AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning
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The presentation reviews international trends in the development of education systems

The presentation reviews international trends in the development of education systems

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  • The best way to find out whether what students have learned at school matters for their life is to actuallywatch what happens to them after they leave school. This is exactly what we have done that with around 30,000 students in Canada. We tested them in the year 2000 when they were 15 years old in reading, math and science, and since then we are following up with them each year on what choices they make and how successful they are in their transition from school to higher education and work.The horizontal axis shows you the PISA level which 15-year-old Canadians had scored in 2000. Level 2 is the baseline level on the PISA reading test and Level 5 the top level in reading.The red bar shows you how many times more successful someone who scored Level 2 at age 15 was at age 19 to have made a successful transition to university, as compared to someone who did not make it to the baseline PISA level 1. And to ensure that what you see here is not simply a reflection of social background, gender, immigration or school engagement, we have already statistically accounted for all of these factors. The orange bar. …How would you expect the picture to be like at age 21? We are talking about test scores here, but for a moment, lets go back to the judgements schools make on young people, for example through school marks. You can do the same thing here, you can see how well school marks at age 15 predict the subsequent success of youths. You see that there is some relationship as well, but that it is much less pronounced than when we use the direct measure of skills.

Transcript

  • 1. Is the sky the limit to educational improvement?
    AACTEBenchmarking international best practiceAtlanta, February 20, 2009
    Andreas SchleicherEducation Policy Advisor of the OECD Secretary-General
    Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org:
    Twitter: @SchleicherEDU
  • 2.
  • 3. Is the sky the limit?
    1.There is nowhere to hide
    The yardstick for educational success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best performing systems internationally
    2.Where we are – and where we can be
    Where the US and other countries stand
    What the best performing countries show can be achieved
    3.How we can get there
    Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons
  • 4. There is nowhere to hide
    The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best practice internationally
  • 5. In the current economic environment…
    … Opportunity costs for education decline
    Dominated by lost earnings
    … Labour-market entry becomes more difficult
    as young graduates compete with experienced workers
    … Job prospects for less qualified deteriorate
    … Young people with lower qualifications who become unemployed are likely to spend long time out of work
    In most countries over half of low-qualified unemployed 25-34-year-olds are long-term unemployed
    … Higher risks for systems with significant work-based training
    … Gaps in educational attainment between younger and older cohorts likely to widen .
  • 6. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Cost per student
    Graduate supply
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 7. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    United States
    Cost per student
    Finland
    Graduate supply
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 8. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Australia
    Finland
    United Kingdom
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 9. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 10. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 11. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 12. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 13. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 14. A world of change – highereducation
    Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)
    United States
    Australia
    United Kingdom
    Finland
    Tertiary-type A graduation rate
  • 15. Moving targetsFuture supply of college graduates
  • 16. Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education
    27K$
    56K$
    170K$
    105K$
    35K$
    26K$
    367K$
    Net present value in USD equivalent
  • 17. Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining tertiary education
    Public benefits
    Public costs
    A8.5
    USD equivalent
  • 18. Schooling in the medieval age:
    The school of the church
  • 19. Schooling in the industrial age:
    Uniform learning
  • 20. Schooling in the industrial age:
    Uniform learning
    The challenges today:
    Universal quality
    Motivated and self-reliant citizens
    Risk-taking entrepreneurs, converging and continuously emerging professions tied to globalising contexts and technological advance
  • 21. How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)
    Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution
    The dilemma of schools:
    The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource
    (Levy and Murnane)
  • 22. Skills for the 21st century
    The great collaborators and orchestrators
    The more complex the globalised world becomes, the more individuals and companies need various forms of co-ordination and management
    The great synthesisers
    Conventionally, our approach to problems was breaking them down into manageable bits and pieces, today we create value by synthesising disparate bits together
    The great explainers
    The more content we can search and access, the more important the filters and explainers become
  • 23. Skills for the 21st century
    The great versatilists
    Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, giving them expertise that is recognised by peers but not valued outside their domain
    Generalists have broad scope but shallow skills
    Versatilists apply depth of skill to a progressively widening scope of situations and experiences, gaining new competencies, building relationships, and assuming new roles.
    They are capable not only of constantly adapting but also of constantly learning and growing
    The great personalisers
    A revival of interpersonal skills, skills that have atrhophied to some degree because of the industrial age and the Internet
    The great localisers
    Localising the global
  • 24. Education needs to prepare students…
    … to deal with more rapid change than ever before…
    … for jobs that have not yet been created…
    … using technologies that have not yet been invented…
    … to solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise
    It’s about new…
    Ways of thinking
    involving creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making
    Ways of working
    including communication and collaboration
    Tools for working
    including the capacity to recognise and exploit the potential of new technologies
    The capacity to live in a multi-faceted world as active and responsible citizens.
  • 25. OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds
    Coverage of world economy
    83%
    77%
    81%
    85%
    86%
    87%
  • 26. Deciding what to assess...
    looking back at what students were expected to have learned
    …or…
    looking ahead to how well they can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply their knowledge and skills in novel settings.
    For the PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds, OECD governments chose the latter
  • 27. Strengths and weaknesses in math
    The real world
    The mathematical World
    Making the problem amenable to mathematical treatment
    A mathematical model
    A model of reality
    Understanding, structuring and simplifying the situation
    Using relevant mathematical content to solve the problem
    A real situation
    Validating the results
    Mathematical results
    Real results
    Interpreting the mathematical results
  • 28. High science performance
    Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply
    … 18 countries perform below this line
    Low science performance
  • 29. Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group PISA Level 1)
    Odds ratioCollege entry
    School marks at age 15
    PISA performance at age 15
  • 30. Modelling the impact
    Programmes to improve cognitive skills through schools take time to implement and to have their impact on students.
    Assume that it will take 20 years to implement reform
    The impact of improved skills will not be realised until the students with greater skills move into the labour force
    Assume that improved PISA performance will result in improved skill-based of 2.5% of the labour-force each year
    The economy will respond over time as new technologies are developed and implemented, making use of the new higher skills
    Estimate the total gains over the lifetime of the generation born this year .
  • 31. Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points
    Percent addition to GDP
  • 32. Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)
    bn$
  • 33. Catching up with Finland (total 260 trillion $)
    bn$
  • 34. Catching up with Finland(in percent of GDP)
    % currrent GDP
  • 35. Interest science
    Indicate curiosity in science and science-related issues and endeavours
    Demonstrate willingness to acquire additional scientific knowledge and skills, using variety of resources and methods
    Demonstrate willingness to seek information and have an interest in science, including consideration of science-related careers
    Support for science
    Acknowledge the importance of considering different scientific perspectives and arguments
    Support the use of factual information and rational explanation
    Logical and careful processes in drawing conclusions
    Knowledge of science
    Physical systems (structure of matter, properties of matter, chemical changes of matter, motions and forces, energy and its transformations, energy and matter)
    Living systems (cells, humans, populations, ecosystems, biosphere)
    Earth and space (structures of the earth system, energy in the earth system, change in the earth system, earth’s history, space)
    Technology systems (Concepts and principles, science and technology)
    Knowledge about science
    Scientific enquiry (purpose, experiments, data, measurement, characteristics of results)
    Scientific explanations (types, rules, outcomes)
    Identifying
    Recognising issues that can be investigated scientifically
    Identifying keywords in a scientific investigation
    Recognising the key features of a scientific investigation
    Explaining
    Applying knowledge of science in a situation
    Describing or interpreting phenomena scientifically or predicting change
    Using evidence
    Interpreting scientific evidence and drawing conclusions
    Identifying the assumptions, evidence and reasoning behind conclusions
    Context
    - Personal
    Competencies
    • Identify scientific issues
    • 37. Explain phenomena scientifically
    • 38. Use scientific evidence
    Knowledge
    • Knowledge of science
    • 39. Knowledge about science
    Attitudes
    -Interest in science
    -Support for scientific enquiry
    -Responsibility
  • 40. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceFrance
    Science competencies
    Science knowledge
    OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13
  • 41. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceCzech Republic
    Scientific competencies
    Scientific knowledge
    OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13
  • 42. High science performance
    Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply
    High average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    High average performance
    High social equity
    Strong socio-economic impact on student performance
    Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities
    Low average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    Low average performance
    High social equity
    Low science performance
  • 43. High science performance
    Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik
    High average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    High average performance
    High social equity
    Strong socio-economic impact on student performance
    Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities
    Low average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    Low average performance
    High social equity
    Low science performance
  • 44. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Germany
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Schools proportional to size
  • 45. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Germany
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Schools proportional to size
    Universal policies
    • Increasing educational performance of all children through reforms applied equally across the school system, e.g.
    • 46. Altering content or pace of curriculum
    • 47. Improving instructional techniques
    • 48. Changing the learning environment in schools and classrooms
    • 49. Standards and accountability
    • 50. Teacher professional development
  • Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Germany
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Compensatory policies
    • Providing additional economic resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    • 51. Different to socio-economically targeted policies, efforts are directed to ameliorating economic circumstances, rather than providing specialised curriculum or additional educational resources
    Schools proportional to size
  • 52. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Germany
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Socio-economically targeted policies
    • Providing a specialised curriculum or additional educational resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    • 53. Students are often also identified through other risk factors, e.g. immigration, ethnicity, low-income community
    Schools proportional to size
  • 54. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Germany
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Performance targeted policies
    • Providing additional economic resources to students based on their academic performance
    • 55. Early intervention programmes
    • 56. Remedial and recovery programmes
    • 57. Performance-based tracking or streaming
    Schools proportional to size
  • 58. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background United States
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Schools proportional to size
  • 59. Student performance
    PISA Index of socio-economic background
    Advantage
    Disadvantage
    School performance and socio-economic background Finland
    Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools
    School performance and schools’ socio-economic background
    Schools proportional to size
  • 60. How to get there
    Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons
  • 61. Money matters - but other things do too
  • 62. Spending choices on secondary schoolsContribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costsper student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004)
    Percentage points
  • 63. High ambitionsand universal standards
    Rigor, focus and coherence
    Great systemsattractgreatteachers and provideaccesstobestpractice and quality professional development
  • 64. Challenge and support
    Strong support
    Poor performance
    Improvements idiosyncratic
    Strong performance
    Systemic improvement
    Lowchallenge
    Highchallenge
    Poor performance
    Stagnation
    Conflict
    Demoralisation
    Weak support
  • 65. International Best Practice
    The past
    • Principals who are trained, empowered, accountable and provide instructional leadership
    • 66. Principals who manage ‘a building’, who have little training and preparation and are accountable but not empowered
    • 67. Attracting, recruiting and providing excellent training for prospective teachers from the top third of the graduate distribution
    • 68. Attracting and recruiting teachers from the bottom third of the graduate distribution and offering training which does not relate to real classrooms
    • 69. Incentives, rules and funding encourage a fair distribution of teaching talent
    • 70. The best teachers are in the most advantaged communities
    Human capital
  • 71. International Best Practice
    The past
    • Expectations of teachers are clear; consistent quality, strong professional ethic and excellent professional development focused on classroom practice
    • 72. Seniority and tenure matter more than performance; patchy professional development; wide variation in quality
    • 73. Teachers and the system expect every child to succeed and intervene preventatively to ensure this
    • 74. Wide achievement gaps, just beginning to narrow but systemic and professional barriers to transformation remain in place
    Human capital (cont…)
  • 75. Some teachers lose much more time than othersPercentiles of time on spent on task
    Figure 4.10
    Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
  • 76. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity
    Figure 3.15
  • 77. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity
    Figure 3.15
  • 78. How school systems support the professional development of their teachers
    Figure 3.9
  • 79. The teachers who paid most also did most professional development
    Figure 3.10
  • 80. It’s not just about more of the same
    For what type of professional development do teachers report a high level of need?
    Figure 3.6
  • 81. High ambitions
    Devolvedresponsibility,theschoolasthecentreofaction
    Accountabilityandintervention in inverse proportiontosuccess
    Access to best practice and quality professional development
  • 82. Local responsibility and national prescription
    Towards system-wide sustainable reform
    National prescription
    Schools today
    The industrial model, detailed prescription of what schools do
    Schools tomorrow?
    Building capacity
    Finland today
    Every school an effective school
    Schools leading reform
  • 83. Pooled international dataset, effects of selected school/system factors on science performance after accounting for all other factors in the model
    School principal’s positive evaluation of quality of educational materials(gross only)
    Schools with more competing schools(gross only)
    Schools with greater autonomy (resources)(gross and net)
    School activities to promote science learning(gross and net)
    One additional hour of self-study or homework (gross and net)
    One additional hour of science learning at school (gross and net)
    School results posted publicly (gross and net)
    Academically selective schools (gross and net) but no system-wide effect
    Schools practicing ability grouping (gross and net)
    One additional hour of out-of-school lessons (gross and net)
    20
    Each additional 10% of public funding(gross only)
    School principal’s perception that lack of qualified teachers hinders instruction(gross only)
    Effect after accounting for the socio-economic background of students, schools and countries
    Measured effect
    OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies from Tomorrow’s World, Table 6.1a
  • 84. Some teachers are left aloneTeachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years
    Figure 5.3
  • 85. Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for teaching?
    Figure 5.6
  • 86. Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for the job?
    Figure 5.5
  • 87. Perception of teachers of the impact of appraisal and feedback in theirschool
    Figure 5.7
  • 88. Strong ambitions
    Devolvedresponsibility,the school as the centre of action
    Integrated educational opportunities
    From prescribed forms of teaching and assessment towards personalised learning
    Accountability
    Access to best practice and quality professional development
  • 89. High science performance
    Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik
    High average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    High average performance
    High social equity
    Strong socio-economic impact on student performance
    Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities
    Early selection and institutional differentiation
    High degree of stratification
    Low degree of stratification
    Low average performance
    Large socio-economic disparities
    Low average performance
    High social equity
    6
    Low science performance
  • 90. Country profiles of beliefs about the nature of teaching and learningCountry mean of ipsative scores
    Figure 4.2
  • 91. Country profiles of classroomteaching practices Country mean of ipsative scores
    Figure 4.4
  • 92. Country profiles of cooperationamong staff Country mean of ipsative scores
    Countries are ranked in ascending order of the degree to which teachers engage in exchange and coordination for teaching more than professional collaboration. For example, for teachers in the Slovak Republic both types of cooperation are reported almost equally frequently, while teachers in Spain report a more common practice of exchange and coordination for teaching over professional collaboration.
    Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
    Figure 4.7
  • 93. Creating a knowledge-rich profession in which schools and teachers have the authority to act, the necessary knowledge to do so wisely, and access to effective support systems
    The future of education systems is “knowledge rich”
    Informed professional judgement, the teacher as a “knowledge worker”
    Informed prescription
    National prescription
    Professional judgement
    Uninformed prescription, teachers implement curricula
    Uninformed professional judgement, teachers working in isolation
    The tradition of education systems has been “knowledge poor”
  • 94. Paradigm shifts
  • 95. www.oecd.org; www.pisa.oecd.org
    All national and international publications
    The complete micro-level database
    email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
    Twitter: @SchleicherEDU
    … and remember:
    Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
    Thank you !