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Programme for International Student Assessment<br />Education and learning of the futureLessons from PISA<br />Andreas Sch...
There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best perfor...
A world of change in baseline qualificationsApproximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualficat...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Gradua...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Cost per ...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation r...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia...
A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia...
How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input...
Changing skill demands<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world becomes, ...
Changing skill demands<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, giving th...
Education reform trajectories<br />The old bureaucratic system<br />The modern enabling system<br />Student inclusion<br /...
PISA 2009 in brief<br />	PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Coverage of wo...
PISA 2009 in brief<br />	PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Coverage of wo...
PISA 2009 in brief<br />	PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Key principles...
High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in reading – extrapolate and apply<br /> … 17 countries p...
High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average perf...
High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average perfor...
High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average perfor...
Contribution of various factors to salary cost per lower secondary student (US$)<br />TB7.2<br />
High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classesContribution of various factors t...
High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classesContribution of various factors t...
High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average perfor...
High reading performance<br />2000<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average perfor...
High reading performance<br />2000<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average perfor...
Variability in student performance <br />Variance<br />
Variability in student performance between and within schools<br />Variance<br />Performance differences between schools<b...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance ...
Percentage of resilient students among disadvantaged students<br />%<br />Resilient student: Comes from the bottom quarter...
Reading performance and awareness of effective learning strategies<br />
Student engagement with learning and school<br />
Students' views of their teacher-student relations<br />
Students’ views of how well teachers motivate them to read Index of teachers’ stimulation of students’ reading engagement ...
Does it all matter?<br />
Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after a...
High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in reading – extrapolate and apply<br /> … 17 countries p...
Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<...
Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
What does it all mean?<br />
Tools<br />Standards<br />Curricula<br />Technology<br />Assessments<br />Data systems<br />Processes<br />Selection<br />...
<ul><li>A commitment to education and the belief that competencies can be learned and therefore all children can achieve
Universal educational standards and personalisation as the approach to heterogeneity in the student body…</li></ul>…	as op...
Schools transferring students due to low achievement or behavioural problems: 33%, and where students are grouped by abili...
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Finland and PISA

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Finland and PISA

  1. 1. Programme for International Student Assessment<br />Education and learning of the futureLessons from PISA<br />Andreas Schleicher<br />Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy<br />Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, EDU<br />
  2. 2. There is nowhere to hide<br />The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best performing education systems<br />
  3. 3. A world of change in baseline qualificationsApproximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 und 25-34 years<br />%<br />1<br />13<br />1<br />27<br />1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference 2004<br />3. Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference 2003.<br />
  4. 4. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Cost per student<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  5. 5. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Cost per student<br />Finland<br />Japan<br />Graduate supply<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  6. 6. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Australia<br />Finland<br />United Kingdom<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  7. 7. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  8. 8. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  9. 9. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  10. 10. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  11. 11. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  12. 12. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia<br />United Kingdom<br />Finland<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  13. 13. A world of change – highereducation<br />Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD)<br />United States<br />Australia<br />A<br />A<br />United Kingdom<br />Finland<br />A<br />Tertiary-type A graduation rate <br />
  14. 14. How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)<br />Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution<br />The dilemma of assessments:<br />The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource<br /> (Levy and Murnane)<br />
  15. 15. Changing skill demands<br />The great collaborators and orchestrators<br />The more complex the globalised world becomes, the more individuals and companies need various forms of co-ordination and management <br />The great synthesisers<br />Conventionally, our approach to problems was breaking them down into manageable bits and pieces, today we create value by synthesising disparate bits together<br />The great explainers<br />The more content we can search and access, the more important the filters and explainers become<br />
  16. 16. Changing skill demands<br />The great versatilists<br />Specialists generally have deep skills and narrow scope, giving them expertise that is recognised by peers but not valued outside their domain<br />Generalists have broad scope but shallow skills<br />Versatilists apply depth of skill to a progressively widening scope of situations and experiences, gaining new competencies, building relationships, and assuming new roles. <br />They are capable not only of constantly adapting but also of constantly learning and growing<br />The great personalisers<br />A revival of interpersonal skills, skills that have atrhophied to some degree because of the industrial age and the Internet<br />The great localisers<br />Localising the global<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Education reform trajectories<br />The old bureaucratic system<br />The modern enabling system<br />Student inclusion<br />Some students learn at high levels<br />All students need to learn at high levels<br />Curriculum, instruction and assessment<br />Routine cognitive skills, rote learning<br />Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working<br />Teacher quality<br />Few years more than secondary<br />High-level professional knowledge workers<br />Work organisation<br />‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical<br />Flat, collegial<br />Accountability<br />Primarily to authorities<br />Primarily to peers and stakeholders<br />
  19. 19. PISA 2009 in brief<br /> PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />81%<br />85%<br />86%<br />87%<br />Over half a million students…<br />representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 74* countries/economies<br />… took an internationally agreed 2-hour test…<br />Goes beyond testing whether students can reproduce what they were taught…<br />… to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively apply their knowledge in novel situations<br />… and responded to questions on… <br />their personal background, their schools and their engagement with learning and school<br />Parents, principals and system leaders provided data on…<br />school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain performance differences .<br />* Data for Costa Rica, Georgia, India, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Venezuela and Vietnam will be published in December 2011<br />
  20. 20. PISA 2009 in brief<br /> PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Coverage of world economy<br />PISA seeks to…<br />… Support governments to prepare students…<br />… to deal with more rapid change than ever before…<br />… for jobs that have not yet been created…<br />… using technologies that have not yet been invented…<br />… to solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise<br />… Provide a basis for policy dialogue and global collaboration in defining and implementing educational goals, policies and practices<br />Show countries what achievements are possible<br />Help governments set policy targets in terms of measurable goals achieved elsewhere<br />Gauge the pace of educational progress <br />Facilitate peer-learning on policy and practice .<br />83%<br />77%<br />81%<br />85%<br />86%<br />87%<br />
  21. 21. PISA 2009 in brief<br /> PISA countries in<br />2000<br />2003<br />1998<br />2001<br />2006<br />2009<br />Key principles<br />‘Crowd sourcing’ and collaboration<br />PISA draws together leading expertise and institutions from participating countries to develop instruments and methodologies…<br />… guided by governments on the basis of shared policy interests<br />Cross-national relevance and transferability of policy experiences<br />Emphasis on validity across cultures, languages and systems<br />Frameworks built on well-structured conceptual understandingof assessment areas and contextual factors<br />Triangulation across different stakeholder perspectives<br />Systematic integration of insights from students, parents, school principals and system-leaders<br />Advanced methods with different grain sizes<br />A range of methods to adequately measure intended constructs with different grain sizes to serve different decision-making needs <br />Productive feedback, at appropriate levels of detail, to fuel improvement at multiple levels .<br />Coverage of world economy<br />83%<br />77%<br />81%<br />85%<br />86%<br />87%<br />
  22. 22. High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in reading – extrapolate and apply<br /> … 17 countries perform below this line<br />Low reading performance<br />
  23. 23. High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  24. 24. High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  25. 25. High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  26. 26. Contribution of various factors to salary cost per lower secondary student (US$)<br />TB7.2<br />
  27. 27. High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classesContribution of various factors to primary school teacher compensation costsper student as a percentage of GDP per capita <br />
  28. 28. High performing systems often prioritize the quality of teachers over the size of classesContribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costsper student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004)<br />Percentage points<br />
  29. 29. High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  30. 30. High reading performance<br />2000<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  31. 31. High reading performance<br />2000<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Other rapid improvers in reading:<br />Peru, Indonesia, Latvia, Israel and BrazilRapid improvers in mathematics:<br />Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Germany<br />Rapid improvers in science:<br />Qatar, Turkey, Portugal, Korea, Brazil, Colombia, Italy, Norway, United States, Poland<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  32. 32. Variability in student performance <br />Variance<br />
  33. 33. Variability in student performance between and within schools<br />Variance<br />Performance differences between schools<br />Performance variation of students within schools<br />
  34. 34. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Italy<br /> Private school<br /> Public school in rural area<br /> Public school in urban area<br />700<br />
  35. 35. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Finland<br /> Private school<br /> Public school in rural area<br /> Public school in urban area<br />700<br />493<br />
  36. 36. Student performance<br />PISA Index of socio-economic background<br />Advantage<br />Disadvantage<br />School performance and socio-economic background Finland<br /> Private school<br /> Public school in rural area<br /> Public school in urban area<br />700<br />493<br />
  37. 37. Percentage of resilient students among disadvantaged students<br />%<br />Resilient student: Comes from the bottom quarter of the socially most disadvantaged students but performs among the top quarter of students internationally (after accounting for social background)<br />Less than 15% resilient students among disadvantaged students<br />More than 30% resilient students among disadvantaged students<br />Between 15%-30% of resilient students among disadvantaged students<br />
  38. 38. Reading performance and awareness of effective learning strategies<br />
  39. 39. Student engagement with learning and school<br />
  40. 40. Students' views of their teacher-student relations<br />
  41. 41. Students’ views of how well teachers motivate them to read Index of teachers’ stimulation of students’ reading engagement based on students’ reports<br />%<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Does it all matter?<br />
  44. 44. Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group PISA Level 1)<br />Odds ratiohigher education entry<br />School marks at age 15<br />PISA performance at age 15<br />
  45. 45. High reading performance<br />Average performanceof 15-year-olds in reading – extrapolate and apply<br /> … 17 countries perform below this line<br />Low reading performance<br />
  46. 46. Relationship between test performance and economic outcomesAnnual improved GDP from raising performance by 25 PISA points<br />Percent addition to GDP<br />
  47. 47. Increase average performance by 25 PISA points (Total 115 trillion $)<br />bn$<br />
  48. 48. What does it all mean?<br />
  49. 49. Tools<br />Standards<br />Curricula<br />Technology<br />Assessments<br />Data systems<br />Processes<br />Selection<br />Preparation<br />Recruitment/induction<br />Work organisation<br />Development<br />Supervision<br />Retention<br />People<br />TeachersPrincipals<br />Support personnel<br />Families<br />Practices<br />Instruction<br />Intervention<br />Support systems<br />Design, implementation and alignment of policies<br />Student learning<br />
  50. 50. <ul><li>A commitment to education and the belief that competencies can be learned and therefore all children can achieve
  51. 51. Universal educational standards and personalisation as the approach to heterogeneity in the student body…</li></ul>… as opposed to a belief that students have different destinations to be met with different expectations, and selection/stratification as the approach to heterogeneity<br /><ul><li>Clear articulation who is responsible for ensuring student success and to whom</li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  52. 52. Schools transferring students due to low achievement or behavioural problems: 33%, and where students are grouped by ability for all subjects: 38%<br />Schools transferring students due to low achievement or behavioural problems: 15%, and where students are grouped by ability for all subjects: 8%<br />Grade repetition: 7%<br />Students out of modal starting ages: 7%<br />How school systems select and group students for schools, grades and programmes<br />Grade repetition: 29%<br />Students out of modal starting ages: 11%<br />High vertical differentiation<br />Low vertical differentiation<br />Low horizontal differentiation at the school level<br />High horizontal differentiation at the school level<br />High horizontal differentiation at the school level<br />Low horizontal differentiation at the school level<br />Number of programmes: 1.1<br />First age of selection: 15.8<br />Selective schools: 17%<br />Lowhorizontaldifferentiation at thesystemlevel<br />Australia, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Iceland,NewZealand, Norway,Poland, Sweden, United States, United Kingdom, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Russian Federation<br />Jordan<br />Spain, Argentina, Brazil, Tunisia, Uruguay<br />Chile, Colombia, Peru<br />Number of programmes: 3.0<br />First age of selection: 14.5<br />Selective schools: 42%<br />Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,Korea, Slovenia, Albania, Azerbaijan, Dubai (UAE), Hong Kong-China, Montenegro, Shanghai-China, Thailand<br />Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Qatar, Romania, Chinese Taipei<br />Luxembourg, Macao-China, Panama<br />Medium horizontaldifferentiation at thesystemlevel<br />Mexico, Portugal<br />Number of programmes: 4.3<br />First age of selection: 11.2<br />Selective schools: 61%<br />Highhorizontaldifferentiation at thesystemlevel<br />Austria, <br />Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Croatia, Liechtenstein, Singapore<br />Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia<br />Belgium, Germany, Trinidad and Tobago<br />Netherlands, Switzerland<br />
  53. 53. High reading performance<br />2009<br />Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik<br />High average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />High average performance<br />High social equity<br />Strong socio-economic impact on student performance<br />Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities<br />Early selection and institutional differentiation<br /> High degree of stratification<br /> Low degree of stratification<br />Low average performance<br />Large socio-economic disparities<br />Low average performance<br />High social equity<br />Low reading performance<br />
  54. 54. <ul><li>Clear ambitious goals that are shared across the system and aligned with high stakes gateways and instructional systems
  55. 55. Well established delivery chain through which curricular goals translate into instructional systems, instructional practices and student learning (intended, implemented and achieved)
  56. 56. High level of metacognitive content of instruction </li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li>Capacity at the point of delivery
  58. 58. Attracting, developing and retaining high quality teachers and school leaders and a work organisation in which they can use their potential
  59. 59. Instructional leadership and human resource management in schools
  60. 60. Keeping teaching an attractive profession
  61. 61. System-wide career development</li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  62. 62. <ul><li>Incentives, accountability, knowledge management
  63. 63. Aligned incentive structures</li></ul>Forstudents<br /><ul><li>How gateways affect the strength, direction, clarity and nature of the incentives operating on students at each stage of their education
  64. 64. Degree to which students have incentives to take tough courses and study hard
  65. 65. Opportunity costs for staying in school and performing well</li></ul>For teachers<br /><ul><li>Make innovations in pedagogy and/or organisation
  66. 66. Improve their own performance and the performance of their colleagues
  67. 67. Pursue professional development opportunities that lead to stronger pedagogical practices
  68. 68. A balance between vertical and lateral accountability
  69. 69. Effective instruments to manage and share knowledge and spread innovation – communication within the system and with stakeholders around it
  70. 70. A capable centre with authority and legitimacy to act </li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  71. 71. How school systems are governed<br />Schools competing with other schools: 73%<br />Private schools: 8%<br />Schools competing with other schools: 89%<br />Private schools: 52%<br />Less school choice<br />More school choice<br />Less school autonomy in curriculum and assessment <br />Establishing student assessment policies: 61%<br />Choosing which textbooks are used: 55%<br />Determining course content: 14%<br />Greece, Mexico, Portugal, Turkey, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Montenegro, Qatar, Serbia, Tunisia, Uruguay<br />_<br />More school autonomy in curriculum and assessment <br />Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Panama, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Peru, Romania, Russian Federation, Shanghai-China, Singapore, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago<br />Australia, Belgium, Chile, Ireland, Korea, Netherlands, Dubai (UAE), Hong Kong-China, Indonesia, Macao-China, Chinese Taipei<br />Establishing student assessment policies: 92%<br />Choosing which textbooks are used: 97%<br />Determining course content: 85%<br />
  72. 72. How school systems use student assessments<br />Schools competing with other schools: 73%<br />Private schools: 8%<br />Schools competing with other schools: 89%<br />Private schools: 52%<br />Infrequent use of achievement data for benchmarking and information purposes identified below<br />Frequent use of achievement data for benchmarking and information purposes identified below<br />Establishing student assessment policies: 61%<br />Choosing which textbooks are used: 55%<br />Determining course content: 14%<br />Deciding which courses are offered: 18%<br />Infrequent use of achievement data for decision making<br />Finland, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Belgium, Germany<br />Hungary, Norway, Turkey, Montenegro, Tunisia, Slovenia<br />Denmark, Italy, Japan, Argentina, Macao-China, Chinese Taipei, Spain, Uruguay<br />Australia, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Iceland, Israel, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Albania, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Dubai (UAE), Hong Kong-China, Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Panama, Peru, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Shanghai-China, Singapore, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Serbia <br />Frequent use of achievement data for decision making<br />Establishing student assessment policies: 92%<br />Choosing which textbooks are used: 97%<br />Determining course content: 85%<br />Deciding which courses are offered: 87%<br />
  73. 73. How much autonomy individual schools have over resource allocation<br />
  74. 74. Local responsibility and system-level prescription<br />Trend in OECD countries<br />System-level prescription<br />‘Tayloristic’ work organisation<br />The past<br />The industrial model, detailed prescription of what schools do<br />The future<br />Every school an effective school<br />Current trend<br />Building capacity<br />Schools leading reform<br />Teachers as ‘knowledge workers’<br />
  75. 75. School autonomy, accountability and student performanceImpact of school autonomy on performance in systems with and without accountability arrangements<br />PISA score in reading<br />
  76. 76. Public and private schools<br />%<br />Score point difference<br />Private schoolsperform better<br />Public schoolsperform better<br />
  77. 77. Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br /><ul><li>Investing resources where they can make most of a difference
  78. 78. Alignment of resources with key challenges (e.g. attracting the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms)
  79. 79. Effective spending choices that prioritise high quality teachers over smaller classes</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A learning system
  80. 80. An outward orientation of the system to keep the system learning, international benchmarks as the ‘eyes’ and ‘ears’ of the system
  81. 81. Recognising challenges and potential future threats to current success, learning from them, designing responses and implementing these</li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  82. 82. <ul><li>Coherence of policies and practices
  83. 83. Alignment of policies across all aspects of the system
  84. 84. Coherence of policies over sustained periods of time
  85. 85. Consistency of implementation
  86. 86. Fidelity of implementation (without excessive control)</li></ul>Lessons from PISA on successful education systems<br />
  87. 87. Reform trajectories<br />The past bureaucratic system<br />The future enabling system<br />Student inclusion<br />Some students learn at high levels<br />All students need to learn at high levels<br />Curriculum, instruction and assessment<br />Routine cognitive skills, rote learning<br />Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working<br />Teacher quality<br />Few years more than secondary<br />High-level professional knowledge workers<br />Work organisation<br />‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical<br />Flat, collegial<br />Accountability<br />Primarily to authorities<br />Primarily to peers and stakeholders<br />
  88. 88. Beyond schooling<br />
  89. 89. Parental support at the beginning of primary school <br />Score point difference between students whose parents often do (weekly or daily) and those who do not: <br />"talk about what they had done"<br />
  90. 90. Performance difference between students who had attended pre-primary school for more than one year and those who did not<br />Score point difference<br />Observed performance advantage<br />Performance advantage after accounting for socio-economic factors<br />
  91. 91. Find out more about PISA at…<br />OECD www.pisa.oecd.org<br />All national and international publications<br />The complete micro-level database<br />U.S. White House www.data.gov<br />Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org<br />… and remember:<br />Without data, you are just another person with an opinion<br />Thank you !<br />

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