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PISA 2015: A Sneak Preview
Tuesday, October 25, 2016
9:30 – 10:30 a.m. (ET)
Andreas Schleicher,
Bob Wise
PISA 2015
• Looking at school systems in 72 countries and economies
• Students assessed in science, mathematics, reading, collaborative
problem-solving and financial literacy
• Results to be released on December 6
• Key issues:
- How far are we nurturing a generation of scientifically literate young people?
- Are schools adequately preparing young people for adult life?
- What kinds of learning environments do we find in high performing systems?
- Can schools improve the futures of students from disadvantaged backgrounds?
PISA 2015
OECD
Partners
PISA in brief - 2015
In 2015, over half a million students…
- representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 72 countries/economies
… took an internationally agreed 2-hour test…
- Goes beyond testing whether students can reproduce what they were taught…
… to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively apply
their knowledge in novel situations
- Total of 390 minutes of assessment material
… and responded to questions on…
- their personal background, their schools, their well-being and their motivation
Parents, principals, teachers and system leaders provided data on:
- school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain
performance differences
- 89,000 parents, 93,000 teachers and 17,500 principals responded
PISA in brief – key principles
• ‘Crowd sourcing’ and collaboration
- PISA draws together leading expertise and institutions from participating countries to
develop instruments and methodologies…
… guided by governments on the basis of shared policy interests
• Cross-national relevance and transferability of policy experiences
- Emphasis on validity across cultures, languages and systems
- Frameworks built on well-structured conceptual understanding of academic disciplines
and contextual factors
• Triangulation across different stakeholder perspectives
- Comprehensive insights from students, parents, school principals and system-leaders
• Advanced methods with different grain sizes
- A range of methods to adequately measure what young people know and can do:
different grain sizes to serve different decision-making needs
- Productive feedback to fuel improvement at every level of the system
PISA in brief - Governance
Project
implementation
Design and
development
Participating
countries
PISA Governing Board
International
Subject Matter
Expert Groups
National subject
matter groups
OECD
National project
Managers
PISA
International
Consortium
International
Technical
Advisory Group
National experts
“the ability to engage with science-
related issues, and with the ideas of
science, as a reflective citizen”
A scientifically literate person is
willing to engage in reasoned discourse
about science and technology
Science in PISA
•Explain phenomena scientifically
•Evaluate and design scientific enquiry
•Interpret data and evidence scientifically
Competencies
Recognise, offer and
evaluate explanations for
a range of natural and
technological phenomena.
Describe and appraise
scientific investigations
and propose ways of
addressing questions
scientifically.
Analyse and evaluate
data, claims and
arguments in a variety of
representations and draw
appropriate scientific
conclusions.
•Explain phenomena scientifically
•Evaluate and design scientific enquiry
•Interpret data and evidence scientifically
Knowledge
•Content knowledge
•Knowledge of methodological
procedures used in science
•Knowledge of the epistemic
reasons and ideas used by
scientists to justify their claims
Competencies
Each of the scientific
competencies requires
content knowledge
(knowledge of theories,
explanatory ideas,
information and facts), but
also an understanding of
how such knowledge has
been derived (procedural
knowledge) and of the
nature of that knowledge
(epistemic knowledge)
“Epistemic knowledge”
reflects students’ capacity to
think like a scientist and
distinguish between
observations, facts,
hypotheses, models and
theories
•Explain phenomena scientifically
•Evaluate and design scientific enquiry
•Interpret data and evidence scientifically
Knowledge
•Content knowledge
•Knowledge of methodological
procedures used in science
•Knowledge of the epistemic
reasons and ideas used by
scientists to justify their claims
Competencies
Peoples’ attitudes and
beliefs play a significant role
in their interest, attention
and response to science
and technology.
PISA distinguishes between
attitudes towards science
(e.g. interest in different
content areas of science)
and scientific attitudes (e.g.
whether students value
scientific approaches to
enquiry)Attitudes
•Attitudes to science
•Scientific attitudes
•Explain phenomena scientifically
•Evaluate and design scientific enquiry
•Interpret data and evidence scientifically
Knowledge
•Content knowledge
•Knowledge of methodological
procedures used in science
•Knowledge of the epistemic
reasons and ideas used by
scientists to justify their claims
Competencies
Personal, local/national and
global issues, both current
and historical, which
demand some
understanding of science
and technology
Attitudes
•Attitudes to science
•Scientific attitudes
Context
•Personal, local, global
•Current and historical
The PISA tests
• Science: 184 items (equivalent to 6 hours)
• Reading: 103 items (equivalent to 3 hours)
• Mathematics: 81 items (equivalent to 3 hours)
• Collaborative Problem Solving: 117 items
(equivalent to 1.5 hours)
• Financial Literacy: 43 items (equivalent to 1 hour)
• Each student was given a two-hour combination
of these tasks
PISA 2015: Take The Test
Drag Ragworms and
Common Sole into Tank 2
and Marsh Grass and
Shellfish into Tank 3
This question requires
students to understand a
system and the role of
several organisms within that
system. In order to answer
correctly, students must
understand the goal of the
fish farm, the function of
each of the three tanks
therein, and which organisms
will best fulfill each function.
Students must use
information provided in the
stimulus and the diagram,
including a footnote under
the diagram
PISA 2015: Take The Test
PISA 2015: Take The Test
Full Credit
The student gives an
explanation that identifies a
scientific advantage of using
more than one measurement
instrument on each slope, e.g.
correcting for variation of
conditions within a slope,
increasing the precision of
measurement for each slope.
• So they could determine
whether a difference between
slopes is significant.
• Because there is likely to be
variation within a slope.
• To increase the precision of
the measurement for each
slope.
• The data will be more
accurate.
• In case one of the two
malfunctions
• To compare different amounts
of sun on a slope
PISA 2015: Take The Test
Full Credit
The student selects
Student 1
…and gives an explanation
that indicates that there is a
difference in solar radiation
between the two slopes
and/or that rainfall does not
show a difference.
• Slope B gets much more
solar radiation than slope A,
but the same amount of rain.
• There is no difference in the
amount of rainfall the two
slopes get.
• There is a big difference in
how much sunlight slope A
gets compared to slope B
PISA Myths
“The top performers do well because they
don’t include all of their students”
OECD coverage of 15-year-olds: 89%, U.S. 84%
PISA Myths
“It’s all about culture”
Between 2000 and 2012, several education systems
improved student performance by more than a school year
PISA Myths
“The world is divided between rich and well-educated
nations and poor and badly educated ones”
Less than a quarter of the performance variation
among OECD countries is explained by GDP/capita
PISA Myths
“Deprivation is destiny”
In 2012, the 10% most disadvantaged students in Shanghai
reached similar math scores
than the 10% most privileged American 15-year-olds
PISA Myths
“Excellence is not compatible with equity”
In 2012, there were education systems in Asia, Europe and
North America with high and equitable learning outcomes
PISA Myths
“Excellence requires selection”
The highest-performing education systems are non-selective
PISA Myths
“Educational quality and personalization is
all about class size”
The highest-performing education systems prioritize the
quality of teachers over the size of classes
ALTERNATIVE: Lessons from PISA
• Develop a commitment to education and a conviction that all students can
achieve at high levels
• Establish ambitious, focused and coherent standards that are aligned with
instructional systems
• Develop capacity at the point of delivery and provide a work organisation in
which teachers collaborate and develop their potential
• Invest in equity and align resources with challenges
• Complementing accountability to agents outside schools with accountability
towards professional colleagues and parents
• Balancing local responsibility with a capable centre with authority to act
• Ensuring coherence of policies and practices and securing consistency of
implementation
• Ensuring an outward orientation of the system to keep the system evolving, and
to recognise challenges and potential future threats to current success
ALTERNATIVE: Lessons from PISA
Looking ahead: PISA 2018
• PISA for Development
• PISA for Schools
• Innovative Domain: Global Competence
- Global competence is the capacity to analyse global and intercultural issues critically and from
multiple perspectives, to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with others
from different backgrounds on the basis of a shared respect for human dignity and to take
action for the sustainability and well-being of societies
PISA 2015   A Sneak Preview

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PISA 2015 A Sneak Preview

  • 1. PISA 2015: A Sneak Preview Tuesday, October 25, 2016 9:30 – 10:30 a.m. (ET) Andreas Schleicher, Bob Wise
  • 2. PISA 2015 • Looking at school systems in 72 countries and economies • Students assessed in science, mathematics, reading, collaborative problem-solving and financial literacy • Results to be released on December 6 • Key issues: - How far are we nurturing a generation of scientifically literate young people? - Are schools adequately preparing young people for adult life? - What kinds of learning environments do we find in high performing systems? - Can schools improve the futures of students from disadvantaged backgrounds?
  • 4. PISA in brief - 2015 In 2015, over half a million students… - representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 72 countries/economies … took an internationally agreed 2-hour test… - Goes beyond testing whether students can reproduce what they were taught… … to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively apply their knowledge in novel situations - Total of 390 minutes of assessment material … and responded to questions on… - their personal background, their schools, their well-being and their motivation Parents, principals, teachers and system leaders provided data on: - school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain performance differences - 89,000 parents, 93,000 teachers and 17,500 principals responded
  • 5. PISA in brief – key principles • ‘Crowd sourcing’ and collaboration - PISA draws together leading expertise and institutions from participating countries to develop instruments and methodologies… … guided by governments on the basis of shared policy interests • Cross-national relevance and transferability of policy experiences - Emphasis on validity across cultures, languages and systems - Frameworks built on well-structured conceptual understanding of academic disciplines and contextual factors • Triangulation across different stakeholder perspectives - Comprehensive insights from students, parents, school principals and system-leaders • Advanced methods with different grain sizes - A range of methods to adequately measure what young people know and can do: different grain sizes to serve different decision-making needs - Productive feedback to fuel improvement at every level of the system
  • 6. PISA in brief - Governance Project implementation Design and development Participating countries PISA Governing Board International Subject Matter Expert Groups National subject matter groups OECD National project Managers PISA International Consortium International Technical Advisory Group National experts
  • 7. “the ability to engage with science- related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen” A scientifically literate person is willing to engage in reasoned discourse about science and technology Science in PISA
  • 8. •Explain phenomena scientifically •Evaluate and design scientific enquiry •Interpret data and evidence scientifically Competencies Recognise, offer and evaluate explanations for a range of natural and technological phenomena. Describe and appraise scientific investigations and propose ways of addressing questions scientifically. Analyse and evaluate data, claims and arguments in a variety of representations and draw appropriate scientific conclusions.
  • 9. •Explain phenomena scientifically •Evaluate and design scientific enquiry •Interpret data and evidence scientifically Knowledge •Content knowledge •Knowledge of methodological procedures used in science •Knowledge of the epistemic reasons and ideas used by scientists to justify their claims Competencies Each of the scientific competencies requires content knowledge (knowledge of theories, explanatory ideas, information and facts), but also an understanding of how such knowledge has been derived (procedural knowledge) and of the nature of that knowledge (epistemic knowledge) “Epistemic knowledge” reflects students’ capacity to think like a scientist and distinguish between observations, facts, hypotheses, models and theories
  • 10. •Explain phenomena scientifically •Evaluate and design scientific enquiry •Interpret data and evidence scientifically Knowledge •Content knowledge •Knowledge of methodological procedures used in science •Knowledge of the epistemic reasons and ideas used by scientists to justify their claims Competencies Peoples’ attitudes and beliefs play a significant role in their interest, attention and response to science and technology. PISA distinguishes between attitudes towards science (e.g. interest in different content areas of science) and scientific attitudes (e.g. whether students value scientific approaches to enquiry)Attitudes •Attitudes to science •Scientific attitudes
  • 11. •Explain phenomena scientifically •Evaluate and design scientific enquiry •Interpret data and evidence scientifically Knowledge •Content knowledge •Knowledge of methodological procedures used in science •Knowledge of the epistemic reasons and ideas used by scientists to justify their claims Competencies Personal, local/national and global issues, both current and historical, which demand some understanding of science and technology Attitudes •Attitudes to science •Scientific attitudes Context •Personal, local, global •Current and historical
  • 12. The PISA tests • Science: 184 items (equivalent to 6 hours) • Reading: 103 items (equivalent to 3 hours) • Mathematics: 81 items (equivalent to 3 hours) • Collaborative Problem Solving: 117 items (equivalent to 1.5 hours) • Financial Literacy: 43 items (equivalent to 1 hour) • Each student was given a two-hour combination of these tasks
  • 13. PISA 2015: Take The Test
  • 14. Drag Ragworms and Common Sole into Tank 2 and Marsh Grass and Shellfish into Tank 3 This question requires students to understand a system and the role of several organisms within that system. In order to answer correctly, students must understand the goal of the fish farm, the function of each of the three tanks therein, and which organisms will best fulfill each function. Students must use information provided in the stimulus and the diagram, including a footnote under the diagram
  • 15. PISA 2015: Take The Test
  • 16. PISA 2015: Take The Test Full Credit The student gives an explanation that identifies a scientific advantage of using more than one measurement instrument on each slope, e.g. correcting for variation of conditions within a slope, increasing the precision of measurement for each slope. • So they could determine whether a difference between slopes is significant. • Because there is likely to be variation within a slope. • To increase the precision of the measurement for each slope. • The data will be more accurate. • In case one of the two malfunctions • To compare different amounts of sun on a slope
  • 17. PISA 2015: Take The Test Full Credit The student selects Student 1 …and gives an explanation that indicates that there is a difference in solar radiation between the two slopes and/or that rainfall does not show a difference. • Slope B gets much more solar radiation than slope A, but the same amount of rain. • There is no difference in the amount of rainfall the two slopes get. • There is a big difference in how much sunlight slope A gets compared to slope B
  • 18.
  • 19. PISA Myths “The top performers do well because they don’t include all of their students” OECD coverage of 15-year-olds: 89%, U.S. 84%
  • 20. PISA Myths “It’s all about culture” Between 2000 and 2012, several education systems improved student performance by more than a school year
  • 21. PISA Myths “The world is divided between rich and well-educated nations and poor and badly educated ones” Less than a quarter of the performance variation among OECD countries is explained by GDP/capita
  • 22. PISA Myths “Deprivation is destiny” In 2012, the 10% most disadvantaged students in Shanghai reached similar math scores than the 10% most privileged American 15-year-olds
  • 23. PISA Myths “Excellence is not compatible with equity” In 2012, there were education systems in Asia, Europe and North America with high and equitable learning outcomes
  • 24. PISA Myths “Excellence requires selection” The highest-performing education systems are non-selective
  • 25. PISA Myths “Educational quality and personalization is all about class size” The highest-performing education systems prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classes
  • 27. • Develop a commitment to education and a conviction that all students can achieve at high levels • Establish ambitious, focused and coherent standards that are aligned with instructional systems • Develop capacity at the point of delivery and provide a work organisation in which teachers collaborate and develop their potential • Invest in equity and align resources with challenges • Complementing accountability to agents outside schools with accountability towards professional colleagues and parents • Balancing local responsibility with a capable centre with authority to act • Ensuring coherence of policies and practices and securing consistency of implementation • Ensuring an outward orientation of the system to keep the system evolving, and to recognise challenges and potential future threats to current success ALTERNATIVE: Lessons from PISA
  • 28. Looking ahead: PISA 2018 • PISA for Development • PISA for Schools • Innovative Domain: Global Competence - Global competence is the capacity to analyse global and intercultural issues critically and from multiple perspectives, to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with others from different backgrounds on the basis of a shared respect for human dignity and to take action for the sustainability and well-being of societies