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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
IFSTA : Chapter 3
2
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
IFSTA : Chapter 3
• Additional reading:
– IFSTA Essentials #4 – chapter 8, 9, 10
• Only for the information relating to building
construction
• Some quiz, midterm and final questions will
be from this material
3
Learning Objectives
• List and define five types of building construction.
• Identify the effects fire has on common building
materials to enable firefighter’s to effectively
attack the fire.
• Identify the different occupancies and their effects
at a structure fire.
4
Learning Objectives
• Identify the hazards of building construction
during fire suppression operations.
• Identify construction features during size up.
• Identify indicators of structural failure or collapse
during fire suppression operations
5
Types of Building Construction
• Most building codes have 5 types of
building construction.
• Many buildings include several types of
construction.
6
Type I: Fire Resistive
Construction
• Structural members made
of noncombustible /
limited combustible
materials.
• Construction intended to
confine fire and its
byproducts to a given
location.
• Primary fire hazard is
contents of structure.
7
Type II: Noncombustible
Construction
• Lower degree of fire resistance
than type I.
• Fire resistance rating on all
exterior and interior load
bearing walls.
• May have combustible features,
as materials with no fire
resistance rating may be used.
• Generally have flat roofs with
combustible felt, insulation and
roofing tar.
8
Why is Size-up Important?
9
Type III: Ordinary Construction
• Exterior walls & structural
members of
noncombustible / limited
combustible materials.
• Interior members (walls,
beams, floors, roof) are
made of wood.
• Hazards: smoke and fire
spread through concealed
spaces.
• Fire stops to limit spread.
10
Type IV: Heavy Timber
• Exterior / interior walls
noncombustible material.
• Interior structural members
(beams, columns, arches,
floors etc.) made of solid or
laminated wood with no
concealed spaces.
• Found in old factories,
warehouses, churches.
11
Type V: Frame Construction
12
Type V: Frame Construction
• Exterior and interior structural members
made of wood.
• Fire Hazards: unlimited potential for fire
extension, fire extension to nearby
structures.
• Typical residential home
13
14
Platform Frame
15
“Silent Flooring”
16
Poor Construction Methods
17
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials – Wood
• May be used in load bearing and non-load bearing
walls.
• Reaction of wood to fire conditions is based on the
size of the wood and its moisture content.
• Water does not have a negative effect on wood’s
structural strength.
• Plywood, particle board, paneling may be highly
combustible, produce toxic gases and rapidly
deteriorate under fire conditions.
18
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials -
Masonry• Brick, concrete, and stonework.
• Commonly used for firewalls to separate connected
structures and prevent fire spread.
• May be used as load bearing or veneer.
• Minimally affected by fire & high temperatures.
• Mortar joints between bricks, blocks may
deteriorate. (mortar mix is weakest part of wall)
• Rapid cooling of masonry by water may cause
cracking or spalling.
19
20
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials - Concrete
• Concrete is a mixture of portland cement, sand,
gravel and water.
• Often used as a fire resistive protection for
structural steel (reinforced concrete).
• May crack or spall if heated, indication of damage
& reduced strength.
• Heating may cause bond between steel and
concrete to fail.
• Concrete tends to absorb and retain heat.
21
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials –
Reinforced Concrete
22
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials - Steel
• Primary use of steel is for structural
members.
• Steel is an excellent conductor of heat.
• Steel loses strength as temperature increases
• Steel structural members will elongate
when heated.
• Water can cool steel structural members and
reduce risk of failure or collapse.
23
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials - Steel
24
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials - Plastic
• Becoming integrated to replace/improve common
building materials
• Plastics are oil-based (hydrocarbons)
• Two general types
– Thermoplastics (melt, deform, vapourize = burns!)
– Thermosets (decomposes, only burns with extreme
temps)
25
Fire Effects on Common
Construction Materials - Plastic
• General Rule of Thumb when fighting fires
involving plastics…
– Burn fast
– Very intense heat
– Dense black smoke
– Extremely toxic
• Can resemble a Class B Fire (flammable liquids)
26
27
BREAK TIME
28
Roof Types
Three Main Types:
(a) Flat
(b) Pitched
(c) Arched
29
Occupancy Versus Type of
Construction
• Occupancy creates the fire load.
• Building codes specify building type based
on occupancy classification.
• Fire code determines fire protection based
on building and occupancy use.
• Occupancies are residential, commercial,
business, industrial and educational.
• Each type has a number of hazards.
30
Occupancy Hazards
31
Building Uses
• Ontario Fire Code and Ontario Building Code
separate buildings in groups A-F, as related to
their major use (or major occupancy)
• With each type of building comes various
requirements/restrictions on building construction
• Private dwelling residences are exempt (with some
exceptions)
32
Building Uses
• A – Assembly
– Theatres, libraries, schools, large bars, pubs and restaurants
• B – Institutional (compelled to sleep over)
– Jails, hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes
• C – Residential
– Apartment buildings (common area) , group homes, houses, motels
• D – Business and Personal Services
– Banks, barber shops, offices (medico legal), laundromat
• E – Mercantile
– Markets, stores, shops, supermarkets, restaurants, bars and pubs
• F – Industrial
– Flammable liquid plant, television studio, freight depot
33
Firefighter Hazards:
Structure Fires
• Change in occupancy creating an unusually heavy
fire load.
• Dangerous stockpiling and excessive stock
creating access problems.
• Unknown design errors, renovations, contractor
short cuts.
• Arsonists traps or tampering with fire protection
systems.
• Occupancy may not be what it appears.
(drug lab, boarding house, group home, etc.)
34
Construction Features Assessed
During Size Up
What constructions features are
important during size-up?
35
Construction Features Assessed
During Size Up
36
Firefighter Hazards:
Structure Fires
• Combustible furnishings & finishes.
• Wooden floors / ceilings.
• Large open spaces.
• Synthetic materials.
• Lightweight & truss construction.
37
Lightweight Wood or Steel Truss
Construction
=
Very Dangerous Firefighting
Conditions
38
Truss Roofs
39
40
41
Bowstring Truss!
42
Beware of the Truss!
43
Structural Collapse
• Every structure fire
has the potential for
collapse.
• Firefighters must be
aware and look for
indicators to
collapse.
44
Signs of Potential Collapse
• Prolonged exposure.(time)
• Distorted structural members.
• Fire on floors below heavy
machinery and heavy loads.
45
Signs of Potential Collapse
46
Building Collapse Zone
47
48
Size Up – What do you see?
49
The Back?
50
The Side?
51
Summary
• Firefighters must know & understand
building construction.
• There are five common types of
construction.
• Firefighters need to be aware of the hazards
associated with structure fires.
• Effects of fire on building materials.
• Signs of structural collapse.

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Building construction

  • 2. 2 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IFSTA : Chapter 3 • Additional reading: – IFSTA Essentials #4 – chapter 8, 9, 10 • Only for the information relating to building construction • Some quiz, midterm and final questions will be from this material
  • 3. 3 Learning Objectives • List and define five types of building construction. • Identify the effects fire has on common building materials to enable firefighter’s to effectively attack the fire. • Identify the different occupancies and their effects at a structure fire.
  • 4. 4 Learning Objectives • Identify the hazards of building construction during fire suppression operations. • Identify construction features during size up. • Identify indicators of structural failure or collapse during fire suppression operations
  • 5. 5 Types of Building Construction • Most building codes have 5 types of building construction. • Many buildings include several types of construction.
  • 6. 6 Type I: Fire Resistive Construction • Structural members made of noncombustible / limited combustible materials. • Construction intended to confine fire and its byproducts to a given location. • Primary fire hazard is contents of structure.
  • 7. 7 Type II: Noncombustible Construction • Lower degree of fire resistance than type I. • Fire resistance rating on all exterior and interior load bearing walls. • May have combustible features, as materials with no fire resistance rating may be used. • Generally have flat roofs with combustible felt, insulation and roofing tar.
  • 8. 8 Why is Size-up Important?
  • 9. 9 Type III: Ordinary Construction • Exterior walls & structural members of noncombustible / limited combustible materials. • Interior members (walls, beams, floors, roof) are made of wood. • Hazards: smoke and fire spread through concealed spaces. • Fire stops to limit spread.
  • 10. 10 Type IV: Heavy Timber • Exterior / interior walls noncombustible material. • Interior structural members (beams, columns, arches, floors etc.) made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces. • Found in old factories, warehouses, churches.
  • 11. 11 Type V: Frame Construction
  • 12. 12 Type V: Frame Construction • Exterior and interior structural members made of wood. • Fire Hazards: unlimited potential for fire extension, fire extension to nearby structures. • Typical residential home
  • 13. 13
  • 17. 17 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials – Wood • May be used in load bearing and non-load bearing walls. • Reaction of wood to fire conditions is based on the size of the wood and its moisture content. • Water does not have a negative effect on wood’s structural strength. • Plywood, particle board, paneling may be highly combustible, produce toxic gases and rapidly deteriorate under fire conditions.
  • 18. 18 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Masonry• Brick, concrete, and stonework. • Commonly used for firewalls to separate connected structures and prevent fire spread. • May be used as load bearing or veneer. • Minimally affected by fire & high temperatures. • Mortar joints between bricks, blocks may deteriorate. (mortar mix is weakest part of wall) • Rapid cooling of masonry by water may cause cracking or spalling.
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Concrete • Concrete is a mixture of portland cement, sand, gravel and water. • Often used as a fire resistive protection for structural steel (reinforced concrete). • May crack or spall if heated, indication of damage & reduced strength. • Heating may cause bond between steel and concrete to fail. • Concrete tends to absorb and retain heat.
  • 21. 21 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials – Reinforced Concrete
  • 22. 22 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Steel • Primary use of steel is for structural members. • Steel is an excellent conductor of heat. • Steel loses strength as temperature increases • Steel structural members will elongate when heated. • Water can cool steel structural members and reduce risk of failure or collapse.
  • 23. 23 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Steel
  • 24. 24 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Plastic • Becoming integrated to replace/improve common building materials • Plastics are oil-based (hydrocarbons) • Two general types – Thermoplastics (melt, deform, vapourize = burns!) – Thermosets (decomposes, only burns with extreme temps)
  • 25. 25 Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials - Plastic • General Rule of Thumb when fighting fires involving plastics… – Burn fast – Very intense heat – Dense black smoke – Extremely toxic • Can resemble a Class B Fire (flammable liquids)
  • 26. 26
  • 28. 28 Roof Types Three Main Types: (a) Flat (b) Pitched (c) Arched
  • 29. 29 Occupancy Versus Type of Construction • Occupancy creates the fire load. • Building codes specify building type based on occupancy classification. • Fire code determines fire protection based on building and occupancy use. • Occupancies are residential, commercial, business, industrial and educational. • Each type has a number of hazards.
  • 31. 31 Building Uses • Ontario Fire Code and Ontario Building Code separate buildings in groups A-F, as related to their major use (or major occupancy) • With each type of building comes various requirements/restrictions on building construction • Private dwelling residences are exempt (with some exceptions)
  • 32. 32 Building Uses • A – Assembly – Theatres, libraries, schools, large bars, pubs and restaurants • B – Institutional (compelled to sleep over) – Jails, hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes • C – Residential – Apartment buildings (common area) , group homes, houses, motels • D – Business and Personal Services – Banks, barber shops, offices (medico legal), laundromat • E – Mercantile – Markets, stores, shops, supermarkets, restaurants, bars and pubs • F – Industrial – Flammable liquid plant, television studio, freight depot
  • 33. 33 Firefighter Hazards: Structure Fires • Change in occupancy creating an unusually heavy fire load. • Dangerous stockpiling and excessive stock creating access problems. • Unknown design errors, renovations, contractor short cuts. • Arsonists traps or tampering with fire protection systems. • Occupancy may not be what it appears. (drug lab, boarding house, group home, etc.)
  • 34. 34 Construction Features Assessed During Size Up What constructions features are important during size-up?
  • 36. 36 Firefighter Hazards: Structure Fires • Combustible furnishings & finishes. • Wooden floors / ceilings. • Large open spaces. • Synthetic materials. • Lightweight & truss construction.
  • 37. 37 Lightweight Wood or Steel Truss Construction = Very Dangerous Firefighting Conditions
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40
  • 43. 43 Structural Collapse • Every structure fire has the potential for collapse. • Firefighters must be aware and look for indicators to collapse.
  • 44. 44 Signs of Potential Collapse • Prolonged exposure.(time) • Distorted structural members. • Fire on floors below heavy machinery and heavy loads.
  • 47. 47
  • 48. 48 Size Up – What do you see?
  • 51. 51 Summary • Firefighters must know & understand building construction. • There are five common types of construction. • Firefighters need to be aware of the hazards associated with structure fires. • Effects of fire on building materials. • Signs of structural collapse.

Editor's Notes

  1. MOST COMMONLY DEALT WITH CONSTRUCTION TYPE.
  2. ALL OF THESE TYPES OF CONDITIONS WILL CONTRIBUTE TO FIRE SPREAD.