Project Management Basics

What Project Professionals Do

11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

1
Outline
•
•
•
•
•

What is a PROJECT???
What is Project Management (PM)?
Why is it important?
Some definitions, terminolog...
Some questions
• How many of you have been involved in a
project?
• Anyone serve as a project manager?
• How do projects d...
Introduction
• Successful PM involves the following:
– on time, within budget, at the desired level of
functionality, and ...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

5
What is a project?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

A definitive deliverable (objective and goal)
Takes time
Consumes resources
Definite...
Horizontal vs. Vertical Energy

11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

7
Some terminology
• Step (task, activity)—an initiative that takes
time to complete, has a definite starting and
stopping p...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

9
Why Project Management?
• Because companies are organized around
projects (and processes)
• Because project management is ...
Why Project Management
• 1/4th of our country’s GDP is generated from
projects (4 trillion)
• 1/4th of world GDP (10 trill...
Advantages of Project
Management
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Better control of human resources
Improved customer relations
Shorter deve...
About PMI
• The Project Management Institute
• www.pmi.org
• Has an established Body of Knowledge
– PMBOK (1996, 2000, 200...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

14
Some things we do poorly in projects
• Establishing requirements for the project
deliverable
• Planning the proposed proje...
What is project management?
• The initiation, planning, execution, control
and termination of projects in a formal,
direct...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

17
What are the criteria for success
in Project management?
• Completion on time
• Completion within budget
• Completion with...
What is the record in IT project
management?
• Until 1996, less than 25% of IT projects were
“successful”
• After 1998 rou...
Where is expertise in project
management found?
• Project Management Institute
• In project managers who have been there
a...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

21
Project Management Knowledge
Areas
Project
Integration
Management

Project
Risk
Management

Project
Communications
Managem...
Nine Project Areas/42 project
processes
• Project Integration Management
• Core Knowledge Areas
–
–
–
–

11/01/13

Scope M...
Facilitating Knowledge Areas
•
•
•
•

Procurement Management
Risk Management
Communications Management
Human Resources Man...
The triple Constraint/Quadruple
Constraint
•
•
•
•

Time 
Cost---Tradeoffs between these
Scope //////
Quality

11/01/13

T...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R.
Burns

26
A Generic IT Project Lifecycle
1.

Conceptualization and Definition stage
1.
2.

2.

Project Manager selected here
Determi...
STAGE 1:
Conceptualizingand-Defining
STAGE 2:
Planning-andBudgeting
STAGE 3:
Executing
STAGE 5:
Terminating-andClosing

ST...
And, the fourth and fifth stages……..
4. Controlling and Monitoring
Stage
•

We do this throughout

5. Closeout and termina...
The Stages in the Project
Management Lifecycle
STAGE 1:
Conceptualizingand-Defining

STAGE 4:
Monitoring-and-Controlling
S...
Initiating New Projects
• Use a Statement of Work (SOW)
– Gets submitted to upper management and the PM
department
– Gets ...
Project and Process Definition:
Specification of the Project
Boundary
• Elimination and Containment of Scope and
Feature C...
Boundary Definition
• Define Stakeholders
• ORGANIZE a JPDS--Joint Project Definition
Session
– Who should be invited? (TH...
Who are the STAKEHOLDERS??
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Customers
Project Sponsor—the guy w/ deep pockets
Users
Project team
Support s...
Out of the Project
Conceptualization and Definition
Stage should come…..
• A Selected Project Manager [PM]

• The Requirem...
Scope Management/Change
Management—a ‘best practice’
• Form a change/scope committee
• Consists of customer and contractor...
Project Performance Measures:
Cost, Duration, Functionality
• Most expensive component--human
resources
• Funds are consum...
Project Management Hierarchy

11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

38
Another Proj. Management
Hierarchy
PROJECT
MANAGER

TEAM
LEADER

DEVELOPER
1

DEVELOPER

DEVELOPER
N

2

11/01/13

Texas T...
PROJECT
MANAGER

Still Another

PROJECT
LEADER

TEAM
LEADER

TEAM
LEADER

DEVELOPER

DEVELOPER

1

2
DEVELOPER
4

DEVELOPE...
Relationship of PM to Customer &
Upper Management

11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

41
STAGE 2: Project Planning and
Budgeting
• Performed first by the Project Manager
• Revised by the Project Team and the JPD...
Out of the Project Planning and
Budgeting Stage Should Derive
• The project plan
–
–
–
–
–

11/01/13

Personnel involved
P...
Work Breakdown Structure for Computer Order
Processing System Project
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

44
What specifically must be planned
for???
• A scope MANAGEMENT plan
• A schedule or Time MANAGEMENT plan
• A Budget or Cost...
Project Execution —the THIRD Stage
• Startup (also called rampup)
• progression
• close-down

11/01/13

Texas Tech Univers...
Projects and their Indigenous
Processes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1.
Collect Requirements
2.
Define Scope
3.
Create WBS
4.
Verify S...
More Project processes [PMBOK]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1. Organizational Planning
2. Staff Acquisition
3. Communications Planni...
Strategy for Project Execution
• Hold weekly meetings--every Fri. afternoon
• Compare execution with plan--this is called
...
Functions, Tasks, Expectations of
the Project Manager (coach,
mentor, leader, negotiator,
assessor, informer, motivator)
•...
Expectations of the Project Manager
• Interfaces with customer, upper
management on behalf of team
• Negotiates with upper...
More Expectations of the Project
Manager
•
•
•
•

Is a positive leader, motivator, coach
Knows how to use PM software
Know...
Skills, Competencies of the PM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Leadership--articulate the vision and hold everyone accountable to it
An a...
Functions, Tasks, Expectations of
the Project Leader
• Large projects will have such a person if
there are several teams i...
Recall the Large Project
Hierarchy
PROJECT
MANAGER

PROJECT
LEADER

TEAM
LEADER

TEAM
LEADER

DEVELOPER

DEVELOPER

1

2
D...
Functions, Tasks, Expectations of
the Team Leader
• Reports to the Project Leader
• Oversees day-to-day execution
• More t...
Functions, Tasks, Expectations of
the Professional Team Member
• Energetic, communicative, a good listener
• Not a perfect...
The Phases of Team
Development-•
•
•
•
•
•

According to B. W. Tuckman
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning

11/...
Forming
• involves the transition from individual to
team member
• Team members get acquainted
• Begin to understand who h...
Storming
• Like the teenage years, you have to go through it
• Characterized by feelings of hostility, frustration
and ang...
Norming
•
•
•
•
•

Relationships have stabilized
Level of conflict is lower
There is alignment with project goals
Acceptan...
Performing
• Team is now over the interpersonal
conflicts
• Team is now executing the tasks of the
project
• There is a se...
Team Types/culture/governance
• Democratic teams--good for experienced,
mature teams
• Chief developer teams--good for new...
Psychological Motivators for
Developers
• Learning new skills, concepts, tools, or
aspects of a language
• IMPLICATION: As...
Task assignment
• Tasks should be challenging but not too
challenging
• There should be some newness
• Related tasks shoul...
Functional Organizational
Structure

Staff

11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

66
Project Organizational Structure
Chief
Executive

Project
Manager

Project
Manager

Project
Manager

Staff

Staff

Staff

...
Matrix Organizational Structure
Chief
Executive

Project
Management

Function
Manager

Function
Manager

Function
Manager
...
Project Staffing Considerations:
(matrix management, human
factors, team formation,
reporting)
• Matrix management involve...
Some of Tom Peters’ concepts
• Those little insignificant projects may not be so
• What became In Search of Excellence-- w...
Summary
•
•
•
•
•
•

Five stages of projects
Four primary knowledge areas
Four facilitating knowledge areas
Four types of ...
11/01/13

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

72
SOW should consist of:
–
–
–
–
–

Discussion of problem or opportunity
Purpose or goal of project
Objectives
Success crite...
Project Management Authority
aracteristics

WEAK

BALANCED

STRONG

AL

MATRIX

MATRIX

MATRIX

Little or

Limited

Low to...
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  • {"31":"Discuss how Tom Peters got his start with his book In Search of Excellence\n"}
  • Project management

    1. 1. Project Management Basics What Project Professionals Do 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 1
    2. 2. Outline • • • • • What is a PROJECT??? What is Project Management (PM)? Why is it important? Some definitions, terminology Concepts – Lifecycle (five stages) – knowledge areas • Four primary • Four facilitating – Tradeoff triangle (triple constraint) – Four types of project personnel 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 2
    3. 3. Some questions • How many of you have been involved in a project? • Anyone serve as a project manager? • How do projects differ from ordinary work? • What makes project work more difficult? • How important is project management? • What constitutes success in projects and how do we achieve it? 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 3
    4. 4. Introduction • Successful PM involves the following: – on time, within budget, at the desired level of functionality, and using the assigned resources effectively • PM is a way to get organizational energy and effort to flow horizontally towards the customer and across departmental barriers 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 4
    5. 5. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 5
    6. 6. What is a project? • • • • • • • • • A definitive deliverable (objective and goal) Takes time Consumes resources Definite starting and stopping dates Is broken up into tasks (activities, steps) Consists of processes Proceeds through milestones Utilizes teams Based on personal integrity and trust 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 6
    7. 7. Horizontal vs. Vertical Energy 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 7
    8. 8. Some terminology • Step (task, activity)—an initiative that takes time to complete, has a definite starting and stopping point • Milestone—an event, an instant in time at which something significant happens in the life of the project, like the completion of a deliverable • Lifecycle—The stages a project goes through during its lifetime • Scope—The content of the project, the nature and functionality of the ultimate product 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 8
    9. 9. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 9
    10. 10. Why Project Management? • Because companies are organized around projects (and processes) • Because project management is recognized as a core competence • Because project management is a discipline in disarray—we just don’t know how to manage projects well • Because project management differs in significant ways from ordinary management 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 10
    11. 11. Why Project Management • 1/4th of our country’s GDP is generated from projects (4 trillion) • 1/4th of world GDP (10 trillion of 40 trillion) is generated from projects • Even Donald Trump is getting into the act – What are Donald’s criteria for success as a project manager? 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 11
    12. 12. Advantages of Project Management • • • • • • • Better control of human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times, lead times Lower costs Higher quality Higher profit margins Improved productivity 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 12
    13. 13. About PMI • The Project Management Institute • www.pmi.org • Has an established Body of Knowledge – PMBOK (1996, 2000, 2002, 2008) • Will certify you as a PMP if….. – You can pass its exam, and – You have at least 2000 hours of successful PM EXPERIENCE 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 13
    14. 14. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 14
    15. 15. Some things we do poorly in projects • Establishing requirements for the project deliverable • Planning the proposed project • Estimating step (TASK, ACTIVITY) )durations • Budgeting the proposed project • Executing – Don’t understand change management – Not communicating • Managing subcontractors • Monitoring project progress 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 15
    16. 16. What is project management? • The initiation, planning, execution, control and termination of projects in a formal, directed and intelligent fashion – According to PMI’s PMBOK 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 16
    17. 17. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 17
    18. 18. What are the criteria for success in Project management? • Completion on time • Completion within budget • Completion with full functionality 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 18
    19. 19. What is the record in IT project management? • Until 1996, less than 25% of IT projects were “successful” • After 1998 roughly 30% of IT projects were successful • More than 80 billion a year wasted on terminated projects in the 90’s • For projects that were not completed on time, they were 225% over their intended completion date • According to the CHAOS 1995 Report 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 19
    20. 20. Where is expertise in project management found? • Project Management Institute • In project managers who have been there and done that • In hundreds of books that have been written in the past five years • In dozens of websites (use google or go to burns.ba.ttu.edu 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 20
    21. 21. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 21
    22. 22. Project Management Knowledge Areas Project Integration Management Project Risk Management Project Communications Management 11/01/13 Project Scope Management Project Quality Management Project Time Management Project Human Resource Management Project Cost Management Project Procurement Management Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 22
    23. 23. Nine Project Areas/42 project processes • Project Integration Management • Core Knowledge Areas – – – – 11/01/13 Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 23
    24. 24. Facilitating Knowledge Areas • • • • Procurement Management Risk Management Communications Management Human Resources Management 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 24
    25. 25. The triple Constraint/Quadruple Constraint • • • • Time Cost---Tradeoffs between these Scope ////// Quality 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 25
    26. 26. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 26
    27. 27. A Generic IT Project Lifecycle 1. Conceptualization and Definition stage 1. 2. 2. Project Manager selected here Determine goals, scope, Impediments, product(s)— [deliverable(s)] Planning and Budgeting stage 1. 2. Project leader selected here, as well as project team members Who will do the project, when will it get done, how much will it cost 3. Execution stage 1. 11/01/13 Ramp up phase, intense activity phase, close out (termination) phase Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 27
    28. 28. STAGE 1: Conceptualizingand-Defining STAGE 2: Planning-andBudgeting STAGE 3: Executing STAGE 5: Terminating-andClosing STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 28
    29. 29. And, the fourth and fifth stages…….. 4. Controlling and Monitoring Stage • We do this throughout 5. Closeout and termination Stage – – – – – – 11/01/13 Deliverables delivered? Signoffs complete? Checklist complete? Lessons learned? History Data base updated? Post-project customer R. Burns satisfaction survey Texas Tech University -- J. complete? 29
    30. 30. The Stages in the Project Management Lifecycle STAGE 1: Conceptualizingand-Defining STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling STAGE 2: Planning-andBudgeting STAGE 3: Executing STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling 11/01/13 STAGE 5: Terminating-andClosing Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 30
    31. 31. Initiating New Projects • Use a Statement of Work (SOW) – Gets submitted to upper management and the PM department – Gets graded and eventually accepted or rejected • In a project management culture, a SOW… – Can be created by anyone in the organization • How to launch yourself into PM – Identify a need that fits with your values, write a SOW and become the project’s PM. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 31
    32. 32. Project and Process Definition: Specification of the Project Boundary • Elimination and Containment of Scope and Feature Creep – Through change management • Goals of Project Management • Conceptualization of the deliverable • Definition: consideration of goals, scope and impediments 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 32
    33. 33. Boundary Definition • Define Stakeholders • ORGANIZE a JPDS--Joint Project Definition Session – Who should be invited? (THE STAKEHOLDERS) • Scope boundary – Features & functionality • Organizational Boundary • Methodology (or process) Boundary • Culture (governance) Boundary 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 33
    34. 34. Who are the STAKEHOLDERS?? • • • • • • • • Customers Project Sponsor—the guy w/ deep pockets Users Project team Support staff Suppliers Opponents People involved-in or affected by project activities 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 34
    35. 35. Out of the Project Conceptualization and Definition Stage should come….. • A Selected Project Manager [PM] • The Requirements Document (defining project product(s) and their content) – Signature signoffs required for PM’S protection • The Project Charter – Announces the project, its deliverable, its PM, and the rules of governance 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns • These are known as deliverables 35
    36. 36. Scope Management/Change Management—a ‘best practice’ • Form a change/scope committee • Consists of customer and contractor representatives • All requested changes must get reviewed by this committee • Acceptances will depend on the type of contract, the amount of work involved, customer’s willingness to pay for it 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 36
    37. 37. Project Performance Measures: Cost, Duration, Functionality • Most expensive component--human resources • Funds are consumed over time • Question is, are funds being consumed as fast as anticipated • Is functionality being created as fast as anticipated • OUR CONTROL SYSTEM WILL TELL US 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 37
    38. 38. Project Management Hierarchy 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 38
    39. 39. Another Proj. Management Hierarchy PROJECT MANAGER TEAM LEADER DEVELOPER 1 DEVELOPER DEVELOPER N 2 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 39
    40. 40. PROJECT MANAGER Still Another PROJECT LEADER TEAM LEADER TEAM LEADER DEVELOPER DEVELOPER 1 2 DEVELOPER 4 DEVELOPER 7 11/01/13 DEVELOPER 5 DEVELOPER 3 DEVELOPER 6 DEVELOPER N DEVELOPER 8 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 40
    41. 41. Relationship of PM to Customer & Upper Management 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 41
    42. 42. STAGE 2: Project Planning and Budgeting • Performed first by the Project Manager • Revised by the Project Team and the JPDS personnel • Looks at: – Duration – Cost – Functionality 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 42
    43. 43. Out of the Project Planning and Budgeting Stage Should Derive • The project plan – – – – – 11/01/13 Personnel involved Project WBS (Work Break Down Structure) Project budget Project schedule in a Gantt format Project NETWORK chart Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 43
    44. 44. Work Breakdown Structure for Computer Order Processing System Project 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 44
    45. 45. What specifically must be planned for??? • A scope MANAGEMENT plan • A schedule or Time MANAGEMENT plan • A Budget or Cost MANAGEMENT plan • A quality MANAGEMENT plan • A risk contingency plan • A communications plan • A procurement plan • A human resources plan 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 45 • ALL COMPRISE A PART OF THE PLANNNING DOC
    46. 46. Project Execution —the THIRD Stage • Startup (also called rampup) • progression • close-down 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 46
    47. 47. Projects and their Indigenous Processes • • • • • • • • 1. Collect Requirements 2. Define Scope 3. Create WBS 4. Verify Scope 5. Control Scope 1. Define Activities 2. Sequence Activities 3. Estimate Activity Durations • 4. Develop Schedule 11/01/13 • • • • • • 5. Control Schedule 1. Estimate Costs 2. Determine Budget 3. Control Costs 1. Plan Quality 2. Perform Quality Assurance • 3. Perform Quality Control Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 47
    48. 48. More Project processes [PMBOK] • • • • • • • • • 1. Organizational Planning 2. Staff Acquisition 3. Communications Planning 4. Information Distribution 5. Performance Reporting 6. Administrative Closure 1. Risk Identification 2. Risk Quantification 3. Risk Response Development 11/01/13 • • • • • • • 4. Risk Response Control 1. Procurement Planning 2. Solicitation Planning 3. Solicitation 4. Source Selection 5. Contract Administration 6. Contract Closeout Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 48
    49. 49. Strategy for Project Execution • Hold weekly meetings--every Fri. afternoon • Compare execution with plan--this is called controlling • Make adjustments as necessary • Produce weekly status reports every Mon morning 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 49
    50. 50. Functions, Tasks, Expectations of the Project Manager (coach, mentor, leader, negotiator, assessor, informer, motivator) • Selects team leader, subordinates • Works hardest during the definition and planning phases • Assesses progress during execution and reports on that • Negotiates with line managers for required human resourcesTech University -- J. R. Burns 11/01/13 Texas 50
    51. 51. Expectations of the Project Manager • Interfaces with customer, upper management on behalf of team • Negotiates with upper management and customer • Keeps everybody informed 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 51
    52. 52. More Expectations of the Project Manager • • • • Is a positive leader, motivator, coach Knows how to use PM software Knows the technologies employed well Must re-plan the remainder of the project after the completion of each deliverable, each phase 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 52
    53. 53. Skills, Competencies of the PM • • • • • • • • Leadership--articulate the vision and hold everyone accountable to it An ability to develop people Communication competencies Interpersonal competencies Able to handle stress Problem solving skills Time management skills Negotiation skills 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 53
    54. 54. Functions, Tasks, Expectations of the Project Leader • Large projects will have such a person if there are several teams involved • In charge of all technical aspects of the project • Assists the PM with project planning and control – particularly, the bottom levels of the WBS • Focused on the toughest technical 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns problems 54
    55. 55. Recall the Large Project Hierarchy PROJECT MANAGER PROJECT LEADER TEAM LEADER TEAM LEADER DEVELOPER DEVELOPER 1 2 DEVELOPER 4 DEVELOPER 7 11/01/13 DEVELOPER 5 DEVELOPER 3 DEVELOPER 6 DEVELOPER N DEVELOPER 8 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 55
    56. 56. Functions, Tasks, Expectations of the Team Leader • Reports to the Project Leader • Oversees day-to-day execution • More technically competent, mature and experienced than team members • Should possess good communications competencies • Should develop a good rapport with each team member 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 56
    57. 57. Functions, Tasks, Expectations of the Professional Team Member • Energetic, communicative, a good listener • Not a perfectionist • Possesses the requisite technical expertise • Doesn’t make any promises to the customer • Star performance 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 57
    58. 58. The Phases of Team Development-• • • • • • According to B. W. Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 58
    59. 59. Forming • involves the transition from individual to team member • Team members get acquainted • Begin to understand who has responsibility for what • No actual work accomplished in this phase • Excited, anticipation, suspicion, anxiety and hesitancy 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 59
    60. 60. Storming • Like the teenage years, you have to go through it • Characterized by feelings of hostility, frustration and anger • Dissatisfaction with PM is common during this phase • PM has to provide direction and diffuse possible conflicts • There has to be a sense of devotion to equity and fairness 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 60
    61. 61. Norming • • • • • Relationships have stabilized Level of conflict is lower There is alignment with project goals Acceptance grows Team begins to Synergize 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 61
    62. 62. Performing • Team is now over the interpersonal conflicts • Team is now executing the tasks of the project • There is a sense of unity and peace • Team is empowered by PM to achieve its goals 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 62
    63. 63. Team Types/culture/governance • Democratic teams--good for experienced, mature teams • Chief developer teams--good for new, immature teams • Expert teams--good for a certain specific area of need, like – design validation – system integration and testing – data communications 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 63
    64. 64. Psychological Motivators for Developers • Learning new skills, concepts, tools, or aspects of a language • IMPLICATION: Assign tasks that have an element of newness 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 64
    65. 65. Task assignment • Tasks should be challenging but not too challenging • There should be some newness • Related tasks should be assigned to the same developer 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 65
    66. 66. Functional Organizational Structure Staff 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 66
    67. 67. Project Organizational Structure Chief Executive Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff 11/01/13 Staff Staff Staff Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 67
    68. 68. Matrix Organizational Structure Chief Executive Project Management Function Manager Function Manager Function Manager PM Staff Staff PM Staff Staff Staff PM 11/01/13 Staff Staff Staff Staff Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 68
    69. 69. Project Staffing Considerations: (matrix management, human factors, team formation, reporting) • Matrix management involves borrowing resources from other functional units • Matrix management involves resource sharing and is more efficient 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 69
    70. 70. Some of Tom Peters’ concepts • Those little insignificant projects may not be so • What became In Search of Excellence-- was based on a project at his employer that nobody cared about • Look for little projects that you can become passionate about, based on your values • Punctuate your projects with passion – Life is not a useless passion as the German and French existentialist philosophers would suggest 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 70
    71. 71. Summary • • • • • • Five stages of projects Four primary knowledge areas Four facilitating knowledge areas Four types of project personnel Five phases of team development Three types of organizational structures 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 71
    72. 72. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 72
    73. 73. SOW should consist of: – – – – – Discussion of problem or opportunity Purpose or goal of project Objectives Success criteria Assumptions/Risks/Obstacles • ALL ON A SINGLE PAGE 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 73
    74. 74. Project Management Authority aracteristics WEAK BALANCED STRONG AL MATRIX MATRIX MATRIX Little or Limited Low to Moderate to High to moderate high almost total 0-25% 15-60% 50-95% 85-100% Part-time Part-time Full-time Full-time Full-time Part-time ’s Authority FUNCTION Part-time Part-time Full-time Full-time none cent of Virtually orming PROJECT none anization’s ple assigned ime to project ject nager’s role ect agement inistrative staff Source: PMBOK Guide, page 18. 11/01/13 Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns 74

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