Electronic mihi ….PT England school – close up doco on digital teaching opportunities Clip art teachers image ….clip art images from a american cultural perspective- shape/influence how we might present our ideas.…NZ Clip art!!!? Media stdies Primary, secondary tertiary teaching background.
Career paths of GenY and beyond Globalisation – multiple worksites/countries – ability to communicate/negotiate/ work with with whole range of people – different ways of doing things, perspectives, languages, cultural codes. That's why the KCs must be explored in combination with the Vision, values and principles of the NZC. If stay in jobs only a couple of years – what are the implications. Zig zag career path. Curriculum is about preparation for a particular society – about life fit than simply knowledge. But knowledge is important too – no good having a lot of confidence with no solid knowledge that sits behind it or at least recognising that ones needs to know where/how to access that knowledge– although plenty of people have got to fairly high places without it.- finance industry
In country after country, and here in the US, globalization is driving demand for education. For greater access to education, for equitable access to education and for quality of education. Globalization makes trade easier, which in turn makes capital more mobile. And it’s that mobility that results in a shift of economic wealth through the creation and loss of jobs around the world as capital seeks lower or more productive markets for its return on investment. BUILD The result is a demand for higher skills, so that countries can become or remain competitive. And that means pressure for better and fairer access to the education that will deliver those skills – in countries that are gaining jobs, losing jobs or both at the same time. Because there’s often a shift from lower wage/lower skilled jobs to higher wage/higher skilled jobs as capital moves. Which in turn increases the demand from business for more productive and skilled workers and increases the demand from citizens for increased access to those skills.
In the United States, the education world is under colossal pressure to change, fast…BUILD The way learners want to access the system, the quantity of learners seeking access, and the demands of those learners for new skills that allow them to participate fully in their communities and the new economy are growing. At the same time, employers demand new skills from their employees: for survival, for opportunity, for retooling and retrenching. They need new skills that allow for a more mobile, nimble, and responsive workforce that understands the basics of their industry and craft, but also the ability to collaborate, communicate, and conceptualize new approaches quickly. Wherever you look you find an education system caught between 20 th century traditions and the need for a bold and drastically new design.
Importantly Effective pedagogy section pp 34/36 applies to all aspects of the curriculum. There is not another section of how to teach the key competencies and they must be seen in an integrated way. A key element in the pedagogy section is the inquiry process. Schools must change from a focus on what we know to an emphasis on ‘how we come to know’ Through process of inquiry –individuals construct much of their understanding of the natural and human designed worlds. Inquiry implies “a need or want to know” premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer –because often there is none- but implies emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes or habits of mind that will enable individuals to continue the quest for knowledge throughout life. It also applies to teacher inquiry into practice –which has become lost in discussions around the inquiry approach, as well as student inquiry Revisit this point later on. Content of the disciplines is very important but as a means to an end not as an end in itself . Knowledge base for disciplines is constantly expanding and changing. No one can ever learn everything, but everyone can better develop their skills and nurture the inquiring attitudes necessary to continue the generation and examination of knowledge throughout their lives.
Guy Claxton While facilities and infrastructure matter, the school culture may matter even more. Wagner and Change Leadership group at Harvard define school’s culture as the shared beliefs, assumptions, expectation and behaviours related to students and learning, teachers and teaching, instructional leadership and the quality of relationships within and beyond the school. What kind of culture is most effective? – no single culture that will fit all schools- each school must craft its own vision for suing its unique talents and instructional resources to meet the unique learning needs of its community. Evidence of effective schools Linda Darling Hammond –et al – professional learning communities to continuous improvement of schools. Collaborative inquiry Deprivatisation of classrooms to support collegial growth.- outward looking and demonstrate caring for the well being and whole development of students and staff Fullan 2001 Climate of respect and trust among students and staff is essential (Te kotahitanga et al) Shared leadership, collegial relationships and support for constructive change and diversity. Michael Fullan ‘the research is very clear about the benefits, indeed the necessity of parental involvement. There is strong evidence as well that community involvement ins schools yields important benefits. Children do better when parents are involved After-school learning opportunities promote student achievement Community youth development programmes spur teenage academic performance Schools that integrate community services reduce risk and promote resilience in children FURGER R. making connections between home and school in the George Lucas Foundation 2002. Deprivatisation of the classroom, deprivatisation of the school.
Schools where there is a mismatch between espoused school vision and actual reality Trade me picture!!!
New curriculum is only of use if it influences teaching and learning practice Depth rather than coverage Paradigm shift from standardisation accountability to transformational - 21 st century learning enabled by technology but NOT driven by it. Constructivist: - cognitive psychology Main assumption – knowledge does not exist out there in an objective reality. Knowledge is actively constructed from within by the learner. Facts become facts because it is knowledge that is agreed upon by communities of learners. The learner comes into any situation with prior experiences based on past experiences. New knowledge is learned through integration with prior knowledge.
Career paths of GenY and beyond Globalisation – multiple worksites/countries – ability to communicate/negotiate/ work with whole range of people – different ways of doing things, perspectives, languages, cultural codes. That's why the KCs must be explored in combination with the Vision, values and principles of the NZC. If stay in jobs only a couple of years – what are the implications. Zig zag career path. Curriculum is about preparation for a particular society – about life fit than simply knowledge
Concept development and deep understanding are the goals of instruction. Learning is a constructive activity that students have to carry out. Students are active learners. The educators task is to provide students with opportunities to construct knowledge. Need meaningful authentic activities to help students construct knowledge Reflection of both content and the learning process is paramount. Group work impt so students can test their understandings and expand understanding of particular issues – warning Graham Nuttall hidden lives of learners – understandings need to be checked (concept maps etc ) Futurelab Links to prior knowledge and experiences – summarising; reviewing, linking main concepts at critical points throughout and at the conclusion of lessons Prior knowledge may contain naïve theories preconceptions or misconceptions, or alternative frameworks and world views. Teachers must explore the learners thinking and challenge misconceptions. Notes From: Grayson Walker Centre University Tennessee Chattanooga–
Importantly Effective pedagogy section pp 34/36 applies to all aspects of the curriculum. There is not another section of how to teach the key competencies and they must be seen in an integrated way. A key element in the pedagogy section is the teacher inquiry process. – what is the impact of what on do on student outcomes, why do I do what I do? Is there another way of doing things that would lead to eve better outcomes- how would I know? Risk taking environment – having the confidence to inquire into one’s own practice. We want our medical professionals to be up to date about new developments and research in medicine, and to be passionate about finding solutions to health problems. Reminds of musco skeleton specialist had to go to last year. Was passionate about his job – showed me his powerpoint presentation on referred pain from historical injuries. Cost of consultation but was inspiring. Schools must change from a focus on what we know to an emphasis on ‘how we come to know’ Through process of inquiry –individuals construct much of their understanding of the natural and human designed worlds. Inquiry implies “a need or want to know” premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer –because often there is none- but implies emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes or habits of mind that will enable individuals to continue the quest for knowledge throughout life. It also applies to teacher inquiry into practice –which has become lost in discussions around the inquiry approach, as well as student inquiry Revisit this point later on. Content of the disciplines is very important but as a means to an end not as an end in itself . Knowledge base for disciplines is constantly expanding and changing. No one can ever learn everything, but everyone can better develop their skills and nurture the inquiring attitudes necessary to continue the generation and examination of knowledge throughout their lives.
Why would you enquire into your teaching? Think pair share Things change Students Emphases Curriculum Evidence about effective practice – Hattie Student feedback – confidence to ask what do I do that helps you learn better – what makes it harder….rate my teacher – better thing NZCER me and my school Hearing about students who have the knowledge but hace gone to pieces when faced with an unfamiliar situation in which to apply the skills and knowledge or who don’t see the connections or similarities between things.
The attributes that experts use to generate new knowledge are every similar to the qualities essential for the effective transmission of knowledge within learners’ environment. These are the essential elements of inquiry learning.
More complex representation of concepts such as the water cycle.
Applies to our teachers as well as our students- all of us, really.
Revisit the criticism about john hattie’s work – Nash paper
Variables; Celebrating diversity and difference Gender Age Ethnicity Generational Cultural Values Interests Religious beliefs Languages Sexual orientation Appearance Power Dynamics/ relationships Abilities /disabilities Points of view Communication styles-verbal/non verbal Concepts / Themes; Human rights Justice Citizenship Acceptance/tolerance Culture Belief systems Discrimination Internationalism Responsibility
Shift happens : refer to end of powerpoint
Our notions about knowledge and information and how to get it is changing
Increasingly the most popular sites are user driven.
Competencies have always been taught. Is just that we have chosen to identify these ones as key. Many students have highly developed skills in the competencies – sometimes we might need to channel them in more positive directions. The question of social responsibility and ethics comes into play. People can be highly creative but what they develop may be quite harmful to society. Globally citizenship is back on the agenda for the US and for the European union countries. Partly due to the low numbers of young people voting or taking any part in civic or political life. We need to change the me generation into the ‘we’ generation.
The 3 R’s Tony Wagner and Robert Keegan, co-directors of the change leadership group at Havard put forward this notion of curriculum analysis / instructional approaches. Rigor – concerns what students are able to do as a result of their learning Relevance - means helping students understand how their learning connects to their further studies and future work settings. Not just about future proofing but about contexts now.
Not about doing things completely differently – but to rethink the ways we do things – to stretch our thinking and adapt our approaches. Some approaches are already aligned with the principles of NZC and the competencies that are foregrounded. Can’t not be already teaching the KCs ….cultivating habits of mind – ref Graham Nuttall – students learn what they do …traditional competencies 3Rs - remembering reasoning and regurgitating .if 56% time is note taking – that’s what they learn to do- note take. Nuttall – what they also learn from their classroom environment – from their peers, from misinformation. on that note – what should we be saying to students about sites such as Wikipedia – how do other teaching and learning opportunities help challenge this – in how do we approach history teaching (textbooks) Seriously question the practices that are not- is there another way of doing things that it more in keeping with NZC, that CULTIVATES the KCs. School organisation structures – school assemblies – podcast – interview principal/senior management/caretaker on positives /negatives/ - the with not to. Example: what do you think are the most popular websites – Youtube, trademe/ebay, Bebo. Myspace, face book – in common - who creates the content – users. Analogy fast food. Features: ( EASY) HCM features (takes more effort) Gen Y v Baby boomers More about a knowledge gap….Closing the gap between what we know and what we do…. Changing some of our habits – rehabitualising in different ways.
’ these units could easily include an original research component wherein students combine elements from different knowledge areas to produce an innovation that illustrates or embodies the new knowledge they have developed. This could be for example , a powerpoint presentation, a video, a poster, a computer game , or a digital story. This has already been undertaken by several secondary schools across the country with fabulous outcomes – Alfrisdon, Wellington High etc.
Good relationship with education officer with local zoo or museum, or local marae or Pacific Community church. Or someone who has specialist interest or useful specialist knowledge Two –way partnerships- with local industries, research organisations, media organisations . Science - activities to explore the nature of scientific knowledge …on science’s impact on people and visa-versa and the relationships between science teachnolgy and society. Tasks might involves comparing insights gained from one branch of science in another, or exploring issues from the history, philosophy or sociology of science. –ethics…what can science not tell us. Being a scientist and comparing contrasting perspectives with an historian, artist etc. If studenst are to be innovators they need to be confident users of old knoledge and who can put elements from different old knowledge systems in ways to make new knowledge. Large pockets of innovation across the country.
Applies to our teachers as well as our students- all of us, really.
Students accessing teacher websites….helpful advice for teachers. School journal teachers notes – the big secret Domain specific problem solving Ingenuity rather than just creativity – E4S ethics etc
Might start from a subject area…generate the opportunities at a generic level….and then look at a particular unit to see how this might deliberately be planned for Reconnect at cross curricular level to see what commonalities there are and agree on some principles eg teaching research skills
Some already seen this….always good to revisit things…
Key competencies Sonia Glogowski
For a copy of this presentation, email [email_address]
The New Zealand Curriculum Key Competencies: Opportunity or Obstacle to Pedagogical Shift Preparing our students for the 21 st century world
<ul><li>It has been helpful for schools, teachers, parents and the wider community to see how the NZC and the key competencies are positioned in a global context as well as a local and national one. e.g. economies, citizenship and community participation. </li></ul>
Job Outlook 2002 National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) Global Context
Impact Barry McGraw CISCO 21 st Century Learning Conference Melbourne 2008 Global Context Globalization and Competition Makes Trade Easier Capital More Mobile New Jobs and Lost Jobs Education Response to Economy Pressure to Increase Access to/Equity of Wealth Through Skills Demands for Productivity Demands for Increased Skills
Page Bottom Where Jobs Are May 13, 2004 OP-CHART Where the Jobs Are By W. MICHAEL COX, RICHARD ALM and NIGEL HOLMES Copyright 2004 The New York Times Company Page Top New York Times Company 2004 W. Michael Cox and Richard Alm are, respectively, chief economist and economics writer at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Nigel Holmes is a graphic designer. Global Context
Drivers of change: Globalisation ICT revolution Demographic changes Values shifts <ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Macro economic context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of knowledge economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Polarisation of incomes </li></ul><ul><li>Slowdown of economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-economic context (companies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational change into companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in welfare provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deregulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public-private partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced security of citizens and workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking via the Web becoming a community power </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT infrastructure: mobile, wireless interoperable broadband networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion of New media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New IT perspectives: ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenous Trends of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endogenous Trends of change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional context of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased integration of formal and informal learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning systems matching E&T provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing networking initiatives </li></ul>Organisation, Market, distribution -Concern for cost-effectiveness -Importance of value added services -Marketisation of education <ul><li>Range and quality of provisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusions of new learning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of learning provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplication of learning occasions/spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing access to E&T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of “skills gap” between learners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing importance of social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New competence models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of evaluation of learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing allocation of resources for ICT in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of teachers training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investment on support services </li></ul>Drivers and trends of change affecting European learning systems: synoptic scheme Global Context
Impact Education Is Changing Barry McGraw CISCO 21 st Century Learning Conference Melbourne 2008 Global Context The Learner Demands Improved Access Demands Improved Outcomes The Economy Demands New 21st Century Skills Demands Strong Basics Facing Large Scale Disruption In Need of a Bold and Urgent Response Education System
Interact in heterogeneous groups Act autonomously Physical as well as socio-cultural tools such as the use of language In an increasingly interdependent world, individuals need to engage with diverse others Individuals need to take responsibility for managing their own lives, situate their lives in the broader social context and act autonomously Use tools interactively (e.g. language, technology)* Think and act reflectively OECD: Definition and Selection of the Key Competencies
<ul><li>Success for Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Including: </li></ul><ul><li>Gainful employment </li></ul><ul><li>Personal health, safety </li></ul><ul><li>Political participation </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Success for Society </li></ul><ul><li>Including: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Social cohesion, equity and human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological sustainability </li></ul>Individual competencies Institutional competencies Application of individual competencies to contribute to collective goals Require:
2. That the responsibility and the opportunities for developing the key competencies are a ‘whole school thing’: that it is about developing an enabling school culture as well as an enabling classroom culture. That it is about deprivatising school practice as well as classroom practice and inviting communities in as teachers and learners.
‘ School culture is…the invisible but powerful mindsets that shape the learning environment as much or more than do the four walls of the classroom.’ Wagner, et al 2006
How do you know whether your students are happy at school and engaged with their learning? a) They turn up. b) They put their hand up in class. c) Homework usually gets done. d) Don’t know— they seem cheerful enough. Student engagement with school and learning is important—it makes a difference. Yet schools largely have to rely on ad hoc measures, or anecdotal impressions like those above. The New Zealand Council for Educational Research has developed a tool which is designed to give schools more robust and systematic information about student engagement. It is for Year 7 to 10 students and probes their attitudes, moods, and feelings towards school, teachers, peers and their learning.
The key competencies are an important part of the New Zealand Curriculum. They focus on developing dispositions and behaviours that empower students to approach new learning opportunities with motivation and confidence, equipped with a range of strategies and processes to negotiate and create new knowledge in the 21st century and beyond. The knowledge and skills contained in each of the essential learning areas continues to be important, school management and classroom teachers will need support to ensure that in selecting relevant learning contexts and pedagogical approaches, that these attend to, and are conducive to, the development of the key competencies. NZ Curriculum
3.That they can be seen as an agent for pedagogical change and teacher inquiry, and can be supported through effective professional learning communities.
School Teacher Student Parents J. Pelgrum IEA 1999 Global Context Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm) Isolated from society Most information on the function of schools is confidential Initiates instruction Teaches entire class Evaluates students Places low emphasis on communication skills Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes answers from books and teachers Learns answers to questions Low interest in learning Hardly involved in learning process Minimal involvement in the process of instruction No model for lifelong learning Education in the Information Society Integrated in society Information is openly available Helps students find appropriate path of instruction Guides students independent learning Helps students evaluate their own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills More active Learns outside as well Much teamwork Asks questions Finds answers to questions High interest in learning Actively involved in learning process Partner in the process of instruction Provide model for life-long learning
Form versus Function: the critical understanding Michael Fullan, Paul Cobb, et al There is nothing intrinsically ‘bad’ about (direct instruction), or ‘good about co operative learning. The overriding question must always be: In the time available, which pedagogical pathway is likely to lead students to the biggest pot of educational gold? (p345). Ackermann(2003) in the Inquiring teacher: Clarifying the concept of teaching effectiveness Graeme Aiken First Time Principals Module 2.
Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why .
‘ Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand’. <ul><li>Experts see patterns and meanings not apparent to novices. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts have in-depth knowledge of their fields, structured so it is most useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts knowledge is not just a set of facts – it is structured to be accessible, transferrable and applicable to a variety of situations </li></ul><ul><li>Experts can easily retrieve their knowledge and learn new information in their fields with little effort. </li></ul>Content concepts skills Habits of mind Joe Exline How People Learn: National Research Council 1999
<ul><li>That it has been helpful when asked to reflect on own competencies as adults to reinforce the notion of how context dependent and value laden they are; and </li></ul><ul><li>how any assessment of development or progress in an aspect of them would want to have the context, and the support to successfully meet the criteria, co-constructed and clearly defined. </li></ul>
Think of a challenge you will face in the next month or so. What are complex skills and behaviours you will need to draw on to succeed in this challenge? Scenarios for staff and students (Can you group these according to the key competencies? ) What are your strengths and weaknesses in these areas? What opportunities would help you to develop these? What plan/goals will you set for yourself?
The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn." --Alvin Toffler, American futurist
5. That helping teachers and students to see their own socio-cultural positioning determines how they view a competency, and the considerations and support that must take place to ensure that there has been accessible learning opportunities, room for negotiation and that one is not assessing cultural or social capital.
EDUCATION PROVIDES MANY WORLD VIEWS Change Interrelationships Organisation Concepts about the world Science Mathematics History Religion Data and Information Observing inferring measuring recording analysing evaluating synthesizing Skills for Processing Information Verification Respect for data Opinions Appreciation Belief Faith Ground Rules or Approaches Joe Exline
Input Learning outcomes Affective James Gee in Moss, P. et al. (2008) Assessment Ethics and Opportunities to Learn
6. That we must all respond to the challenge to see knowledge in different ways and to recognise the changes that have taken place and how our young people interact with the world around them
Evolution of 21 st Century Learning Social Networking How Learners Best Engage Informal Content Formal Content Learner Teacher Barry McGraw CISCO 21 st Century Learning Conference Melbourne 2008
The Rigor/Relevance Framework A Acquisition B Application C Assimilation D Adaptation K N O W L E D G E T A X O N O M Y 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ev aluation Synthesis Analysis Application Understanding Awareness APPLICATION MODEL 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Apply in discipline Apply across disciplines Apply to real world predictable situations Apply to real-world unpredictable situations International Center for Leadership in Education
7. That change is hard for all of us and this requires recognition and response to the barriers and enablers to that.
Implications Schools which are…? Leadership Culture Structures Decision making processes Information management Behaviour Management Strategies aligned with KCs? Reporting /feedback mechanisms? 360s? Open to and value feedback Students who are… Adaptable Resilient Creative Comfortable with change Emotionally intelligent Resourceful Collaborative Innovative Knowledgeable Life-long learners Open to and value feedback Teachers who are…? Stop doing, keep doing, start doing. Teacher inquiry into innovative teaching methods and the impact of teaching on split screen learning outcomes Supported by collaborative technologies Open to and value feedback
What Teachers Can Do Now From Catching the Knowledge Wave? NZCER Press 2005 <ul><li>They can work together more </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Secondary school teachers could change their work practices so they work </li></ul><ul><li>together with other teachers in cross-disciplinary individual teams or syndicates’…this would allow them to combine their knowledge and skills to develop their strengths as a team and compensate for any individual areas of weakness. These teams could plan for particular classes or whole year groups, units of work that cover different curriculum areas…’ </li></ul><ul><li>2 They can think of new ways to timetable student activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Timetabling so that cross disciplinary teams of teachers work together with one large group of students –probably two or more classes divided into smaller teams…need to be timetabled to work together for at least two periods consecutively and systems for off-site investigation.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They can develop their skills for helping students work in small groups. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Some teachers in a school will be very good at helping students work together productively in groups for sustained periods or specific projects. Others will have a good understanding of assessing group performance. ..’(Professional learning community) </li></ul>
What Teachers Can Do Now From Catching the Knowledge Wave? NZCER Press 2005 5.They can develop databases of community contacts and resources All teachers have networks of community contacts they use to help them do their work. Could be a site for collecting and storing of important local knowledge. To achieve support for initiatives schools will need well though out strategies for ‘marketing them to communities. 6. They can focus on developing systems-level understanding of their subject Teachers could build into their units of work sections that explicitly aim to develop students meta- or systems level understanding of particular curriculum areas….understanding how the body of knowledge works –both internally, on its own terms , and in relation to other bodies of knowledge- and see how it fits into the widersocio-political context in which it developed. 4. They can foreground students’ real world research projects Currently in schools – Enterprise for Education; CREST awards; Maths Olympiads, Technology challenge; Stage Challenge; Youth Parliament etc. ‘many of these programmes could be redesigned to make them prominent parts of school activities, so structuring classroom learning for all students , not the few who involve themselves in these activities as optional extras.
Identifying Stages of Concern (CBAM) from Hall and Hord www. resources.sai-iowa.org/change/cbam.ppt IMPACT TASK SELF Hall & Hord, p. 63 Stages of Concern Expressions of Concern Stage 6: Refocusing I have some ideas about something that would work even better. Stage 5: Collaboration I am concerned about relating what I am doing with what my co-workers are doing. Stage 4: Consequence How is my use affecting clients? Stage 3: Management I seem to be spending all of my time getting materials ready. Stage 2: Personal How will using it affect me? Stage 1: Informational I would like to know more about it. Stage 0: Awareness I am not concerned about it.
Interventions Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1986 Stage 6, Refocusing <ul><li>Respect and encourage teacher interests </li></ul><ul><li>Channel their ideas and energies; act on their </li></ul><ul><li>concerns. </li></ul>Stage 5, Collaboration <ul><li>Provide opportunities to develop skills needed to </li></ul><ul><li>work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange schedules so people can collaborate </li></ul>Stage 4, Consequence <ul><li>Provide positive feedback and needed support </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for teachers to share </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge and skills </li></ul>Stage 3, Management <ul><li>Answer specific “how to” questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid considering future impact at this time </li></ul>Stage 2, Personal <ul><li>Address potential personal concerns directly </li></ul><ul><li>Implement changes progressively over time </li></ul>Stage 1, Informational <ul><li>Provide clear and accurate information </li></ul><ul><li>Relate changes to current practices </li></ul>Stage 0, Awareness <ul><li>Involve teachers in discussion and decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Give permission not to know </li></ul>
Hall & Hord, p. 82 Levels of Use Behaviors Associated with LoU 0 Non-Use No interest shown in the innovation; no action taken 1 Orientation Begins to gather information about the innovation 2 Preparation Begins to plan ways to implement the innovation 3 Mechanical Concerned about mechanics of implementation 4A Routine Comfortable will innovation and implements it as taught 4B Refinement Begins to explore ways for continuous improvement 5 Integration Integrates innovation with other initiatives; does not view it as an add-on; collaborates with others 6 Renewal Explores new and different ways to implement innovation
Categories for Levels of Use Hall & Hord, p. 90 Knowledge Knows about the innovation, how to use it, and consequences of its use. Acquiring Information Solicits information in a variety of ways (e.g., resource persons, printed materials, site visits, Sharing Collaborates with others (e.g., sharing plans, ideas, resources, problem solving) Assessing Examines implementation as well as collecting and analyzing data Planning Designs and outlines short- and long-term outcomes (i.e., aligns resources, collaborates, schedules activities) Status Reporting Describes personal level of implementation Performing Operationalizes the actions and activities of innovation
8. That one should not try and plan for the development of each of the key competencies in any one lesson or unit; that it is likely that one or two will be foregrounded because the learning context lends itself to those particular ones.
Subject /Curriculum Area: The Key Competencies – Contextual Opportunities for Learning (Based on a table by Cheryl Doig) [email_address] Competency Description Professional Teachers Learning contexts and the dimensions of strength (Carr, 2006) A(agency); B(breadth); C(continuity); D(Depth) Professional Learning Communities MANAGING SELF • Self-motivation, a “ can-do ” attitude, and seeing themselves as capable learners. It is integral to self-assessment. • Learners who manage themselves are enterprising, resourceful, reliable, and resilient. • They establish personal goals, make plans, manage projects, and set high standards. • They have strategies for meeting challenges. • They know when to lead, when to follow, and when and how to act independently. Model: • Meeting commitments • Applying learning to new situations • Intrinsic motivation • Social ethical values, the ability to resolve conflict; and resiliency • Seeking and acting on feedback of own performance. Teach: • Reflection as an essential part of learning • Self management/ responsibility skills such as goal setting, time management, choice making, self assessment and evaluation • Making purposes and goals explicit Classroom Culture (Claxton et al) Classroom & Community Based Curriculum Contexts Innovative / 21 st C teaching and learning • Encourage staff to think for themselves • Build resiliency through appropriate levels of delegation & professional learning • Recognise conflict as important for community growth and develop systems to express this openly and safely • Provide systems which provide guidance while still allowing independence and flexibility within the working structure • Obtains regular individual and collective feedback from stakeholder groups
Authentic or simulated contexts Problem solving /inquiry approach*- local, national or global issues E4E, E4S Computer games e.g. ‘Second Life’ virtual societies – using them; ‘unpacking’ them; creating them Concept mapping E-portfolios Student self/peer/group assessment Feedback for all – learning partnerships Learning logs / diaries
9. Being more aware of the atomisation of learning objectives and helping students reconnect to and RESPOND TO the big themes and concepts.
Theme Relationships Duration of unit: 10 weeks Guiding Questions which encourage the exploration of students ’ own values and those of others . See page 10 NZC. Why are relationships important? What values are the most important in any relationship? Why are some relationships difficult? How has the building of relationships changed in our ever-changing world? How can relationships be nurtured? How are relationships we have with family different from the relationships we have with friends? Year Level: 10 Curriculum Levels: 4-5 AsTTle levels: Achievement Objectives Learning Outcomes Making meaning: Ideas – show an understanding of ideas in and between texts; Language Features – identify language techniques and describe their effects; Structure - show an understanding of how structure contributes to meaning. Creating Meaning : Purpose and Audience – conveys a sense of personal voice; Ideas – develops ideas and show viewpoints; Structure – uses a variety of sentence structures for effect; Language Features – use text conventions appropriately and with increasing accuracy. Making meaning: Students will show an understanding of ideas, both literal and inferential, through close reading of written text. This will be in the form of a one period test. Creating meaning: Students will develop a piece of personal writing for a given audience and purpose, that develops ideas and which uses a range of vocabulary and uses text conventions with increasing accuracy. Resources The Freezer – short NZ film Dear Ex – Dad - Jillian Sullivan, NZ short story writer For Heidi with Blue Hair – Fleur Adcock - NZ poet Pact for Mother and Teenager – Fiona Kidman – NZ poet Gifts - Kath Walker – Aboriginal poet Love Songs for Iona – Sia Figiel - Samoan poet Leanne Webb, Michelle Pomana. Diana Patience: Team Solutions 2008
Timing Sequence of Learning & Content Effective Pedagogy Strategies See pages 34 – 35 NZC for general principles. Formative assessment See pages 39 – 40 of NZC for principles of valid assessment. Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 <ul><li>Introduction to theme </li></ul><ul><li>The Freezer – visual text </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Ex-Dad – written text </li></ul><ul><li>Love Songs to Iona - Sia Figiel, Mother – Fualuga T.L. Saviinaea – oral texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Range of texts (poetry) – written and oral </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment tasks:- summative assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Close reading of unseen text. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing task (any of individually completed tasks or a choice of new tasks) </li></ul>Making connections to prior experience . Post box activity. Use the guiding questions at the start of the unit to explore student understanding of relationships. Establish prior knowledge : class brainstorm: What sort of technology existed 30 years ago? How did people dress 30 years ago? What would rural life have been like in NZ 30 years ago? Participating and contributing Pre-reading: vocab jumble, prior knowledge and prediction. Read story individually Co-operative learning tasks – reading and writing. Relating to others. Thinking. Using language, symbols and texts. Pre-reading: “ unrequited love ” Co-operative learning task: Bus stop activity – describe the character, content, progression of ideas, cultural context. Managing self. Thinking. Relating to others. Skimming, scanning and prediction about texts. Co-operative learning activity. Participating and contributing. Thinking Close reading of visual text to develop inference – three level guide. Creative writing : students write dialogues in pairs, which teases out unspoken parts of the film. Students can select with characters an the part in the film where the new dialogue will occur. To be role played with peer feedback focused on ideas presented. Close reading : Inference grid on characterisation. Creative Writing ; group task – personal letter writing. Choose any of the characters at any point in story and write a letter that sustains the tone and character of that person. Close reading of poems in groups.
Maths Unit Key Competencies Planning for Learning Outcomes Maths Learning Planning for Learning Outcomes Analysis Next steps Analysis Next steps
Kate Rice et al Otago KEY COMPETENCIES pp.12-13 Using Language, Symbols & Texts 1. FOCUS: interpreting a diagram of the structure of a chemical STARTER ACTIVITY: oil on water and detergent drop observation PROCESS: i.e.: how I will build students ’ ability to interpret chemical structure diagram of detergent / soap Role play – acting out the reaction Make a model Give & discuss the scientific structure Give / discuss the model of how soap / detergents work 2. FOCUS: creating a diagram of where soap / detergent waste water goes STARTER ACTIVITY: PROCESS i.e.: how I will build students ’ ability to understand where soap / detergent waste water goes Follow a local waste water pipe / stormwater drain (as much as possible) Visit wastewater treatment station Map the school drains Look at stormwater / waterwater drain diagrams Create a flow diagram to show the process of where soap / detergent waste water ends up KNOWLEDGE BASE: Facts We Need to Know / Teach Theory behind the cleaning process Soap vs. Detergents What is in commercially bought soaps / detergents INVESTIGATING IN SCIENCE FOCUS: ask questions, find evidence, explore simple models, and carry out appropriate investigations to develop simple explanations (L3-4) STARTER ACTIVITY: How much soap / detergent is required for the job? PROCESS: i.e.: how I will develop students ’ observation and questioning skills Compare different soaps and detergents Talk about and draw similarities and differences Devise and carry out simple experiments to find minimum requirements UNIT: Smarter Clean-Ups 1. Developing students understanding of physical and chemical properties through observation and measurements (MATERIAL WORLD L.3) 2. Use this understanding to explore issues relating to soaps and detergents and make decisions about possible actions (NATURE OF SCIENCE Participating & Contributing L.3-4) 3. Implement appropriate actions (Personal and Social Responsibility for Action p. 13; Action for the Environment p.14 GUIDELINES for EE in NZ Schools) KEY COMPETENCIES pp.12-13 PRINCIPLES p.9 Thinking Learning to Learn Cultural Diversity COMMUNICATING IN SCIENCE – Begin to use a range of scientific symbols, conventions and vocabulary (L. 3) 1. FOCUS: Cultural Differences re: Cleaning STARTER ACTIVITY: PROCESS: 2. FOCUS: Pollution caused by soaps / detergents STARTER ACTIVITY: PROCESS: 3. FOCUS: Economic cost of using soaps / detergents POSSIBLE ACTIONS – to be decided in dialogue with the students Use Action Planners (Guidelines for EE in NZ Schools) and decision making matrices ( www.e4s.org.nz ) NATURE OF SCIENCE Participating & Contributing – explore various aspects of an issue and make decisions about possible actions L. 3 1) Personal Behaviour Examples: Write and say a pledge to reduce or measure the amount of soap used when washing dishes/ clothes, bathing and cleaning ; “ I pledge to only use a quarter of a teaspoon of dishwashing liquid ” “ I pledge to measure the amount of shampoo I use with a .... ” Take responsibility for washing the family car, and ensure that it is washed on the grass, not the pavement 2) Systems for the class/ school Examples: Test / trial the use of ‘ home-made ’ cleaning products at schoolwith the school cleaner(s) Make and sell environmentally friendly cleaning products Paint stormwater drains with yellow fish to promote “ drains are for rain ” c) Educating others to help them change their behaviours Examples: Ask supermarkets to consider stocking certain products over others; Write to detergent manufacturers with soap /detergent measuring device designs; lead a community ‘ drains are for rain ’ campaign with displays, flyers, text bombs etc; encourage family members to reduce their soap/ detergent use NATURE OF SCIENCE Participating & Contributing 1. FOCUS: – use their growing science knowledge when considering the effects of soap on the environment L. 3 STARTER ACTIVITY: pictures of soaps / detergents effects on the environment PROCESS: i.e.: how I will develop students ’ growing science knowledge Have a water pollution expert visit / email / skype etc – have students prepare questions Realize that some bubbles in water are natural – devise an experiment to illustrate how this could happen Assessment Science using NZ Science Exemplars Matrix A – engaging in social issues Matrix A – caring for the environment Matrix D – communicates explanations using aids
Kate Rice et al Otago KEY COMPETENCY Thinking Participating & Contributing VALUES Innovation, Inquiry & Curiosity Community & Participation Ecological Sustainability PRINCIPLES Future Focus: sustainability, globalisation, enterprise, globalisation 5. Taking Action towards the cause of the environmental issue (rather than a symptom) – What are we going to do about what we have found out? Encourage Student Planning using Action Planners (from Guidelines for EE in NZ Schools, MoE 1999) - students start to plan their action; continue to refer back to this and add to it - Model with the whole class if students haven ’ t utilised one of these before Use a decision making matrix to assist with the decision making process Actions may include: a) Changing personal behaviour This can be helped by writing a pledge / personal statement in front of others and ensuring it is part of the school environmental code Examples: Pledging to reduce or measure the amount of soap used when washing dishes/ clothes, bathing and cleaning ; “ I pledge to only use a quarter of a teaspoon of dishwashing liquid ” “ I pledge to measure the amount of shampoo I use with a .... ” b) Setting up a system or action for the class/ school / community Examples: Testing and trialing the use of ‘ home-made ’ cleaning products at school Implementing the use of environmentally friendly cleaning products for the school (after trialing with the school cleaner(s) Making and selling environmentally friendly cleaning products Painting stormwater drains with yellow fish to promote “ drains are for rain ” c) Educating others to help them change their behaviours Examples: Flyers for the local community, letters to businesses, talks with politicians, contributing to Council Annual Plan process, community displays, being ‘ environmental watchdogs ’ to check on adult behaviours
Kate Rice et al Otago <ul><li>6. Reflecting on Action/s Taken (Teacher and student reflection) : </li></ul><ul><li>Look back at Action Planners and reflect on the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Have the socio-cultural, economic, political and natural environments all been considered? </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up regularly (possibly at a set time daily/weekly) </li></ul><ul><li>In one month from commencing the action, carry out reflection by completing an H-Form – what are our next steps? </li></ul>REFLECTION <ul><li>7. Assessment - may include </li></ul><ul><li>Self assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Refer back to personal statements / pledge regularly to see if they are being adhered to, and modify only if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Make a statement (oral, written, visual) about your action(s) and / or behaviour(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Make a statement (oral, written, visual) about your learning process (what steps you took and when) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ask someone else to make a statement on (oral, written, visual) your action(s) and / or behaviour(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask someone else to make a statement on (oral, written, visual) your learning process </li></ul><ul><li>School Assessment of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Audit / survey , ecological footprint calculator , or the Enviroschools Environmental Review </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose 1 or 2 learning areas to assess student ’ s cognition as appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Utilise Assessment Resource Banks or other on line tools) </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix A – engaging in social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix A – caring for the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix D – communicates explanations using aids </li></ul>
<ul><li>Readings and Information that other schools are finding useful in addition to those on the NZC website : </li></ul><ul><li>Readings </li></ul><ul><li>An approach to secondary school improvement Prepared for Alan Luke Queensland University of Technology by Ben Levin OISE Toronto Nov. 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Futures: Next Practice in Learning and Teaching – a Horizon Scanning Guide Prof. Mark Hadfield & Michael Jopling University of Wolverhampton March 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Claxton, G. (2006). Expanding the capacity to learn: A new end for education? Paper presented at the British Education Research Association (BERA), Warwick, September 6. (Google this – it’s on the internet) </li></ul><ul><li>West Virginia 21 st Century – Leadership Framework for High Performing 21 st Century High School Classrooms West Virginia Dept. of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Video/Digistories </li></ul><ul><li>http://wvde.state.wv.us/professional-development/model-classrooms/ </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Why Project-based Learning WVDE Office of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.utc.edu/Administration/WalkerTeachingResourceCenter/FacultyDevelopment/ConceptMapping/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php </li></ul>
Did you know . . . Sometimes size does matter. If you’re one in a million in China . . . There are 1,300 people just like you. In India, there are 1,100 people just like you. The 25% of the population in China with the highest IQ’s . . . Is greater than the total population of North America. In India, it’s the top 28%. Translation for teachers: They have more honors kids than we have kids. Did you know . . . China will soon become the number one English speaking country in the world. If you took every single job in the U.S. today and shipped it to China . . . China would still have a labor surplus. During the course of this 8 minute presentation . . . 60 babies will be born in the U.S. 244 babies will be born in China. 351 babies will be born in India. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that today’s learner will have 10-14 jobs . . . By the age of 38. According to the U.S. Department of Labor . . . 1 out of 4 workers today is working for a company they have been employed by for less than one year. More than 1 out of 2 are working for a company they have worked for less than five years. According to former Secretary of Education Richard Riley . . . The top 10 in-demand jobs in 2010 didn’t exist in 2004. We are currently preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist . . . Using technologies that haven’t been invented . . . In order to solve problems we don’t even know are problems yet.
Name this country . . . Richest in the World Largest Military Center of world business and finance Strongest education system World center of innovation and invention Currency the world standard of value Highest standard of living England. In 1900. In 2002 alone Nintendo invested more than $140 million in research and development. The U.S. Federal Government spent less than half as much on Research and Innovation in Education. 1 out of every 8 couples married in the U.S. last year met online. There are over 100 million registered users of MySpace. August 2006) *If MySpace were a country, it would be the 11th-largest in the world (between Japan and Mexico)* Did you know . . . We are living in exponential times. There are over 2.7 billion searches performed on Google each month. To whom were these questions addressed B.G.? (Before Google) The number of text messages sent and received every day exceeds the population of the planet. There are about 540,000 words in the English language . . . About 5 times as many as during Shakespeare’s time. More than 3,000 new books are published . . . Daily. It’s estimated that a week’s worth of New York Times . . . Contains more information than a person was likely to come across in a lifetime in the 18th century. It’s estimated that 40 exabytes (that’s 4.0 x 1019) of unique new information will be generated worldwide this year. That’s estimated to be more than in the previous 5,000 years.
The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years. It’s predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010. Predictions are that e-paper will be cheaper than real paper. 47 million laptops were shipped worldwide last year. The $100 laptop project is expecting to ship between 50 and 100 million laptops a year to children in underdeveloped countries. Predictions are that by 2013 a supercomputer will be built that exceeds the computation capability of the Human Brain . . . By 2023, a $1,000 computer will exceed the computation capability of the Human Brain . . . First grader Abby will be just 23 years old and beginning her (first) career . . . And while technical predictions further out than about 15 years are hard to do . . . Predictions are that by 2049 a $1,000 computer will exceed the computational capabilities of the human race . What does it all mean? Shift Happens. Several folks have asked for just the text of the Did You Know presentation. You can find it below. The original presentation ( http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html ) includes slides at the beginning that are specific to my school. (You can also find sources for the information and the original context of the presentation there.) Scott McLeod’s Remix ( http://scottmcleod.typepad.com/dangerouslyirrelevant/2007/01/gone_fischin.html ) removes AHS-specific slides and adds one MySpace slide. There are also various other remixes on the web that have different slides (typically specific to local schools/states/countries).