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 Is the sky the limit to educational improvement?<br />AACTEBenchmarking international best practiceAtlanta, February 20, ...
Is the sky the limit?<br />1.There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for educational success is no longer improvement ...
There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best practi...
In the current economic environment…<br />…	Opportunity costs for education decline <br />Dominated by lost earnings<br />...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Gradua...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Cost per ...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia...
Moving targetsFuture supply of college graduates<br />
Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education<br />27K$<br />56K$<br />170K$<br />105K$<br ...
Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining tertiary education<br />Public benefits<br />Public costs<br />A8.5<br />USD...
Schooling in the medieval age:<br />The school of the church<br />
Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />
Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />The challenges today:<br />Universal quality<br />Motivated an...
How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input...
Skills for the 21st century<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world beco...
Skills for the 21st century<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, givi...
Education needs to prepare students…<br />…	to deal with more rapid change than ever before…<br />…	for jobs that have not...
OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />8...
Deciding what to assess...<br />looking back at what students were expected to have learned<br />…or…<br />looking ahead t...
Strengths and weaknesses in math<br />The real world<br />The mathematical World<br />Making the problem amenable to mathe...
High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />… 18 countries pe...
Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after a...
Modelling the impact<br />Programmes to improve cognitive skills through schools take time to implement and to have their ...
Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<...
Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
Catching up with Finland (total 260 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
Catching up with Finland(in percent of GDP)<br />% currrent GDP<br />
Interest science<br />Indicate curiosity in science and science-related issues and endeavours<br />Demonstrate willingness...
Global</li></ul>Competencies<br /><ul><li>Identify scientific issues
Explain phenomena scientifically
Use scientific evidence</li></ul>Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of science
Knowledge about science</li></ul>Attitudes<br />-Interest in science<br />-Support for scientific enquiry<br />-Responsibi...
Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceFrance<br />Science competencies<br ...
Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceCzech Republic<br />Scientific compe...
High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average perf...
High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br /...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Altering content or pace of curriculum
Improving instructional techniques
Changing the learning environment in schools and classrooms
Standards and accountability
Teacher professional development</li></li></ul><li>Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />A...
Different to socio-economically targeted policies, efforts are directed to ameliorating economic circumstances, rather tha...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Students are often also identified through other risk factors, e.g. immigration, ethnicity, low-income community</li></ul>...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Early intervention programmes
Remedial and recovery programmes
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AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning

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The presentation reviews international trends in the development of education systems

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AACTE Wilbur Cohen Lecture - Teachers teaching and learning

  1. 1. Is the sky the limit to educational improvement?<br />AACTEBenchmarking international best practiceAtlanta, February 20, 2009<br />Andreas SchleicherEducation Policy Advisor of the OECD Secretary-General<br />Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org: <br />Twitter: @SchleicherEDU<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Is the sky the limit?<br />1.There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for educational success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best performing systems internationally<br />2.Where we are – and where we can be <br />Where the US and other countries stand <br />What the best performing countries show can be achieved<br />3.How we can get there<br />Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons <br />
  4. 4. There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best practice internationally<br />
  5. 5. In the current economic environment…<br />… Opportunity costs for education decline <br />Dominated by lost earnings<br />… Labour-market entry becomes more difficult<br />as young graduates compete with experienced workers<br />… Job prospects for less qualified deteriorate<br />… Young people with lower qualifications who become unemployed are likely to spend long time out of work<br />In most countries over half of low-qualified unemployed 25-34-year-olds are long-term unemployed <br />… Higher risks for systems with significant work-based training<br />… Gaps in educational attainment between younger and older cohorts likely to widen .<br />
  6. 6. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  7. 7. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  8. 8. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />United Kingdom<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  9. 9. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  10. 10. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  11. 11. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  12. 12. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  13. 13. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  14. 14. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia<br />United Kingdom<br />Finland<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  15. 15. Moving targetsFuture supply of college graduates<br />
  16. 16. Components of the private net present value for a male with higher education<br />27K$<br />56K$<br />170K$<br />105K$<br />35K$<br />26K$<br />367K$<br />Net present value in USD equivalent<br />
  17. 17. Public cost and benefits for a male obtaining tertiary education<br />Public benefits<br />Public costs<br />A8.5<br />USD equivalent<br />
  18. 18. Schooling in the medieval age:<br />The school of the church<br />
  19. 19. Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />
  20. 20. Schooling in the industrial age:<br />Uniform learning<br />The challenges today:<br />Universal quality<br />Motivated and self-reliant citizens<br />Risk-taking entrepreneurs, converging and continuously emerging professions tied to globalising contexts and technological advance<br />
  21. 21. How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution<br />The dilemma of schools:<br />The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource<br /> (Levy and Murnane)<br />
  22. 22. Skills for the 21st century<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world becomes, the more individuals and companies need various forms of co-ordination and management <br />The great synthesisers<br />Conventionally, our approach to problems was breaking them down into manageable bits and pieces, today we create value by synthesising disparate bits together<br />The great explainers<br />The more content we can search and access, the more important the filters and explainers become<br />
  23. 23. Skills for the 21st century<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, giving them expertise that is recognised by peers but not valued outside their domain<br />Generalists have broad scope but shallow skills<br />Versatilists apply depth of skill to a progressively widening scope of situations and experiences, gaining new competencies, building relationships, and assuming new roles. <br />They are capable not only of constantly adapting but also of constantly learning and growing<br />The great personalisers<br />A revival of interpersonal skills, skills that have atrhophied to some degree because of the industrial age and the Internet<br />The great localisers<br />Localising the global<br />
  24. 24. Education needs to prepare students…<br />… to deal with more rapid change than ever before…<br />… for jobs that have not yet been created…<br />… using technologies that have not yet been invented…<br />… to solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise <br />It’s about new…<br />Ways of thinking<br />involving creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making<br />Ways of working<br />including communication and collaboration<br />Tools for working<br />including the capacity to recognise and exploit the potential of new technologies<br />The capacity to live in a multi-faceted world as active and responsible citizens. <br />
  25. 25. OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />81%<br />85%<br />86%<br />87%<br />
  26. 26. Deciding what to assess...<br />looking back at what students were expected to have learned<br />…or…<br />looking ahead to how well they can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply their knowledge and skills in novel settings.<br />For the PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds, OECD governments chose the latter<br />
  27. 27. Strengths and weaknesses in math<br />The real world<br />The mathematical World<br />Making the problem amenable to mathematical treatment<br />A mathematical model<br /> A model of reality<br />Understanding, structuring and simplifying the situation<br />Using relevant mathematical content to solve the problem<br />A real situation<br />Validating the results<br />Mathematical results<br />Real results<br />Interpreting the mathematical results<br />
  28. 28. High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />… 18 countries perform below this line<br />Low science performance<br />
  29. 29. Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group PISA Level 1)<br />Odds ratioCollege entry<br />School marks at age 15<br />PISA performance at age 15<br />
  30. 30. Modelling the impact<br />Programmes to improve cognitive skills through schools take time to implement and to have their impact on students.<br />Assume that it will take 20 years to implement reform<br />The impact of improved skills will not be realised until the students with greater skills move into the labour force<br />Assume that improved PISA performance will result in improved skill-based of 2.5% of the labour-force each year<br />The economy will respond over time as new technologies are developed and implemented, making use of the new higher skills<br />Estimate the total gains over the lifetime of the generation born this year .<br />
  31. 31. Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<br />Percent addition to GDP<br />
  32. 32. Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
  33. 33. Catching up with Finland (total 260 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
  34. 34. Catching up with Finland(in percent of GDP)<br />% currrent GDP<br />
  35. 35. Interest science<br />Indicate curiosity in science and science-related issues and endeavours<br />Demonstrate willingness to acquire additional scientific knowledge and skills, using variety of resources and methods<br />Demonstrate willingness to seek information and have an interest in science, including consideration of science-related careers <br />Support for science<br />Acknowledge the importance of considering different scientific perspectives and arguments<br />Support the use of factual information and rational explanation<br />Logical and careful processes in drawing conclusions <br />Knowledge of science<br />Physical systems (structure of matter, properties of matter, chemical changes of matter, motions and forces, energy and its transformations, energy and matter)<br />Living systems (cells, humans, populations, ecosystems, biosphere)<br />Earth and space (structures of the earth system, energy in the earth system, change in the earth system, earth’s history, space)<br />Technology systems (Concepts and principles, science and technology)<br />Knowledge about science<br />Scientific enquiry (purpose, experiments, data, measurement, characteristics of results)<br />Scientific explanations (types, rules, outcomes)<br />Identifying<br />Recognising issues that can be investigated scientifically<br />Identifying keywords in a scientific investigation<br />Recognising the key features of a scientific investigation<br />Explaining<br />Applying knowledge of science in a situation<br />Describing or interpreting phenomena scientifically or predicting change<br />Using evidence<br />Interpreting scientific evidence and drawing conclusions<br />Identifying the assumptions, evidence and reasoning behind conclusions<br />Context<br />- Personal<br /><ul><li>Social/public
  36. 36. Global</li></ul>Competencies<br /><ul><li>Identify scientific issues
  37. 37. Explain phenomena scientifically
  38. 38. Use scientific evidence</li></ul>Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of science
  39. 39. Knowledge about science</li></ul>Attitudes<br />-Interest in science<br />-Support for scientific enquiry<br />-Responsibility<br />
  40. 40. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceFrance<br />Science competencies<br />Science knowledge<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13<br />
  41. 41. Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performanceCzech Republic<br />Scientific competencies<br />Scientific knowledge<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13<br />
  42. 42. High science performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low science performance<br />
  43. 43. High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low science performance<br />
  44. 44. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
  45. 45. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />Universal policies<br /><ul><li>Increasing educational performance of all children through reforms applied equally across the school system, e.g.
  46. 46. Altering content or pace of curriculum
  47. 47. Improving instructional techniques
  48. 48. Changing the learning environment in schools and classrooms
  49. 49. Standards and accountability
  50. 50. Teacher professional development</li></li></ul><li>Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Compensatory policies<br /><ul><li>Providing additional economic resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
  51. 51. Different to socio-economically targeted policies, efforts are directed to ameliorating economic circumstances, rather than providing specialised curriculum or additional educational resources</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
  52. 52. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Socio-economically targeted policies<br /><ul><li>Providing a specialised curriculum or additional educational resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds
  53. 53. Students are often also identified through other risk factors, e.g. immigration, ethnicity, low-income community</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
  54. 54. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Germany<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background withinschools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Performance targeted policies<br /><ul><li>Providing additional economic resources to students based on their academic performance
  55. 55. Early intervention programmes
  56. 56. Remedial and recovery programmes
  57. 57. Performance-based tracking or streaming</li></ul>Schools proportional to size<br />
  58. 58. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background United States<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
  59. 59. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Finland<br />Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools<br />School performance and schools’ socio-economic background<br />Schools proportional to size<br />
  60. 60. How to get there<br />Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons<br />
  61. 61. Money matters - but other things do too<br />
  62. 62. Spending choices on secondary schoolsContribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costsper student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004)<br />Percentage points<br />
  63. 63. High ambitionsand universal standards<br />Rigor, focus and coherence<br />Great systemsattractgreatteachers and provideaccesstobestpractice and quality professional development<br />
  64. 64. Challenge and support<br />Strong support<br />Poor performance<br />Improvements idiosyncratic<br />Strong performance<br />Systemic improvement<br />Lowchallenge<br />Highchallenge<br />Poor performance<br />Stagnation<br />Conflict<br />Demoralisation<br />Weak support<br />
  65. 65. International Best Practice<br />The past<br /><ul><li>Principals who are trained, empowered, accountable and provide instructional leadership
  66. 66. Principals who manage ‘a building’, who have little training and preparation and are accountable but not empowered
  67. 67. Attracting, recruiting and providing excellent training for prospective teachers from the top third of the graduate distribution
  68. 68. Attracting and recruiting teachers from the bottom third of the graduate distribution and offering training which does not relate to real classrooms
  69. 69. Incentives, rules and funding encourage a fair distribution of teaching talent
  70. 70. The best teachers are in the most advantaged communities</li></ul>Human capital<br />
  71. 71. International Best Practice<br />The past<br /><ul><li>Expectations of teachers are clear; consistent quality, strong professional ethic and excellent professional development focused on classroom practice
  72. 72. Seniority and tenure matter more than performance; patchy professional development; wide variation in quality
  73. 73. Teachers and the system expect every child to succeed and intervene preventatively to ensure this
  74. 74. Wide achievement gaps, just beginning to narrow but systemic and professional barriers to transformation remain in place</li></ul>Human capital (cont…)<br />
  75. 75. Some teachers lose much more time than othersPercentiles of time on spent on task<br />Figure 4.10<br />Source: OECD, TALIS Database.<br />
  76. 76. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity<br />Figure 3.15<br />
  77. 77. Relatively few teachers participate in the kinds of professional development which they find has the largest impact on their work Comparison of teachers participating in professional development activities and teachers reporting moderate or high level impact by types of activity<br />Figure 3.15<br />
  78. 78. How school systems support the professional development of their teachers<br />Figure 3.9<br />
  79. 79. The teachers who paid most also did most professional development<br />Figure 3.10<br />
  80. 80. It’s not just about more of the same<br />For what type of professional development do teachers report a high level of need? <br />Figure 3.6<br />
  81. 81. High ambitions<br />Devolvedresponsibility,theschoolasthecentreofaction<br />Accountabilityandintervention in inverse proportiontosuccess<br />Access to best practice and quality professional development<br />
  82. 82. Local responsibility and national prescription<br />Towards system-wide sustainable reform<br />National prescription<br />Schools today<br />The industrial model, detailed prescription of what schools do<br />Schools tomorrow?<br />Building capacity<br />Finland today<br />Every school an effective school<br />Schools leading reform<br />
  83. 83. Pooled international dataset, effects of selected school/system factors on science performance after accounting for all other factors in the model<br />School principal’s positive evaluation of quality of educational materials(gross only)<br />Schools with more competing schools(gross only)<br />Schools with greater autonomy (resources)(gross and net)<br />School activities to promote science learning(gross and net)<br />One additional hour of self-study or homework (gross and net)<br />One additional hour of science learning at school (gross and net)<br />School results posted publicly (gross and net)<br />Academically selective schools (gross and net) but no system-wide effect<br />Schools practicing ability grouping (gross and net)<br />One additional hour of out-of-school lessons (gross and net)<br />20<br />Each additional 10% of public funding(gross only)<br />School principal’s perception that lack of qualified teachers hinders instruction(gross only)<br />Effect after accounting for the socio-economic background of students, schools and countries<br />Measured effect<br />OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies from Tomorrow’s World, Table 6.1a <br />
  84. 84. Some teachers are left aloneTeachers who received no appraisal or feedback and teachers in schools that had no school evaluation in the previous five years<br />Figure 5.3<br />
  85. 85. Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for teaching?<br />Figure 5.6<br />
  86. 86. Does appraisal and feedback make a difference for the job?<br />Figure 5.5<br />
  87. 87. Perception of teachers of the impact of appraisal and feedback in theirschool<br />Figure 5.7<br />
  88. 88. Strong ambitions<br />Devolvedresponsibility,the school as the centre of action<br />Integrated educational opportunities <br />From prescribed forms of teaching and assessment towards personalised learning<br />Accountability<br />Access to best practice and quality professional development<br />
  89. 89. High science performance<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Early selection and institutional differentiation<br /> High degree of stratification<br /> Low degree of stratification<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />6<br />Low science performance<br />
  90. 90. Country profiles of beliefs about the nature of teaching and learningCountry mean of ipsative scores<br />Figure 4.2<br />
  91. 91. Country profiles of classroomteaching practices Country mean of ipsative scores<br />Figure 4.4<br />
  92. 92. Country profiles of cooperationamong staff Country mean of ipsative scores<br />Countries are ranked in ascending order of the degree to which teachers engage in exchange and coordination for teaching more than professional collaboration. For example, for teachers in the Slovak Republic both types of cooperation are reported almost equally frequently, while teachers in Spain report a more common practice of exchange and coordination for teaching over professional collaboration.<br />Source: OECD, TALIS Database.<br />Figure 4.7<br />
  93. 93. Creating a knowledge-rich profession in which schools and teachers have the authority to act, the necessary knowledge to do so wisely, and access to effective support systems<br />The future of education systems is “knowledge rich”<br />Informed professional judgement, the teacher as a “knowledge worker”<br />Informed prescription<br />National prescription<br />Professional judgement<br />Uninformed prescription, teachers implement curricula<br />Uninformed professional judgement, teachers working in isolation<br />The tradition of education systems has been “knowledge poor”<br />
  94. 94. Paradigm shifts<br />
  95. 95. www.oecd.org; www.pisa.oecd.org<br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org<br />Twitter: @SchleicherEDU<br />… and remember:<br /> Without data, you are just another person with an opinion<br />Thank you !<br />

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