be durable, air-tight, & thermally efficient  Design for initial and long-term wood movement  Combustibility will drive many material choices & assemblies  Material Selection  Need for more robust and compatible materials, consider tie ins & details  Vapor permeable generally preferred to facilitate drying  Careful with new many materials on market  Construction  Keep wood dry during construction – allow it to dry if it gets wet  Incorporate contingencies for moisture protection during construction  Care with the materials & means for temporary moisture protection  Design for redundancy if materials get wet  Lessons learned from past from existing buildings apply to larger and taller buildings of the future
  55. 55.  rdhbe.com Questions & Discussion Graham Finch – gfinch@rdhbe.com – 604.873.1181

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