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What knowledge, skills, attitudes and values will today's students need to thrive and shape their world

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We are facing unprecedented challenges – social, economic and environmental – driven by accelerating globalisation and a faster rate of technological developments. At the same time, those forces are providing us with myriad new opportunities for human advancement. The future is uncertain and we cannot predict it; but we need to be open and ready for it. The children entering education in 2018 will be young adults in 2030. Schools can prepare them for jobs that have not yet been created, for technologies that have not yet been invented, to solve problems that have not yet been anticipated.


It will be a shared responsibility to seize opportunities and find solutions. To navigate through such uncertainty, students will need to develop curiosity, imagination, resilience and selfregulation; they will need to respect and appreciate the ideas, perspectives and values of others; and they will need to cope with failure and rejection, and to move forward in the face of adversity. Their motivation will be more than getting a good job and a high income; they will also need to care about the well-being of their friends and families, their communities and the planet.

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What knowledge, skills, attitudes and values will today's students need to thrive and shape their world

  1. 1. What knowledge, skills, attitudes and values will today's students need to thrive and shape their world? Andreas Schleicher, Director OECD – Directorate for Education and Skills
  2. 2. language …a common space …a shared Education 2030… …seeks to establish …and to explore issues around the design of instructional systems
  3. 3. 3 Digitalisation and education Democratizing Concentrating Particularizing Homogenizing Empowering Disempowering Environmental degradation Climate change Migration Middle class Polarisation of societies Renewable energy Loss of biodiversity Water and food shortages Natural disasters Financial crises Nationalism Democratisation Multinational companies Harmonization of values Interdependent markets Trade openness Emerging economies Poverty Ageing Radicalisation Tourism Inequality International governance Global integration
  4. 4. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ChineseTaipei-2 Sweden-9 France-5 Portugal Greece Singapore-2 Thailand Macao(China)-7 Brazil-2 Spain UnitedKingdom Bulgaria HongKong(China) Korea-7 Belgium-4 Denmark-4 Croatia-5 Israel-10 NewZealand-4 Netherlands-3 Uruguay Hungary4 Australia OECDaverage-3 DominicanRepublic Ireland-7 Poland-3 CostaRica3 Lithuania Japan-5 Mexico Russia-8 CzechRepublic Italy Peru Colombia4 Finland-6 Chile Latvia SlovakRepublic B-S-J-G(China)11 Switzerland Austria-3 Luxembourg Iceland Germany Estonia Slovenia % Boys Girls 15-year-olds feeling bad if not connected to the Internet (PISA) Figure III.13.6
  5. 5. Students are using more time online outside school on a typical school day 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Chile39 Sweden56 Uruguay33 CostaRica31 Spain44 Italy40 Australia52 Estonia50 NewZealand51 Hungary43 Russia42 Netherlands48 Denmark55 SlovakRepublic40 CzechRepublic43 Austria42 Latvia46 Singapore45 Belgium44 Poland46 Iceland51 OECDaverage-2743 Ireland48 Croatia40 Portugal42 Finland48 Israel34 Macao(China)45 Switzerland40 Greece41 HongKong(China)39 Mexico30 Slovenia37 Japan31 Korea20 Minutes per day 2015 2012 Figure III.13.3 Percentage of High Internet Users (spending 2 to 6 hours on line per day), during weekdays
  6. 6. The kind of things that are easy to teach are now easy to automate, digitize or outsource 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 2009 Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interpersonal Mean task input in percentiles of 1960 task distribution
  7. 7. The Race between Technology and Education Inspired by “The race between technology and education” Pr. Goldin & Katz (Harvard) Industrial revolution Digital revolution Social pain Universal public schooling Technology Education Prosperity Social pain Prosperity
  8. 8. whatto teach/ learn howto teach/ learn
  9. 9. Making the process of curriculum design a more evidence-based and systematic process. Stepping back and explore the bigger picture as well as the longer-term challenges facing education Framework Interactive tools • Policy Survey on Curriculum • Curriculum Content Mapping • Math Curriculum Analysis • P.E. Curriculum Analysis
  10. 10. OECD Learning Framework 2030 - Learning Compass -
  11. 11. Well-being 2030 – The future we want Jobs, Income, Housing, Work- Life-Balance, Safety, Life- Satisfaction, Health, Civic Engagement, Environment, Education and Community Agency: Young people will need to be innovative, responsible and aware. They will have a sense of right and wrong, sensitivity to the claims that others make and a grasp of the proper limits on individual and collective action. Co-agency: The interactive, mutually supportive relationships that help learners to progress towards their valued goals. To help enable agency, educators need to recognise learners’ individuality, and also acknowledge the wider set of relationships – with their teachers, peers, families and communities – that influence their learning.
  12. 12. United States Poland Hong Kong-China Brazil New Zealand Greece Uruguay United Kingdom Estonia Finland Albania Croatia Latvia Slovak Republic Luxembourg Germany Lithuania Austria Czech Republic Chinese Taipei France Thailand Japan Turkey Sweden Hungary Australia Israel Canada IrelandBulgaria Jordan Chile Macao-China U.A.E. Belgium Netherlands Spain Argentina Indonesia Denmark Kazakhstan Peru Costa Rica Switzerland Montenegro Tunisia Iceland Slovenia Qatar Singapore Portugal Norway Colombia Malaysia Mexico Liechtenstein Korea Serbia Russian Fed. Romania Viet Nam Italy Shanghai-China R² = 0.36 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 Meanmathematicsperformance Mean index of mathematics self-efficacy OECD average Countries where students have stronger beliefs in their abilities perform better in mathematics13 Fig III.4.5
  13. 13. Education for whole child development Life satisfaction among 15-year-old students 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Netherlands7.8 Mexico8.3 DominicanRepublic8.5 Finland7.9 CostaRica8.2 Croatia7.9 Switzerland7.7 Lithuania7.9 Iceland7.8 France7.6 Colombia7.9 lgium(excl.Flemish)7.5 Uruguay7.7 Austria7.5 Russia7.8 Estonia7.5 Spain7.4 Montenegro7.8 Thailand7.7 Latvia7.4 Germany7.4 Brazil7.6 Portugal7.4 Ireland7.3 Luxembourg7.4 SlovakRepublic7.5 OECDaverage7.3 Peru7.5 UnitedStates7.4 Chile7.4 Hungary7.2 Bulgaria7.4 Qatar7.4 Slovenia7.2 Poland7.2 UnitedArabEmirates7.3 CzechRepublic7.1 UnitedKingdom7.0 Italy6.9 Greece6.9 Japan6.8 Tunisia6.9 B-S-J-G(China)6.8 Macao(China)6.6 ChineseTaipei6.6 HongKong(China)6.5 Korea6.4 Turkey6.1 % Very satisfied Satisfied Moderately satisfied Not satisfied Factors that predict poor life satisfaction: • Anxiety with school work • High internet use Factors that predict high life satisfaction: • Students who talk or meet with friends after school • More physical activity • Good teacher support • Good parental support
  14. 14. Creating new value connotes processes of creating, making, bringing into being and formulating; and outcomes that are innovative, fresh and original, contributing something of intrinsic positive worth. The constructs that underpin the competence are creativity/ creative thinking/ inventive thinking, curiosity, global mind-set, … . In a structurally imbalanced world, the imperative of reconciling diverse perspectives and interests, in local settings with sometimes global implications, will require young people to become adept in handling tensions, dilemmas and trade-offs. Underlying constructs are empathy, resilience/stress resistance trust, … Dealing with novelty, change, diversity and ambiguity assumes that individuals can ‘think for themselves’. This suggests a sense of responsibility, and moral and intellectual maturity, with which a person can reflect upon and evaluate their actions in the light of their experiences and personal and societal goals; what they have been taught and told; and what is right or wrong Underlying constructs include critical thinking skills, meta-learning skills (including learning to learn skills), mindfulness, problem solving skills, responsibility, …
  15. 15. Anticipation mobilises cognitive skills, such as analytical or critical thinking, to foresee what may be needed in the future or how actions taken today might have consequences for the future Reflective practice is the ability to take a critical stance when deciding, choosing and acting, by stepping back from what is known or assumed and looking at a situation from other, different perspectives Both reflective practice and anticipation contribute to the willingness to take responsible actions
  16. 16. OECD Curriculum Analysis 2030
  17. 17. 1. Managing time lag between future demands and today’s curriculum 2. Curriculum overload 3. Quality of contents (focus, rigor, coherence) 4. Ensuring equity and quality 5. Planning for effective implementation and assessment Five commonly identified curriculum redesign issues in OECD countries
  18. 18. Issue 1: Managing time lag between future demands and today’s curriculum  How to embed new demands into existing subjects  How to make timely and transformational changes while ensuring sustainable incremental changes  How to involve multilevel stakeholders for their buy-in more effectively
  19. 19. Preliminary Findings of Content Mapping: Main target competencies by learning areas (ISCED 2; 4 countries/ jurisdictions) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Arts Humanities Mathematics National Language/s PE/Health Science Technologies Numberofmappedcontentitems 2030 Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Values Key concepts 2030 Learning Framework Competency Development Cycle New demands for compound competencies for 2030 Some of the new demands are accommodated in current curriculum changes in pilot countries; others are less articulated or made explicit.
  20. 20. Issue 2: Curriculum overload  Students often lack sufficient time to master key disciplinary concepts or, in the interests of a balanced life, to nurture friendships, to sleep and to exercise.  How to decide on adding new and relevant contents and removing irrelevant contents  Breadth vs depth: “deeper learning” or “quality learning time” instead of “more learning”  How to balance generic competencies and locally-specific competencies required for 2030
  21. 21. Curriculum overload
  22. 22. The multi-faceted world of knowledge
  23. 23. The human world of knowledge
  24. 24. The small world of the curriculum
  25. 25. The small world of the curriculum
  26. 26. The small world of the curriculum
  27. 27. The small world of the curriculum
  28. 28. The small world of the curriculum
  29. 29. The small world of the curriculum
  30. 30. The True The realm of human knowledge The Good The realm of ethics and judgement The Just and Well-Ordered The realm of political and civic life, binding social capital The Beautiful The realm of creativity, esthetics and designThe Sustainable The realm of natural and physical health The Prosperous The realm of economic life The big world of learning
  31. 31. Learning time and science performance Figure II.6.23 Finland Germany Switzerland Japan Estonia Sweden Netherlands New Zealand Macao (China) Iceland Hong Kong (China) Chinese Taipei Uruguay Singapore Poland United States Israel Bulgaria Korea Russia Italy Greece B-S-J-G (China) Colombia Chile Mexico Brazil Costa Rica Turkey Montenegro Peru Qatar Thailand United Arab Emirates Tunisia Dominican Republic R² = 0.21 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 35 40 45 50 55 60 PISAsciencescore Total learning time in and outside of school OECD average OECD average OECDaverage
  32. 32. Learning time and science performance (PISA) Figure II.6.23 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Finland Germany Switzerland Japan Estonia Sweden Netherlands NewZealand Australia CzechRepublic Macao(China) UnitedKingdom Canada Belgium France Norway Slovenia Iceland Luxembourg Ireland Latvia HongKong(China) OECDaverage ChineseTaipei Austria Portugal Uruguay Lithuania Singapore Denmark Hungary Poland SlovakRepublic Spain Croatia UnitedStates Israel Bulgaria Korea Russia Italy Greece B-S-J-G(China) Colombia Chile Mexico Brazil CostaRica Turkey Montenegro Peru Qatar Thailand UnitedArabEmirates Tunisia DominicanRepublic Scorepointsinscienceperhouroflearningtime Hours Intended learning time at school (hours) Study time after school (hours) Score points in science per hour of total learning time
  33. 33. Issue 3: Quality of contents  How to make changes based on evidence or political compromises  What are the design principles based on evidence?  How to set priorities (focus) for subjects and competencies (i.e. proper time allocation)
  34. 34. • Rigor, focus and coherence • Remain true to the disciplines – but aim at interdisciplinary learning and the capacity of students to see problems through multiple lenses – Balance knowledge of disciplines and knowledge about disciplines • Focus on areas with the highest transfer value – Requiring a theory of action for how this transfer value occurs • Authenticity – Thematic, problem-based, project-based, co-creation in conversation • Some things are caught not taught – Immersive learning propositions • Equity – Not just a proposition for the few but for the many •35 Some lessons
  35. 35. Issue 4: Ensuring equity and quality  How to allow different learning processes/ learning progression/ learning sequencing  How to ensure curriculum flexibility and autonomy work for all  How to make “student choice” in curriculum work for all  How to make “personalised/ individualised learning” work for all  How to make “innovations in education” (e.g. digitalisation) work for all
  36. 36. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Compulsory flexible curriculum Reading, writing and literature Mathematics Natural sciences Second and other languages Other compulsory curriculum Source: OECD (2017), Table D1.3b. See Source section for more information and Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-19991487.htm). Instruction time per subject in general lower secondary education (2017)
  37. 37. -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Resources Curriculum Disciplinarypolicies Assessmentpolicies Admissionspolicies Resources Curriculum Disciplinarypolicies Assessmentpolicies Admissionspolicies Resources Curriculum Disciplinarypolicies Assessmentpolicies Admissionspolicies Resources Curriculum Disciplinarypolicies Assessmentpolicies Admissionspolicies Resources Curriculum Disciplinarypolicies Assessmentpolicies Admissionspolicies School principal Teachers School governing board Local or regional education authority National education authority Higher science Lower science performanc e PISA Figure II.4.8Source: OECD, PISA 2015 Database. Correlations between the responsibilities for school governance¹ and science performance
  38. 38. Issue 5: Planning for effective implementation and assessment  How to align curriculum redesign with initial teacher education, professional development, pedagogical guidelines, etc.  How to support “overstretched teachers” with supportive resources and facilities, etc.  How to measure “new” competencies, esp. social and emotional skills  How to ensure “teacher agency” and foster “teacher team work/ network”  How to create the right overall incentives system
  39. 39. What teachers say and what teachers do
  40. 40. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 96% of teachers: My role as a teacher is to facilitate students own inquiry
  41. 41. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 86%: Students learn best by findings solutions on their own
  42. 42. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 74%: Thinking and reasoning is more important than curriculum content
  43. 43. Prevalence of memorisation rehearsal, routine exercises, drill and practice and/or repetition -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 Switzerland Poland Germany Japan Korea France Sweden Shanghai-China Canada Singapore United States Norway Spain Netherlands United Kingdom Prevalence of elaboration reasoning, deep learning, intrinsic motivation, critical thinking, creativity, non-routine problems High Low Low High
  44. 44. Memorisation is less useful as problems become more difficult (OECD average) R² = 0.81 0.70 1.00 300 400 500 600 700 800 Difficulty of mathematics item on the PISA scale Source: Figure 4.3 5 Difficult problem Easy problem Greater success Less success Odds ratio
  45. 45. Elaboration strategies are more useful as problems become more difficult (OECD average) R² = 0.82 0.80 1.50 300 400 500 600 700 800 Difficulty of mathematics item on the PISA scaleSource: Figure 6.2 6 Difficult problem Greater success Less success Easy problem Odds ratio
  46. 46. • Support national and local initiatives to redesign curriculum or new frameworks • Invite those interested in translating our interim report into local languages • Invite those interested in joining our working group – global & collective efforts - to refine our framework and to collect narratives and stories to accompany our framework and curriculum analysis • From 2019 in Phase II: we will look into policy issues on curriculum implementation. Next steps:

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