Transgenic organismspp
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Transgenic organismspp Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TRANSGENICORGANISMSBy: Olivia Stanton
  • 2. What is a transgenic organism? ~ a transgenic, or genetically modified, organism is one that has been altered through recombinant DNA technology, which involves either the combining of DNA from different genomes or the insertion of foreign DNA into a genome GloFishhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GloFish.jpg
  • 3. How transgenic organismswork…Three Main Methods… DNA Microinjection  A foreign gene is directly injected into a fertilized egg that is put into a female animal that acts as a surrogate mother for the egg. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer  A retrovirus is a virus that attaches to an organism’s DNA and changes it to include a new characteristic. Scientists expose ordinary cells to a retrovirus when they are trying to create transgenic animals. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated Gene Transfer  Stem cells are blank cells that can turn into any type of cell. Scientists modify these cells, and then add them to an embryo, which is a fertilized egg that develops and grows until it hatches or is born.
  • 4. DNA MicroinjectionA foreign gene is directly injected into a fertilized egg that is put into afemale animal that acts as a surrogate mother for the egg.
  • 5. Retrovirus-Mediated Gene TransferA retrovirus is a virus that attaches to an organism’s DNA and changes itto include a new characteristic. Scientists expose ordinary cells to aretrovirus when they are trying to create transgenic animals.
  • 6. Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediated GeneTransferStem cells are blank cells that can turn into any type of cell. Scientistsmodify these cells, and then add them to an embryo, which is a fertilizedegg that develops and grows until it hatches or is born.
  • 7. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Agriculture  Animal Welfare  Breeding  Mutants can form from the  Quickly produce animals with desired traits DNA placed in the organism  Quality  Success rate of making a  Cows that produce more milk, pigs and transgenic organism is very cattle that have more meat, sheep that low grow more wool, etc.  Disease Resistant  Ex] Gene transfer studies revealed that only 0.6% of Medicine transgenic pigs were born with a  Xenotransplantation desired gene after 7,000 eggs  Animals produce organs that can be were injected with a specific used in transplants gene.  Nutritional Supplements  Pharmaceuticals  Human Gene Therapy Industry  Production of useful materials  Ex] Spider Goat ~ makes silk
  • 8. Spider GoatThe spider goat produces large amounts of silk, with this silk industriesare able to create light, tough, flexible material that can be used in suchapplications as military uniforms, medical microstructures, and tennisracket strings.
  • 9. Future Implications Agriculture  Breeding  Quickly produce animals with desired traits  Quality  Cows that produce more milk, pigs and cattle that have more meat, sheep that grow more wool, etc.  Disease Resistant Medicine  Xenotransplantation  Animals produce organs that can be used in transplants  Nutritional Supplements  Pharmaceuticals  Human Gene Therapy Industry  Production of useful materials  Ex] Spider Goat ~ makes silk
  • 10. Works CitedMargawati, Endang Tri. (2003) TransgenicAnimals: Their Benefits to Human Welfare. ActionBioscience.Pray, Leslie. (2008) Recombinant DNAtechnology and transgenic animals. Nature Education.